Field of the Cloth of Gold
The Field of the Cloth of Gold or Camp du Drap d'Or is the name given to a place in Balinghem, between Guînes and Ardres, in France, near Calais, that was the site of a meeting that took place from 7 June to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France.
The meeting was arranged to increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the Anglo-French treaty of 1514. The form "Field of Cloth of Gold" has been in general use in the English language since at least the 18th century. The hereditary monarchs of the two countries would not meet again until 1843 when Queen Victoria met King Louis Philippe I, the last king to rule France. There was an intervening meeting in 1536 between James V of Scotland and Francis I of France, but James V ruled Scotland (although one of his descendents, James VI, would become King of England).
Under the guidance of England's Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, the chief nations of Europe sought to outlaw war forever among Christian nations. Mattingly (1938) studied the causes of wars in that era, finding that such nonaggression treaties could never be stronger than the armies of their sponsors. When those forces were about equal, these treaties typically widened the conflict. That is, diplomacy could sometimes postpone war, but could not prevent wars based on irreconcilable interests and ambitions. What was lacking, Mattingly concludes, was a neutral power whose judgements were generally accepted by either impartial justice or by overwhelming force.
Two entities had started to emerge as powers in Western Europe at this time: France, under Francis I, and the Habsburg Empire, under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The Kingdom of England, still a lesser power, was being courted as an ally by the two major powers. The 1518 Treaty of London, a non-aggression pact between major European powers, to help resist the Ottoman expansion into southeastern Europe, had just been signed. Henry also held meetings with Charles V a month before the Field of Cloth of Gold in the Netherlands and again afterwards at Calais, Henry's only possession in the Continent.
Both Henry and Francis wished to be seen as Renaissance princes. Renaissance thinking held that a strong prince could choose peace from a place of strength. The meeting was designed to show how magnificent each court was, and how this could be a basis for mutual respect and peace between nations that were traditional enemies. Henry and Francis were also similar figures of similar age and dashing reputations, so there was almost certainly a mutual curiosity.
Everything was arranged to provide equality between the two groups. The meeting place was at the very edge of the English territory around Calais. The valley where the first meeting took place was landscaped to provide areas of equal elevation for the two national parties. The whole event was planned and executed by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a charismatic, eloquent master diplomat who as a papal legate had immense power in the name of the pope (Leo X at the time of the meeting). Included among the English guests were Thomas More, and Anne Boleyn's mother and sister.
An earlier meeting between the kings of England and France presaged this one. From 27 to 30 October 1396, Charles VI of France and Richard II of England had met at Ardres near Calais to treat for peace during the Hundred Years' War. The scale, splendour and pageantry was comparable to the later Field of Cloth of Gold meeting held on the same site in 1520.
The meeting 
Each king tried to outshine the other, with dazzling tents and clothes, huge feasts, music, jousting, and games. The tents and the costumes displayed so much cloth of gold, an expensive fabric woven with silk and gold thread, that the site of the meeting was named after it.
The most elaborate arrangements were made for the accommodation of the two monarchs and their large retinues; and on Henry's part especially no efforts were spared to make a great impression in Europe with this meeting. Before the castle of Guines, a temporary palace covering an area of nearly 12,000 square yards (10,000 m2), was erected for the reception of the English king. The palace was in four blocks with a central courtyard; each side was 328 feet (100 m) long. The only solid part was the brick base about 8 feet (2 m) high. Above the brickwork, the 30-foot (10 metre) high walls were made of cloth or canvas on timber frames, painted to look like stone or brick. One further aspect of King Henry's retinue was the presence of a two royal monkeys covered in gold leaf, these were known to have been gifts from the Ottoman Sultan Selim I and brought much laughter and merriment from Francis I as contemporary Cardinal Wolsey recounts 'The French King was overcome with much curiosity playing with those little knaves that did all they could to steal and pester his advisers, yet he willed them to be present at every banquet'. The slanting roof was made of oiled cloth painted to give the colour of lead and the illusion of slates. Contemporaries commented especially on the huge expanse of glass, which made visitors feel they were in the open air. Chronicle descriptions make it clear the decorations, carved and painted had martial iconography;
The foregate of the same palace or place with great and mighty masonry by sight was arched, with a Tower on every side of the same portered by great craft, and inbatteled was the gate and Tower, and in the fenesters, and windows, were images resembling men of warre redie to cast great stones: also the same gate or Tower was set with compassed images of ancient Princes, as Hercules, Alexander and other, by entrayled worke, richly limned with gold and Albyn colours, .... also the tower of the Gate as seemed was built by great masonry, ... for the sundrie countenances of every Image that their appeared, some shooting, some casting, some ready to strike, and firing of gonnes, which shewed very honourably.—Grafton's Chronicle, or Chronicle at Large 1569
The building was decorated in the most sumptuous fashion and furnished with a profusion of golden ornaments. Red wine flowed from the two fountains outside. The chapel was served by 35 priests. Composer Jean Mouton was most likely in charge of the musical production by Francis I; the French royal chapel had one of the finest choirs in Europe, and contemporary accounts indicated that they "delighted their hearers." The wooden ceiling for one of the tents may later have been installed in the New Chapel at Ightham Mote where, with its colours faded, one with appropriate features can still be seen. Musical production on the English side was probably led by composer William Cornysh the Younger, master of the Royal Chapel for Henry VIII.
