Figures of Argentine tango

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Figures of Argentine tango are elements of Argentine tango.

Introduction and terminology[edit]

History[edit]

On the basis of several instructional tango books published between 1911–1925 [1][2] early tango figures can be grouped into eight categories: corte, paseo, la marcha, ocho, grapevine, ruedas, media luna, molinette.[3] From that period we still have: ocho, sentada, media luna, molinete, sandwich.[4]

Name Argentine tango between 1911–1925 Picture
Corte (detención, freno, parada) Break and style of dance (bailar con corte, a la quebrada). Cortez bw.jpg
Quebrada Style of dance (bailar con corte, a la quebrada) (see Rudolf Valentino) . Valentino in The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.jpg
Media luna. Half moon. Medialuna bw.jpg
Promenade Popular salida at that time. Promenade bw.jpg
Rueda Rotation around a woman. Ring bw.jpg
Scissors Movement which starts with promenade and is followed by a step; repeated. Scissors bw.jpg

In 2010 there exists as many as 200 instructional DVDs discussing elements of Argentine tango dance.[5] These include titles devoted to tango technique and basics [6] [7] tango nuevo [8] [9] [10] [11] milonguero style (also known by estilo del centro in Buenos Aires) [12] [13] [14] and various elements of the dance such as giros. [15] There are many guides and dictionaries to tango terminology on the internet. [16] Tango terminology is described in several books. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

Terminology[edit]

Alternative names are provided in (braces) but usage of tango related names varies: for example entrada and sacada or voleo and boleo may be used to describe the same steps. The names used here follow many sources including English instructional DVDs (such as Christy Coté and George Garcia DVDs published by Dancevision),[23] Argentine DVDs which often have English subtitles, internet resources, and published books and glossaries.

Basic concepts: axis, steps, embrace.[edit]

Body position and basic steps[edit]

Effective lead and elegant following depends on proper position of feet, hips, and torso of the leader and the follower.

Spanish English Description – Body position and basic steps Image Image
Pie activo Active foot The foot which is about to walk or walking.
Pie soporte Supporting foot The foot which carries the weight.
Leg projection One leg is on-axis and the other is projected, big toe stays on the floor. This element is the basis of many steps.
Paso Step Side, forward, back step. See also forward cross step and backward cross step
Position cero Tango close (position 0, collection) Collecting feet at the end of the figure. This is sometimes called position 0 of the eight count basic (basic step). Homer tango collect.JPG
Disociar Dissociation (contra body) Position in which there is dissociation between torso and hips. One classic lead with strong dissociation is used during the simple salida (i.e. transition between position 2 and position 3 of the basic step). Homer2 tango dissociation.JPG Homer2 tango dissociation2.JPG
Cadencia (balanceo) Cadence (weight change) Weight change in place. Used, for example, in Position 8 of the basic step. It is used as subtle lead during breaks or to adjust the follow position. Homer2 tango cadence2.JPG Homer2 tango cadence1.JPG
Cunita Rock step (small cradle) Rocking or swaying to side, forward, or back. Comes from rocking a cuna (cradle)

On and off axis[edit]

Position-related concepts of Argentine tango are axis and off-axis positions. Body position in which legs are approximately perpendicular to the floor is called 'axis' and there are two axis positions associated with one of two legs.[7] Off-axis positions are called apile (apilado, carpa, volcada) or colgada.[8] The center of balance moves outside one's body in case of the off-axis moves.

Do the tango dance! shapes]]). Many fluid and elegant tango figures can be danced in colgada position. || Homer2 tango colgada hip under.JPG

Spanish English Position Description – On and off axis Image
Position normal, el eje Normal position On-axis Body position in which one leg is approximately perpendicular to the floor. Center of weight is within the body. Feet position is with her heels together, and toes pointing slightly out. Her weight is on one leg or nearly so. See also collect. Homer tango collect.JPG
Carpa, Apile, Apilado, Volcada Apile (volcada) Off-axis Position in which both partners are leaning forward, may vary in degree of the tilt or shape. Many fluid and elegant tango figures can be danced in volcada position. Homer2 tango apile.JPG

