Field of the Cloth of Gold

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Arrival of King Henry VIII at the Field of Cloth of Gold, 1774 engraving by James Basire of a 16th-century oil painting in the Royal Collection
The two monarchs who met at the Field of the Cloth of Gold: left Francis I of France (1494-1547) (portrait by Jean Clouet, Louvre Museum, Paris); right Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) (portrait after Hans Holbein the Younger, Royal Collection, Windsor Castle)

The Field of the Cloth of Gold (French: Camp du Drap d'Or) was a site in Balinghem – between Ardres in France and Guînes in the then-English Pale of Calais – that hosted a meeting from 7 to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.

The meeting was arranged to increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the Anglo-French treaty of 1514. The name "Field of Cloth of Gold" has been in general use in the English language since at least the 18th century. These two monarchs would meet again in 1532 to arrange Francis' assistance in pressuring Pope Clement VII to pronounce Henry's first marriage as illegitimate. Under the guidance of English Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, the chief nations of Europe sought to outlaw war forever among Christian nations.

The site is indicated by a commemorative plaque on the D231 road (Route de Marquise) at 50°51′08″N 1°55′22″E / 50.8523°N 1.9229°E / 50.8523; 1.9229Coordinates: 50°51′08″N 1°55′22″E / 50.8523°N 1.9229°E / 50.8523; 1.9229. Though now in France, Balinghem was at the time regarded as part of England. This was probably the main reason for it as the choice of meeting place; being English territory but surrounded by France renders it as close to neutral territory as was practicable.

Background[edit]

Cardinal Wolsey

For two and a half weeks in June 1520, a meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France occurred near Calais that was to become known to history as the Field of Cloth of Gold. Although the political purpose of the meeting didn’t amount to much in the over-all scheme of things in early 16th century Europe, the glamour and extravagance of the meeting give us a picture of two Renaissance princes and their times.

In 1518, through the work of Cardinal Wolsey, the Treaty of London was signed as a non-aggression pact between the major European powers of the time. But less than a year later, the pact was already in danger of falling apart. To preserve the peace, Wolsey arranged a meeting between Henry VIII and Charles V, the new Holy Roman Emperor, and a meeting of Henry VIII and Francis I of France. This second meeting was to be in France, near the English-held town of Calais.

Francis I and Henry VIII were close in age, with Henry being just three years older than his French counterpart. Henry had been king of England for 11 years at the time of the meeting while Francis had been on the French throne for five-and-a-half years. Both Kings had been hailed as great Renaissance princes, which no doubt raised curiosity for each man about the other. This meeting was also a chance for each to display the grandeur and wealth of their courts.

Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon and their large retinue left from Dover on about the first of June and stayed in Calais for six days before riding out to meet the French King. One of the more spectacular parts of the meeting was a temporary palace of timber and canvas brought by the English court to go with the pavilions and tents.

Excerpts from Hall’s Chronicle describing the meeting: “Thursday 8 June being Corpus Christi day, Henry and the French king Francis I, met in a valley called the Golden Dale which lay midway between Guisnes and Arde where the French king had been staying. In this valley Henry pitched his marquee made of cloth of gold near where a banquet had been prepared. His Grace was accompanied by 500 horsemen and 3,000 foot soldiers, and the French King had a similar number of each.

When the two great princes met proclamations were made by the heralds and officers-of-arms of both parties, to the effect that everyone should stand absolutely still – the king of England and his company on one side of the valley and the king of France with his retinue on the other. They were commanded to stand thus, completely still, on pain of death whilst the two kings rode down the valley. At the bottom of the valley they embraced each other in great friendship and then, dismounting, embraced each other again, taking off their hats. Henry’s sword was held, unsheathed, by the marquess of Dorset whilst the duc de Bourbon bore the French king’s sword similarly all the while.