Some idea of the size of Henry's following may be gathered from the fact that in one month 2200 sheep and other viandes in a similar proportion were consumed. In the fields beyond the castle, 2800 tents were erected for less distinguished visitors.
Journeying from Calais, Henry reached his headquarters at Guînes on 4 June 1520, and Francis took up his residence at Ardres. After Cardinal Wolsey, with a splendid train, had visited the French king, the two monarchs met at the Val d'Or, a spot midway between the two places, on 7 June.
The following days were taken up with tournaments, in which both kings took part. There were banquets in which the kings entertained each other's queens. The many other entertainments included archery displays and wrestling between Breton and English wrestlers.
Wolsey said Mass and the two sovereigns separated on 24 June, Corpus Christi. The painting depicts a dragon flying overhead and this could be interpreted to mean that the Mass itself was interrupted by a mysterious event thought to be a dragon or salamander flying over the congregation. The superstitious would have viewed this as a great portent, but it was probably a firework accidentally or deliberately set off. Alternatively the dragon in the painting could be interpreted as symbolic. The sermon was read by Richard Pace, an intimate friend of Erasmus. Wolsey gave a general indulgence for the forgiveness of the sins of all present.
This meeting made a great impression on contemporaries, but its political results were very small. While the carefully established rules of the tournament stated that the two kings would not compete against each other, Henry surprisingly challenged Francis in a wrestling match, but it turned sour for Henry when he quickly lost.
Relations between the two countries worsened soon after the event when Cardinal Wolsey arranged an alliance with Charles V, who declared war on France later that year commencing the Italian War of 1521–1526.
- Mattingley (1938)
- Jerdan, Rutland Papers, Camden Society (1842), 28–29.
- "Image of St Michael", Richard II's Treasure, Institute of Historical Research, Royal Holloway College, University of London, 2007, retrieved June 2011.
- Hall, Edward, Chronicle, (1809), 605.
- Grafton, Richard, Grafton's Chronicle, or Chronicle at Large 1569, vol. 2, London (1809), 303-304: Hall, Edward, Chronicle, (1809), 605.
- Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance, p. 291. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4
- Nicholson, N. & Fawcett, E. Ightham Mote. National Trust (1994)
- Karen Watts, Tournaments at the court of King Henry VIII. 
Further reading 
- Mattingly, Garret. "An Early Nonaggression Pact," Journal of Modern History," March 1938, Vol. 10 Issue 1, 1-30 in JSTOR
- Richardson, Glenn. Renaissance Monarchy: The Reigns of Henry VIII, Francis I & Charles V (2002) 246pp
- Russell, J.G. (1969). Field of Cloth of Gold: men and manners in 1520. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-6207-9.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Field of Cloth of Gold|
- Nichols, John Gough, ed., The Chronicle of Calais, Camden Society (1846), 19-29, 77-90 documents and eyewitness accounts
- Hall, Edward, Chronicle. London (1809), 605-620, eyewitness description of the Field and tournaments.
- Jerdan, William, Rutland Papers. Camden Society (1842), 28-49, transcripts of original documents and roll of attendants at the Field in June 1520.
- Detailed description of the image from Alecto Historical Editions - Publications Group