Embrace and styles[edit]

Argentine tango dancing consists of a variety of styles that developed in different regions and eras and in response to the crowding of the venue and even the fashions in clothing. It is danced in an embrace that can vary from very open, in which man and woman connect at arms length, to very closed, in which the connection is chest-to-chest, or anywhere in between. Styles of dance are not predefined by the embrace itself and many figures of tango salon style are danced in an open embrace, it is also possible to dance tango nuevo in close V-shape embrace. The milonguero (apilado) style is an exception; its close embrace without V-shape and emphasis on maintaining this embrace throughout the dance predetermines range of possible movements and their shape.

Dance embraces[edit]

Spanish English Associated styles Description – Embrace and styles Image Image
Abrazo cerrado V-shape close embrace Salon and tango nuevo The dancers' chests are closer to each other than their hips, and often there is contact at about the level of the chest (the contact point differing, depending on the height of the leader and the closeness of the embrace). In close embrace, the leader and the follower's chests are in contact and they are dancing with their heads touching or very near each other. Homer tango embrace close full.JPG Homer tango embrace close.jpg
Abrazo abierto Open embrace Tango nuevo, salon In open embrace, there can be as much space as desired between the partners, but there should always be complete contact along the embracing arms to give optimum communication. Argentine tango dancers do not hold their upper bodies arched away from each other; each partner is over their own axis. Whether open or closed, a tango embrace is not rigid, but relaxed, like a hug. Homer tango embrace open full.JPG Homer tango embrace open part.jpg
Apilado (estilo milonguero, estilo del centro [de Buonos Aires]) Square close embrace Style milonguero Milonguero style of embrace is danced in closed position, chest-to-chest, with the partners leaning – or appearing to lean – slightly toward each other to allow space for the feet to move. The follower's left arm position on the leader's shoulder is a style issue. It originates and is used in crowded milongas where there is so much people that you're literally dancing in "square". In those places the lifted arm avoids touching and accidentally hurting other people during turns. Close embrace, no V-shape. Homer tango embrace millonguero.jpg Homer2 tango milonguero part.JPG
Tango al reves, doble frente Reverse embrace Tango salon and nuevo Reverse embrace where both partners face the same direction; it is now used only occasionally to perform tango figures (see doble frente). Homer2 tango al reves1.JPG Homer2 tango al reves.JPG

Practice embraces[edit]

Embrace hold used during tango practice. One example is when both partners hold hands, the woman holds the man's shoulders, and variants.

Spanish English Description – Practice embrace Image
Pareja tomada Practice embrace Both holding arms in practice position. Homer2 tango practice hold.JPG
Pareja tomada Practice embrace She holds his arms in practice position. Homer2 tango practice hold tea.JPG
Pareja tomada Practice embrace Holding him in "tea kettle" position. Homer2 tango practice hold1.JPG
Pareja tomada Practice embrace Holding each other. Homer2 tango practice hold2.JPG

Walk and salidas[edit]

Walking systems[edit]

Walking in a cross system is defined as when the leader steps with his right leg forward and the woman steps with her right leg back or when the leader steps with his left leg forward and the woman with her left leg back. Walking in a parallel system is defined as when the leader steps with his left leg forward and the woman steps with her right leg back or when the leader steps with his right leg forward and the woman with her left leg back. In ballroom tango, "crossed system" is considered incorrect unless the leader and follower are facing the same direction. Furthermore, in Argentine tango, the leader can change his weight from one foot to another while the follower's weight remains unchanged. This is another major difference with ballroom tango, where a weight change by one partner leads to an automatic weight change by the other.

The cross system and parallel system walk nomenclature originated with the Naveira/Salas "Investigation Group." Early on, they used 'even/uneven' to describe the arrangement of legs in the walk or turn. By the mid-1990s, they began using 'parallel/crossed' and later 'normal/crossed'. In dance, the changing of feet is named contrapaso, or "contra-step". This change can be made off or on the normal beat.

