A fidelity bond is a form of insurance protection that covers policyholders for losses that they incur as a result of fraudulent acts by specified individuals. It usually insures a business for losses caused by the dishonest acts of its employees.
While called bonds, these obligations to protect an employer from employee-dishonesty losses are really insurance policies. These insurance policies protect from losses of company monies, securities, and other property from employees who have a manifest intent to cause the company loss. There are also many other forms of crime-insurance policies (burglary, fire, general theft, computer theft, disappearance, fraud, forgery, etc.) to protect company assets.
By country 
In Australia, this type of employer protection is called employee dishonesty insurance coverage.
United Kingdom 
In the United Kingdom, this type of employee dishonesty insurance is called fidelity guarantee insurance coverage.