On Friday 9 June the two kings met up at the camp where a tiltyard had been set up with a pretty green tree with damask leaves nearby. On Saturday two shields bearing the arms of the two kings were hung upon this tree and a proclamation made to the effect that anyone who intended to attend the royal jousts and compete in feats of arms – such as the running at the tilt, fighting tourneys on horseback and fighting on foot at the barriers with swords should bring their shields of arms and have their names entered into the records kept by Clarencieux and Lancaster, officers-at-arms.

On Sunday 11 June the French king came to Guisnes to dine with the Queen of England and was graciously received by the Lord Cardinal, the Duke of Buckingham, the Duke of Suffolk, the Earl of Northumberland and various other noblemen, together with a large number of ladies and gentlemen all richly dressed in cloth of gold, velvet and silks. That day too the French king was himself magnificently dressed in tissue-cloth set with precious stones and pearls.

When dinner was over, some time was spent dancing in the banqueting hall. Before he started to dance, the French king went from one end of the room to the other, carrying his hat in his hand and kissing all the ladies on both sides – except for four or five who were too old and ugly. He then returned to the Queen and spoke with her for a while before spending the rest of the day dancing.

At the same moment King Henry was dining with the French Queen at Arde where he spent the time in a similar manner until seven o’clock in the evening when he returned to Guisnes and the French king likewise returned to Arde.

On Monday 12 June both kings and their men-at-arms met at the aforementioned camp. Also present were the Queen of England and the Queen of France, wife of Francis I with her ladies-in-waiting – all riding in litters and sedan chairs covered in sumptuous embroidery. Some other ladies also arrived mounted on richly decorated palfreys.

Then the two kings with their teams of challengers and their sides entered the field, every one fully armed and magnificently dressed. The French king started the jousts and did extremely well, even though the first lance was broken by King Henry, who managed to break one on each charge. The French king broke a good number of lances but not as many as Henry.

Thursday 15 June saw Henry in the field again, fully armoured and challenging all comers. Opponents that day included two French noblemen with their men-at-arms, all well-mounted and finely dressed, who acquitted themselves well. On Friday 16 June there was no contest at the camp because of a tremendous gale. On Saturday both kings entered the field and king Henry’s armour-skirt and horse-trapper were decorated with 2,000 ounces of gold and 1,100 huge pearls, the price of which was incalculable, the Earl of Devonshire (sic)[1] also appeared that day wearing cloth of gold, tissue-cloth and cloth of silver, all elaborately embroidered, with his retinue wearing the same uniform.

When the French king and the Earl of Devonshire charged at each other, so fierce was their encounter that both their lances broke. In all they ran off eight times, during which the French king broke three lances while the earl broke two lances and the French king’s nose.[citation needed]

On Saturday 23 June a large and well-appointed chapel was set up on the grounds, decorated with ornate hangings and filled with statues of saints and holy relics. Later the lord cardinal said mass in the chapel – which had been built and fitted out entirely at king Henry’s expense. During the service the chaplains of both kings took it in turns to sing the refrains, which was heavenly to listen to. The mass completed, the kings and queens, together with their noble retinues, proceeded to the gallery beside the chapel to dine in great style.”

The celebrations concluded the next day, on the 24th. The meeting really did not do much in the way of improving the relations between the two countries and in just a couple of years, England and France were once again, as they had been many times in the previous centuries, at war.

The meeting[edit]

Henry VIII of England, copy after Holbein

Each king tried to outshine the other, with dazzling tents and clothes, huge feasts, music, jousting, and games. The tents and the costumes displayed so much cloth of gold, an expensive fabric woven with silk and gold thread, that the site of the meeting was named after it.