Spanish English Description – Walk elements Image
Sistema paralelo Parallel walk The man steps with his left leg forward, the woman steps with her right leg back; the leader steps with his right leg forward and the woman with her left leg back Homer tango parallel walk.jpg
Sistema cruzado Cross walk The man steps with his right leg forward, the woman steps with her right leg back; the man steps with his left leg forward and the woman with her left leg back Homer tango cross walk.jpg
Contrapaso Weight change Weight change used to switch between parallel and cross system of walking.
Americana Promenade (sweetheart walk) Walking by facing the same direction and stepping forward. This resembles a walk in the park by sweethearts (except they may hold their hands together whereas in tango the embrace is preserved). This walk can be initiated by salida Americana. Homer tango salida americana.JPG

Eight count basic (8CB)[edit]

Basic step (paso básico, basico cuadrado y cruzado) is used for education purposes and almost never danced as a basic step of tango. For this reason it is sometimes called pejoratively academic basic. Nevertheless it contains basic elements of the dance. Also, it serves a purpose of "establishing notation" to more complex tango elements. Basic step (eight count basic, 8CB) is composed of back step, side step, cross for the lady (leader steps outside of his partner with his right leg), forward step, and side step. Basic steps can also be divided into four phases: salida – position 1 and 2 and transition from position 2 to position 3; caminata (position 3 and 4), cross (position 5), and resolution (positions 6,7,8). There are variants of the basic step.

Spanish English Description – Basic step (8 count basic) Image
Position cero Position 0 (tango close) Collection. Feet closed. See also collect
Uno (salida atrás, primera) Position 1 Back step, part of salida (not used in social dancing) Homer2 tango position1.JPG
Dos (salida costado, apertura, segunda) Position 2 Side step, open step, part of salida or beginning of the salida Homer2 tango position2.JPG
Tres Position 3 Salida simple (basico cuadrado) or crossed (basico cruzado); beginning of the basic step walk. Homer2 tango position3.JPG
Cuatro (caminata) Position 4 Basic step walk.
Cinco, cruce Position 5 (cross) Cross. See also cross. Homer2 tango position5.JPG
Seis Position 6 Walk, part of resolution. Homer2 tango position6.JPG
Siete Position 7 Side step to right, open step, part of resolution. Homer2 tango position7.JPG
Ocho Position 8 Weight change, part of resolution. See also cadence.

Baldosa (tile) or cuadrado (square) is a six-step figure similar to the ballroom box step except the man starts with his right foot, then steps back, side, forward, forward, side, feet together; the baldosa is the basic step of milonga. This baldosa is similar to eight count basic with the exception of the cross.

Some Argentine tango teachers teach complex figures but break them down into simpler parts. Subsequently they teach students how to improvise their own figures. Beginner classes may include caminada – combination of caminar (walk), cross, and ochos. The beginning part of a figure, its starting-point, is called salida (exit or beginning – as in "beginning of a journey"). The end part of a figure is called resolución. Combination of the salida, a walk, the cross of the lady and the resolución is called basic step (paso basico, la base, salida simple).

Thus, an Argentine tango figure is the pattern of salida, combination of elements, and resolución. This makes for flexible, ever-changing patterns. It gives leader an exceptional opportunity to improvise, and in part makes the Argentine tango unique in the dance world.

Salidas[edit]

Spanish English Description – Salidas Image
Salida simple Parallel system salida Beginning with strong contra body position of the upper torso and the leader's right leg outside the follow (in position 3 of the basic step). Homer2 tango position3.JPG
Salida cruzada Cross system salida Beginning with the leader's left leg outside the follow (in position 3 of the basic step).
Syncopated salida Position 4 and 5 of the basic eight is done to the side.[14]
Salida Americana Salida Americana Lead initiating walk (called promenade) of the man and the woman in the same direction. Homer tango salida americana.JPG

Technique and embellishments[edit]

Women's technique and embellishments[edit]

As in many dances most spectators observe mostly woman in dance – her elegance, grace, music interpretation as well as technique. Even though these are highly individual attributes there are some general notions of what makes woman sensual and graceful when dancing tango. Such skills include leg projection and weight transfer, stability in movements, elegance in leg placement and leg extension, pivoting, embellishments, as well as expression of emotions.

