The Fifty-Niners were the gold seekers who streamed into the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory in 1859. The discovery of placer gold deposits along the South Platte River at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in northwestern Kansas Territory by a party of miners led by William Greeneberry "Green" Russell in July 1858 precipitated the Pike's Peak Gold Rush.
Many Fifty-Niners took the "Smoky Hill Trail" west through Kansas Territory up the Kansas River valley. The last significant civilian settlement along this route was Manhattan, Kansas, several hundred miles east of the mountains. Between there and the mountains the Fifty-Niners had to cross the unmarked plains, often getting lost, and sometimes confronting Plains Indians. There is no record of how many prospective miners died en route to Pikes Peak.
No gold was found near Pikes Peak until after the gold rush, but it was the first visible landmark for those traveling west across the High Plains. This gave rise to the slogan, "Pike's Peak or Bust."
- Larson, Robert W. "Populism in the Mountain West: A Mainstream Movement." The Western Historical Quarterly 13.2 (1982): 143-164.
- Zamonski, Stan, and Teddy Keller. The Fifty-Niners. Sage Books, 1961.
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