The most elaborate arrangements were made for the accommodation of the two monarchs and their large retinues; and on Henry's part especially no efforts were spared to make a great impression in Europe with this meeting. Before the castle of Guines, a temporary palace covering an area of nearly 12,000 square yards (10,000 m2), was erected for the reception of the English king. The palace was in four blocks with a central courtyard; each side was 328 feet (100 m) long. The only solid part was the brick base about 8 feet (2 m) high.[2] Above the brickwork, the 30-foot (10 metre) high walls were made of cloth or canvas on timber frames, painted to look like stone or brick. One further aspect of King Henry's retinue was the presence of a two royal monkeys covered in gold leaf, these were known to have been gifts from the Ottoman Sultan Selim I and brought much laughter and merriment from Francis I as contemporary Cardinal Wolsey recounts 'The French King was overcome with much curiosity playing with those little knaves that did all they could to steal and pester his advisers, yet he willed them to be present at every banquet'. The slanting roof was made of oiled cloth painted to give the colour of lead and the illusion of slates. Contemporaries commented especially on the huge expanse of glass, which made visitors feel they were in the open air. Chronicle descriptions make it clear the decorations, carved and painted had martial iconography;

The foregate of the same palace or place with great and mighty masonry by sight was arched, with a Tower on every side of the same portered by great craft, and inbatteled was the gate and Tower, and in the fenesters, and windows, were images resembling men of warre redie to cast great stones: also the same gate or Tower was set with compassed images of ancient Princes, as Hercules, Alexander and other, by entrayled worke, richly limned with gold and Albyn colours, .... also the tower of the Gate as seemed was built by great masonry, ... for the sundrie countenances of every Image that their appeared, some shooting, some casting, some ready to strike, and firing of gonnes, which shewed very honourably.

Grafton's Chronicle, or Chronicle at Large 1569[3]
Francis I of France, portrait c. 1515, by Jean Clouet, Musée Condé

The building was decorated in the most sumptuous fashion and furnished with a profusion of golden ornaments. Red wine flowed from the two fountains outside. The chapel was served by 35 priests. Composer Jean Mouton was most likely in charge of the musical production by Francis I; the French royal chapel had one of the finest choirs in Europe, and contemporary accounts indicated that they "delighted their hearers."[4] The wooden ceiling for one of the tents may later have been installed in the New Chapel at Ightham Mote where, with its colours faded, one with appropriate features can still be seen.[5] Musical production on the English side was probably led by composer William Cornysh the Younger, master of the Royal Chapel for Henry VIII.[6]

Some idea of the size of Henry's following may be gathered from the fact that in one month 2200 sheep and other viandes in a similar proportion were consumed. In the fields beyond the castle, 2800 tents were erected for less distinguished visitors.

Journeying from Calais, Henry reached his headquarters at Guînes on 4 June 1520, and Francis took up his residence at Ardres. After Cardinal Wolsey, with a splendid train, had visited the French king, the two monarchs met at the Val d'Or, a spot midway between the two places, on 7 June.

The following days were taken up with tournaments, in which both kings took part. There were banquets in which the kings entertained each other's queens. The many other entertainments included archery displays and wrestling between Breton and Cornish wrestlers.

Wolsey said Mass and the two sovereigns separated on 24 June, Corpus Christi. The painting depicts a dragon flying overhead and this could be interpreted to mean that the Mass itself was interrupted by a mysterious event thought to be a dragon or salamander flying over the congregation. The superstitious would have viewed this as a great portent, but it was probably a firework accidentally or deliberately set off. Alternatively the dragon in the painting could be interpreted as symbolic. The sermon was read by Richard Pace, an intimate friend of Erasmus. Wolsey gave a general indulgence for all present.

Consequences[edit]

This meeting made a great impression on contemporaries, but its political results were very small. While the carefully established rules of the tournament stated that the two kings would not compete against each other, Henry surprisingly challenged Francis in a wrestling match, but it turned sour for Henry when he quickly lost.[7]

Relations between the two countries worsened soon after the event when Cardinal Wolsey arranged an alliance with Charles V, who declared war on France later that year commencing the Italian War of 1521–1526.