Spanish English Description – Woman's technique Image Image Image
Amagues Amagues A kick by one foot across in front of the other. May be very small high. Lisette tango tap.JPG
Caricias Caresses Term describing caress like rubbing thigh, calf, or foot down the woman's body or man's leg Lisette tango caricias1.JPG
Pasada Pasada Stepping over the man foot in an elegant way. Depending on woman's preferences she can do variations such as lustrada; she can raise her leg high or keep it low. Homer tango pasada.JPG
Forward cross step Forward step with one leg crossing in front of the other leg. The movement begins with leg projection and turning of a foot towards the direction of the pivot, transfer of weigh to active foot, pivot. This sequence is part of the forward ocho. Lisette tango pivot1.JPG Lisette tango pivot2.JPG Lisette tango pivot3.JPG
Backward cross step Back step with one leg crossing in the back of the other leg.
Side step transition The movement begins with leg projection to the side with foot on the floor and slightly turned with subsequent transfer of weigh to active foot, collection. This sequence is part of the side step. Lisette tango side1.JPG Lisette tango side2.JPG
Cuatro Number four The women's adornment formed when she crosses and raises her leg in front of the other leg. Homer2 tango quatro.JPG
Lustrada Polishing (shoe shine) Rubbing shoe or foot up and down partner's pants or leg. Homer tango lustrada.JPG
Toque (see also golpecitos) Touch Short touch of man's instep by woman's foot.
Taps Quick taps done between steps or during a pause. Lisette tango tap2.JPG Lisette tango tap3.JPG

Man's technique[edit]

Both partners can contribute to tango improvisations with adornments (sp. adornos, decoration) known also as decorations (sp. decoration). Adornments do not have to be led or marked. Several embellishments are: aguja, amague, boleo, caricia, cuatro, enroscar, golpecito, lustrada, rulo.

Spanish English Description – Man's technique Image
Agujas Needle Pointing foot towards the floor. Homer2 tango needle.JPG
Enrosque Twist Man or woman is pivoting and twists his or her legs in corkscrew action. Often initiated with needle (aguja) position of a foot. Homer2 tango enrosque.JPG
Lapiz Lapiz (pencil) Man is pivoting with his leg extended and foot and toes pointing towards floor. Homer tango lapiz.JPG
Planeo Planeo Pivoting on one leg with the other leg stretched out. Homer tango planeo.JPG
Taps Quick taps done between steps or during a pause. Can be done by man or woman. Homer2 tango tap both.JPG

Expressions of emotion[edit]

Expression of emotions such as raising hand by a woman and gently lowering it on partner's shoulder; dancing with cheeks together.

Spanish English Description – Expressions of emotion Image
Cheek to cheek Expression of emotion – dancing with cheeks together. Homer2 tango cheeks together.JPG
Arm up and down Expression of emotion – raising hand by a woman and gently lowering it on partner's shoulder. Homer2 tango hand up down.JPG
You are mine Expression of emotion – gentle embrace. Homer2 tango you are mine.JPG
Sweetheart embrace. Expression of emotion – sweetheart embrace. Homer2 tango risky embrace.JPG
Forehead to forehead. Expression of emotion – forehead to forehead. Homer2 tango touch head.JPG

Variants and shape[edit]

It is interesting to note that tango elements come in a variety of shapes determined by, for example, elasticity or flextion of the execution of movement. Such variants gives a figure a more modern or traditional look, it can be an expression of woman's creativity, or simple adjustment to how crowded is the floor.

Many tango steps are often borrowed from tango shows, but modified for the tight spaces and flow of other dancers around the floor. Many of these steps are part of tango nuevo. The shape of the steps can vary – for example, how the woman's body is curved during the step may change according to her interpretation of the music or the moment. There are several instructional videos illustrating sequences of tango nuevo such as colgadas and volcadas with elements of traditional tango.,[8][9][10]

Spanish English Description – Examples of shape (variants) Image Image Image
Colgada Colgada shapes Variants of colgadas shape – hip under, straight, and exaggerated "hip under". Homer2 tango colgada hip under.JPG Homer2 tango colgada straight.JPG Homer2 tango colgada exaggerated.JPG
Voleo Boleo shapes Variants of boleo shape; low and high boleo; linear and circular boleo Homer2 tango boloe circular.JPG Homer2 tango boleo low.JPG Homer2 tango boleo high.JPG

Figures[edit]

Cross and ocho[edit]

Large group of classic and elegant tango figures is related to two basic steps: forward cross step and backward cross step. Their combinations form cruce (cross), ochos (figure eight), as well as giros (turns).

