Fifth Army (Ottoman Empire)

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Fifth Army
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H29994, Liman von Sanders mit türkischen Offizieren.jpg
Headquarters Personnel: first row, from right to left: Hüseyin Rauf Bey, Vehib Pasha, Sanders Pasha, Esat Pasha, Süleyman Pasha, Cevat Bey ?, second row, from right to left: İsmet Bey, (from Second Army), Âsım Bey, Perike, Kâzım Bey, Şükrü Bey (from First Army), Refik Münir Bey (from Second Army)
Active March 25, 1915 – November 21, 1918[1]
Country Ottoman Empire
Type Field Army
Engagements Gallipoli Campaign (World War I)
Commanders
Notable
commanders

Otto Liman von Sanders (March 1915–24 February 1918)
Mahmut Kamil (February 1918)
Esat Pasha (February–June 1918)

Mahmut Kamil (June–November 1918)

The Fifth Army of the Ottoman Empire or Turkish Fifth Army was formed on March 24, 1915 and dissolved on October 1918. It was assigned the responsibility of defending the Dardanelles straits in World War I. The original commander of the army was the German military advisor to the Ottoman Empire, General Otto Liman von Sanders. The command passed to Vehip Pasha who became responsible for the Helles front while von Sanders still wielded considerable influence.

Order of Battle, April 1915[edit]

In Late April 1915, the army was structured as follows:[2]

When the Allied campaign the Battle of Gallipoli, which aimed to seize the Dardanelles, commenced, the Fifth Army comprised two army Corps; the III Corps was defending the Gallipoli peninsula and the XV Corps was defending the Asian shore. The XV. Corps, also known as the "Asian Group." In addition, the 5th Division was positioned north of the peninsula under the command of First Army.

World War I[edit]

Order of Battle, Late Summer 1915[edit]

Disposition of the 5th Army at Gallipoli

The number of divisions involved in the defence of the peninsula expanded to ten and an unattached infantry regiment and a brigade of cavalry before the August Offensive. In Late Summer 1915, the army was structured as follows:[3]

A further three divisions arranged in the "Asian Group." The four divisions at Anzac made up the III Corps. (6 at Helles, 4 at Anzac) plus additional[citation needed].

Order of Battle, August 1916[edit]

In August 1916, the army was structured as follows:[4]

Order of Battle, December 1916[edit]

In December 1916, the army was structured as follows:[5]

Order of Battle, August 1917, January 1918[edit]

In August 1917, January 1918, the army was structured as follows:[6]

Order of Battle, June, September 1918[edit]

In June, September 1918, the army was structured as follows:[7]

After Mudros[edit]

Order of Battle, November 1918[edit]

In November 1918, the army was structured as follows:[8]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ David Nicolle, colour plates by Rafaelle Ruggeri, The Ottoman Army 1914–18, Men-at-Arms 269, Ospray Publishing Ltd., 1994, ISBN 1-85532-412-1, p. 15.
  2. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 86.
  3. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 109.
  4. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 134.
  5. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 154.
  6. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 170, 181.
  7. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 188, 197.
  8. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 202.

External links[edit]