List of attendees[edit]

A record of the list of attendees survives in at least two places: in the Rutland Papers[8] and in the Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of King Henry VIII,[9] catalogued as Letters indented specifying, in accordance with the treaty of 12 March 1519, the number and rank of the lords, ladies and gentlemen to attend the King and Queen at the interview with Francis I. The latter source lists the following:

For King Henry VIII[edit]

"For the King: The cardinal of York, with 300 servants, of whom 12 shall be chaplains and 50 gentlemen, with 50 horses; one archbishop with 70 servants, of whom 5 shall be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses; 2 dukes, each with 70 servants, 5 to be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses. 1 marquis with 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses. 10 earls, each with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 5 bishops, of whom the bishop of Winchester shall have 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses;—each of the others, 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 20 barons, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 12 horses. 4 knights of the order of St. George, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 48 horses. 70 knights, each to have 12 servants, one to be a chaplain; 8 horses. Councillors of the long robe; viz., the King's secretary, the vice-chancellor, the dean of the Chapel, and the almoner, each to have 12 servants, one a chaplain, and 8 horses. 12 King's chaplains, each with 6 servants and 3 horses. 12 serjeants-at-arms, each with 1 servant and two horses. 200 of the King's guard with 100 horses. 70 grooms of the chamber, with 150 servants and 100 horses among them; 266 officers of the house, with 216 servants and 70 horses; 205 grooms of the stable and of the armories, with 211 horses. The earl of Essex, being earl marshal, shall have, beside the number above stated, 130 servants and 100 light horses. Sum total of the King's company, 3,997 persons and 2,087 horses".

For Queen Catherine of Aragon[edit]

"For the Queen: 1 duchess, with 4 women, 6 servants and 12 horses; 10 countesses, with 3 women and 4 servants, and 8 horses each; 12 baronesses, with 2 women, 3 servants and 6 horses each. 20 knights' ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 4 horses each; 14 ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 3 horses each; 6 ladies of the chamber, with 1 servant and 2 horses each; 1 earl, with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 9 gentlemen; horses 20. 3 bishops, to have 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; horses 60. 4 barons, with 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; horses 48. 30 knights, with 12 servants, 1 to be a chaplain; horses 240; 6 chaplains with 3 servants and 2 horses each. Grooms 50, officers of the King's chamber, with 20 servants and 30 horses; officers of the King's stable 60, with 70 horses. Sum total of the Queen's company, 1,175 persons and 778 horses.

Commissioners[edit]

"Names of those appointed to attend the king of England at the Congress:

Commissioners to oversee followers of French King[edit]

Commissioners appointed to oversee those who shall accompany the king of France:—The earl of Essex, lord Abergavenny, Sir Edw. Ponynges, Sir Rob. Wingfield.

Commissioners to give orders to the gentlemen[edit]

Commissioners to give orders to the gentlemen:—Sir Edw. Belknapp, Sir Nich. Vaux, Sir John Peche, Sir Maurice Berkeley.

Commissioners to give orders to the foot soldiers[edit]

Commissioners to give orders to the foot soldiers:—Sir Weston Browne, Sir Edw. Ferrers, Sir Rob. Constable, Sir Ralph Egerton, Sir Thomas Lucy, Sir John Marney.

Other attendees[edit]

At the embracing of the two Kings[edit]

To ride with the king of England at the embracing of the two Kings:—The Legate, archbishop of Canterbury, dukes of Buckingham and Suffolk, marquis of Dorset. Bishops:—Durham, Armagh, Ely, Chester, Rochester, Exeter, Hereford. Earls:—Stafford, Northumberland, Westmoreland, Shrewsbury, Worcester, Devonshire, Kent, Wiltshire, Derby, Kildare. Barons:—Maltravers, Montagu, Herbert, the grand prior of St. John of England, Roos, Fitzwalter, Hastings, Delavare, Dacres, Ferrers, Cobham, Daubeney, Lumley, Sir Henry Marney, Sir Wm. Sandys, Th. Boleyn, Lord Howard.