Spanish English Description – Cross and Ocho Image
Cruce (cinco) Cross (regular cross, position five) Crossed left foot in front of the right foot. See also Position 5. Homer tango cross her.JPG
Cruce adelante Front cross Crossed one leg in front of the other see cross
Cruce atrás Back cross Crossed one leg in back of the other see cross
Cruce forzado Forced cross Crossed legs – induced by the lead.[13]
Ocho Ocho A figure "eight" traced on the floor by the follower's feet.

See back ocho and forward ocho.

Ocho adelante Forward ocho (front ocho) Feet tracing a figure "eight" on the floor by the follower's feet when she walks forward. Two forward cross steps.
Ocho atrás Back ocho Feet tracing a figure "eight" on the floor by the follower's feet when she walks back. Two backward cross steps.
Ocho cortado Cut ocho Sudden change of direction leading the woman to cross during her forward walk.
Ocho milonguero Non-pivot ocho (lazy ocho) Ochos led and followed without substantial torso and hip pivoting.

Circular movements[edit]

Circular movements are inherent part of tango and have special importance in tango vals.[15] These include

Spanish English Description – Circular movements Image
Arroje Push Pushing woman away before leading giro.
Calesita Carousel Circular movement in which the man moves the woman around.
Giro Turn Giro is a turning step of the follower around the leader's axis (called the molinete). A common name for this figure is the "grapevine", alternating front and back steps connected by a side step.

It is composed of several steps which complete a circle. One of the most common variants is composed of 4 steps (forward step, open step, back step, open step). Sequence of giro steps can follow square or be executed in circular motion (vals). Variants may include just 3 steps around the leader. || Homer2 tango giro1.JPG

Giro Turn (open step) Open step. Homer2 tango giro2.JPG
Giro Turn (back step) Back step. Homer2 tango giro3.JPG
Giro Turn (open step) Open step. Homer2 tango giro4.JPG
Media Luna A half giro (half moon) 180 degree part of giro. see giro
Media Vuelta A half turn 180 turn. see giro
Molinete Molinete The molinete translates as "mill" and it is the part of the mill in the center, the axis. In tango, it is the leader's step, accompanying the follower's giro or grapevine (see giro). In the molinete, the leader pivots on ball of their foot, so that the foot stays behind the body and the follower stays close. The leader may either pivot on one foot or two feet or alternate feet in time to the music, while staying on the ball of foot. see giro
Vueltas Vueltas Circular movements such as "marionette" (but not giro).

Foot play[edit]

Steps related to foot play steps spice up the walk and the dance. These are ways for leaders and followers to challenge and tease their partners and make dance more playfull. There are different shapes of these moves and their look depends on how crowded is the venue or woman's interpretation of the lead.

Spanish English Description – Foot play Image Image
Traps, catches Leg traps[11] Homer2 tango leg trap1.JPG Homer2 tango leg trap2.JPG
Barrida (arrastre) Dragging One partner sweeps the others foot by displacing it along the floor. Homer tango arrestre.JPG
Bicicleta Pedaling Movement which resembles pedaling on a bicycle. Induced by the leader placing his foot under or to the side of the follower's foot and lifting and lowering it. Homer tango bicicleta.JPG
Empujadita Small push Displacement of the woman's leg by the man's leg. Homer2 tango empujadita1.JPG Homer2 tango empujadita2.JPG
Mordida (sandwich, sanguche, sanguchito) Sandwich The leader places both feet on either side of the follow foot Homer tango mordida.jpg
Parada Parada (stop) The leader halts the motion of the follower's turning by placing his foot close to her foot. Homer tango parada.JPG