Order of procession[edit]

The servants of the king of England shall march next their King, preceded by the nobles and gentlemen of the Legate, who shall follow the gentlemen of the other lords. The King's guard to follow him in their accustomed places.

Attendants of King Francis I[edit]

At meeting of two kings[edit]

The names of those who will be with the French king when he meets the king of England: the king of Navarre; dukes of Alençon, Bourbon, Vendosme and Lorraine; count of Saint Pol; prince de la Roche Suryon; count of Dreux and Rhetel, Sieur Dorval and governor of Champaigne; count of Benon, sieur de la Tremoille, first Chamberlain, admiral of Guyenne and governor of Burgundy; count of Estampes and Caravats, sieur de Boysy, grand master and governor of the Dauphin; Bonnyvet, admiral of France, Lautrec, La Palisse and Chastillon, marshals; count of Guyse, brother of the duke of Lorraine; the bastard of Savoy, count of Villars and Beaufort, governor of Provence; count de Laval; mons. de Chasteaubriant; count of Harcourt; princes of Orange and Tallemont; mons. de Nevers; mons d'Esparrox, lieutenant of Guyenne, and count of Montfort; Mess. de Lescun and Montmorency; le Grand Escuyer; counts de la Chambre, Tonnerre, Brienne, Joigny, Bremie and Mont Reuel; mons. d'Albret. The other knights of the Order. The king's household, 200 gentlemen; St. Vallier and the grand seneschal of Normandy, captains. 400 archers of the guard, and 4 captains; 100 Swiss, De Florenges, captain; maîtres d'hôtel, pannetiers, valets, &c.; gentlemen of the council and of the finances. The other pensioners will remain in their houses. Francis will bring with him the above company, if the king of England thinks it suitable; but if not, he will diminish it. These noblemen will only have with them about 200 horses.

English attendants of English King[edit]

Noblemen's names that shall accompany the French (sic) (English?) king at the meeting at Calais. The King's Council. My lord Cardinal. The Privy Seal. The bishops of Lincoln, Norwich, Hereford and Rochester. The dukes of Norfolk and Buckingham. The marquis Dorset. The earls of Surrey, Shrewsbury, Worcester, Derby, Northumberland, Essex and Wiltshire. The lords of St. John, Burgevenny, Devonshire, Montague, Mounteagle, Cobham, Ferys, Fitzwalter, Dudley, Dacres of the South, Darcy, Conyers, Audeley, Broke and Fitzwarren. The deans of the Chapel and of Paul's. The archdeacon of Richmond. The dean of Salisbury. Dr. Syxtyne. Dr. Clark. The abbots of Glastonbury, Westminster, Bury and Winchecombe. All knights and others of the King's council. The secretaries in Latin, French and English. The clerks of the Privy Seal and Signet. The heralds. The officers of the household. The minstrels.

County representatives[edit]
  • Bedford:—Sir John St. John, Wm. Gascoyn, Robt. Spenser, Lenthorp, Wm. Fitzjeffrey, Geo. Harvy.
  • Buckingham:—Sir Andrew Windsor, Sir Rauf Verney, junr., John Cheynye, Sir Wm. Hampden, John Gyfford.
  • Warwick:—Lord Dudley, Sir Gilbert Talbot, junr., Geo. Throgmorton, Sir Edward Belknap, Edw. Gryvill, Sir John Burdute, Sir Thos. Lucy, Sir Edw. Ferys, Edw. Conway.
  • Lincoln:—Lord Willoughby, Sir Christopher Willoughby, Sir John Husey, Sir Geoffrey Paynell, Sir Miles Bushe, Sir Rob. Scheffeld, Sir Wm. Tirwytt, Wm. Askew, Geo. Fitzwilliam, Sir Rob. Dymocke, Wm. Hansard.
  • Essex:—The Earl of Essex, Lord FitzWalter, Sir Henry Marny, Sir John Raynysford, Sir Thos. Tyrell, Sir Ric. Lewys, Sir Roger Wentworth, Wm. Pirton, Sir Whitstan Browne, John Marnye.
  • Sussex:—The Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Surrey, Lord Matravers, Sir Thos. West, Lord Dacre, Sir David Owen, Sir Godard Oxynbridge, Wm. Ashbornham, Sir Edw. Lewkenor, Sir John Dawtry.
  • Berkshire:—Sir Geo. Forster, Sir Thos. Fetyplace, Sir Wm. Essex, Sir Richard Weston, Hen. Bridges, John Cheyny, Ric. Noreys, Ric. Hampden.
  • Hertford:—Lord Barnesse, Sir Edw. Benstede, Thos. Clyfford.
  • Gloucester:—The Duke of Buckingham, Sir Maurice Barkeley, William Denys, Sir Wm. Kyngston, Sir Christopher Baynham, Sir John Hungerford, Sir Edw. Wadham, Sir John Brydges.
  • Cornwall:—Lord Broke, Sir John Arundell, Sir Pers Eggecombe, Sir Roger Graynefeld,[10] Sir John Trevenyan.
  • Suffolk:—Sir Thos. Bolayn, Sir Rob. Brandon, Sir Rob. Drury, Sir Ant. Wyngfeld, Sir Wm. Walgrave, Sir Ric. Wentworth, Sir John Shelton, Sir Arthur Hopton, Sir Rob. Courson, Sir John Audley, Thos. Felton, _ Branzton, Sir Wm. Sidney.
  • Stafford:—Sir John Feryes, Sir Loys Bagot, Sir John Gifford, Sir John Asheton, John Egyrton, Sir John Braycot, Sir John Stanley, John Blount.
  • Devonshire:— Lord Fitzwaren, Sir William Courtney, Sir Edm. Owen, Sir John Basset, Sir Nic. Kyrkeham, Sir Edw. Pomery.
  • Oxford:—Sir Adryan Fortesku, Sir Edw. Chamberlayn, Sir Wm. Rede, Walter Bulstrode, Sir John Daunce.
  • Shropshire:—The Earl of Shrewsbury, Sir Ric. Laykyn, Sir Thos. Blount, Sir Thos. Leyghton, Sir Rob. Corbett, Sir Thos. Cornwall.
  • Somerset:—The Earl of Wiltshire, Sir John Trevelian, Sir Nicholas Wadham, Sir John Rodney, Sir Ric. Ware, _ Strangwyshe, Lord Daubenye.
  • Dorset.—Hen. Strangwyshe, Giles Strangwyshe, John Horsey, Sir Thos. Trenchard.
  • Wilts:—Sir Edward Hungerford, Sir John Seymour, Sir Edw. Darell, Sir John Dakers, Sir John Newport, Sir Maurice Barow, Sir John Scrope, Sir Thos. Long.
  • York:—The Earl of Northumberland, Lord Darcy, Lord Lumeley, Sir John Constable, Sir Rob. Constable, lord Conyers, Sir Geo. Fitzhew, Sir Rauf Ellerkar, Sir Wm. Gaskoyn, Sir Ric. Tempest, Sir Wm. Skargill, Sir Guy Wolstrope, Sir Rauf Evers, Sir Wm. Evers, Sir Wm. Bulmer, Sir John Bulmer, Sir Edw. Pekeryng.
  • Westmoreland:—Sir Thos. Parre.
  • Hereford:—Lord Ferrers, Sir Cornewall.
  • Hants:—Lord Audeley, Sir Wm. Sandes, Sir John Lyle, Wm. Pownd, John Pawlet, junr., Sir John Lye, Sir Geo. Putenham, Sir Wm. Gyfford, Rob. Walop, Arthur Plantagenet, Sir Maurice Barow.
  • Kent:—Lord Bargeveny, Lord Cobham, Lord Clynton, Sir Edw. Ponynges, Sir Wm. Scot, Sir John Pechie, Sir Edw. Guldeford, Sir Hen. Guyldeford, Thos. Cheynye, Sir Rauf Seyntleger, Sir John Darell, Raynold Pymp, Sir John Scott, Sir Wm. Crowner, Sir John Fogge, Sir John Norton.
  • Leicester:—The Lord Marquis, Lord Hastyngs, Sir John Digby, Sir Edw. Feldyng, Sir Ric. Sacheverell, Lord John Gray, Lord Leonard Gray, Lord Richard Gray, Sir Wm. Skevyngton, Sir John Villers, _ Hasylrygge.
  • Cambridge:—Sir Wm. Findern, Sir Rob. Coton, Sir Rauf Chamberlain, Sir Giles Alyngton.
  • Northampton:—Sir Nic. Vaux, Sir Wm. Parre, Sir Thos. Lucy, Thos. Empson.
  • Nottingham:—Sir Wm. Parpoynt, Sir Thos. Sutton, Sir Brian Stapleton, Robt. Clyfton, Humphrey Hersy, Rowland Dygby, John Beron, Sir Wm. Meryng, Sir Hen. Willoughby.
  • Norfolk:—Lord Edmund Howard, Sir Ph. Calthorp, Sir Robt. Clere, Sir John Haydon, Sir Thos. Wodehows, Sir Thos. Wyndham, Wm. Paston, Sir Robt. Lovell, John Shelton, Sir Thos. Benyngfeld, Nic. Appylyerd, Edw. Knyvet.
  • Derby:—Sir Henry Sacheverell, Sir John Montgomery, Sir Godfrey Fulgeham, Thos. Cokyn.
  • Middlesex:—The Lord of Saint John's, Sir Thos. Lovell.
  • Surrey:—Sir Henry Wyat, Sir Matthew Brown, Sir John Ywardby, Sir Edw. Bray.
  • Cheshire:—Sir John Warberton, Sir Wm. Both, Sir John Warren, Sir Geo. Holford, Sir John Lye of Bagley, Sir Wm. Brereton.