Sacada and entrada[edit]

Spanish English Description – Sacada and entradas) Image Image
Sacada (entrada) Shallow sacada (sacada, insert) Leader's leg replaces partner's unweighted leg position. Entrada doesn't influence movement of the follower's leg. This movement is called entrada or sacada in Spanish depending on instructor.[15] Homer2 tango sacada shallow.JPG
Sacada (quite) Deep sacada (sacada) Displacement of partner's unweighted leg. Homer2 tango sacada deep.JPG
Sacada Back sacada Displacement of partner's unweighted leg. Homer tango sacada back her.JPG

Gancho and enganche[edit]

Spanish English Description – Leg kicks and leg wraps (gancho and enganche) Image Image
Enganche Leg wrap One or both dancers wrap his or her leg around their partner's leg. This wrapping is often sustained or frozen for a moment in time. See also gancho and high leg wrap. Homer tango enganche.JPG Homer tango enganche both.JPG
Gancho Gancho (hook) One dancer hooks her or his leg around their partner's leg. See also enganche. Homer2 tango gancho.JPG
Overturned gancho (gancho nuevo) The follower places her leg between the leader's legs. This move can be lead from overturned back ocho. See also enganche. Homer tango gancho overturned.JPG
Piernazo High leg wrap Wrap or caress by woman's leg raised up high and touching the partner's waist or legs Homer tango piernazo.JPG

Boleos[edit]

Spanish English Description – Boleo Image Image
Voleo adelante Front boleo Sharp movement of the leg often interrupted or suspended. The woman's lifts her foot from the floor and it flies to the side and wraps around her standing leg in front of her knee; boleos can be high (alto) or low (bajo). This move is alternatively named boleo and voleo in Spanish. Homer tango voleo forward her.JPG
Voleo atrás Back boleo Sharp movement of the leg often interrupted or suspended initiated typically from a back ocho. The woman's foot lifts from the floor and it flies to the side and wraps around her standing leg at the back of the knee. This move is alternatively named boleo and voleo in Spanish. Homer tango voleo back her.JPG
Voleo en linea Linear voleo Linear movement resulting in the leg's suspension in the air at the back of (typically) her body. Homer tango linear voleo.jpg

Colgada and volcada[edit]

Spanish English Description – Colgada and volcada Image Image
Colgada Colgada Off-axis move in which woman leans back while being supported by leader's arms. Simple colgadas can be executed during woman's step over leader foot. For variants see colgada shapes: hip-under colgada (picture on the left) describes colgada with woman hips under her rib cage; plank or straight colgada (picture on the right) is when her back tilt is without pronounced bend. Homer2 tango colgada hip under.JPG Homer2 tango colgada straight.JPG
Colgada Step over colgada Off-axis move in which woman leans back while being supported by leader's arms. Simple colgadas can be executed during woman's step over leader foot. Homer tango colgada step over.JPG
Colgada Side colgada Off-axis move in which woman leans to the side while being supported by leader's arms. Homer2 tango side colgada hip under.JPG
Volcada Volcada Off-axis move in which the woman leans forward and does forward or back cross or decorative figures with her legs. Volcadas can be done in open and close embrace. In case of closed embrace she is supported by the leader's torso. In open embrace the leader's arm provides support for the suspension. See also apile. Homer tango volcada close.jpg Homer tango volcada open.jpg
Volcada (suspended) Off-axis move in which the woman leans forward and her legs are opened and extended. Homer tango suspended volcada.JPG
Volcada con adorno Side volcada Off-axis move in which the woman leans forward to the man's side. She can do decorations with her leg. Homer2 tango volcada side.JPG
Volcada "Armpit" volcada Off-axis move in which the woman leans forward to the man's side. Homer2 tango volcada arm pit1.JPG Homer2 tango volcada arm pit2.JPG

Everything else[edit]