References[edit]

An eyewitness description appears in Hall's Chronicle and Richard Grafton's Chronicle at Large.

  1. ^ Title "Devonshire" as recorded in contemporary records, see e.g. list of attendees, from L&P of Henry VIII
  2. ^ Hall, Edward, Chronicle, (1809), 605.
  3. ^ Grafton, Richard, Grafton's Chronicle, or Chronicle at Large 1569, vol. 2, London (1809), 303-304: Hall, Edward, Chronicle, (1809), 605.
  4. ^ Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance, p. 291. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4
  5. ^ Nicholson, N. & Fawcett, E. Ightham Mote. National Trust (1994)
  6. ^ http://www.hoasm.org/IVM/CornyshJr.html
  7. ^ Karen Watts, Tournaments at the court of King Henry VIII
  8. ^ Jerdan, William (ed.), Rutland Papers: Original Documents Illustrative of the Courts and Times of Henry VII and Henry VIII Selected from the Private Archives of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, London, 1842, pp.28-49; corrected and amended, but omits listings by county
  9. ^ Brewer, J. S. (editor), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3: 1519-1523, March 1520, 21-30, R. T. 137, Letters indented specifying, in accordance with the treaty of 12 March 1519, the number and rank of the lords, ladies and gentlemen to attend the King and Queen at the interview with Francis I, Institute of Historical Research, 1867
  10. ^ son of Thomas Grenville (died 1513)

Further reading[edit]

  • Mattingly, Garrett. "An Early Nonaggression Pact," Journal of Modern History," March 1938, Vol. 10 Issue 1, 1-30 in JSTOR
  • Richardson, Glenn. Renaissance Monarchy: The Reigns of Henry VIII, Francis I & Charles V (2002) 246pp
  • Russell, J.G. (1969). Field of Cloth of Gold: men and manners in 1520. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-6207-9. 

External links[edit]