Spanish English Description – Everything else Image Image
Corrida Run A short sequence of steps.
Doble frente Moving together in one direction. The woman is in front of the man (see tango al reves style). Homer2 tango al reves.JPG
Elevacion Lifts Lifts Homer tango lift.JPG
Espejo Mirror step Mirror steps or embellishments done by the man and the woman.
Friccion Pulling Pulling the woman typically dragged on her toes. Homer2 tango pulling.JPG
Pulpeadas Leg entanglements, "sticky sacadas" Class of trapped sacadas, wrapped sacadas, and carried (sp. llevada) ganchos. Named after Norberto Esbrez.[11]
Quebrada Quebrada Figure in which there is a sudden body twist or jerky move. The name is also associated with corte and quebrada style of tango. I.e. tango with embellishments, sudden breaks. Homer tango quebrada.JPG
Palanca Lever Man helping the woman to jump or lift.
Patada Kick Kick between legs (by man or woman). Homer2 tango kick.JPG
Rebotes Switch step (bounce) Change of direction, bounce. For example after salida americana partners step forward and change direction to step back. Homer tango rebote.JPG
Salto, Saltitos Jump, Small jump Jump or small leaps or jumps Homer2 tango jump.JPG
Sentada Sentada Woman sits on leaders lap, hip, bended leg. Homer tango sentada.jpg
Tijera Scissors Small jump with scissoring step in between partner's legs.
Soltada Soltada Breaking embrace to execute a figure (such as a turn) on her or his own. Homer tango soltada him.JPG Homer tango soltada her.JPG
Zarandeo Swing Hip swings. Pivoting in place. Homer2 tango swing.JPG
"Feet walking" Walking on his feet. Homer2 tango walking on his feet.JPG

Ending figures[edit]

The most typical endings of tango are simple positions, for example "sandwich" or "tango close". However, in the popular culture tango endings are often associated with more dramatic figures such as listed below.

Spanish English Description – Finale Image Image
Open legs Dramatic final ending figure of tango with the follower's open legs. Homer2 tango finale1.JPG
Corte Bow (break, cut, stop) Bow or break in the movements. Corte has also meaning of tango with embellishments as opposed to tango without them (see quebrada). Homer2 tango corte1.JPG Homer2 tango corte2.JPG

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Castle, Vernon and Castle, Irene (1911). Modern Dancing. New York: Harper and Brothers. 
  2. ^ Clendenen, F. Leslie (1914). Dance Mad: Or, the Dances of the Day. St. Louis: Arcade. 
  3. ^ Baim, Jo (2007). Tango: Creation of a Cultural Icon. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34885-2. 
  4. ^ Castro, Luis and Mendoza, Claudia (2007). Argentinian tango, the dance in depth. Berkeley, CA: General Printing. 
  5. ^ Tejastango.com
  6. ^ Paez, Luiza (2005). Follower's technique by Luiza Paes. Pulpo's Tango.  (head, hands, arms, legs, feet, natural step, pivot, ochos, turn, cross, boleo, sacada, barrida, contact, enganche, adorments)
  7. ^ a b Balmaceda, Julio and Rosa, Corina (2005). DVD, Tango secrets and basis, Vol. 1. Julio Balmaceda y Corina de la Rosa Prodduciones.  (el eje, la intención, el caminar, la contraposición, el abrazo, basico cuadrado y cruzado, primer secuencia caminada, ocho adelante, ocho atrás, combinación del ocho adelante y atrás, medio giro derecha e izquirda)
  8. ^ a b c Rosas, Gustavo and Natoli, Gisela (2007). Curso basico de colgadas y volcadas, Tango, Vol.1, Fusion tango nuevo y tradicional. Gus Producciones.  DVD, in Spanish with English subtitles (colgada en línea, colgada circular, colgada en apertura, colgada en apertura con cruce atrás, arrastre con colgada, colgada en cruce atrás, colgada en ocho atrás, colgada en suspensión, ochos atrás bloqueados en volcada, volcada con dibujo círcular de la pierna libre, ocho cortado, secuencias de colgadas & volcadas).
  9. ^ a b Rosas, Gustavo and Natoli, Gisela (2008). Curso basico de colgadas y volcadas, Tango, Vol.2, Fusion tango nuevo y tradicional. Gus Producciones.  DVD, in Spanish with English subtitles (sanguchito colgado, sanguchito colgado y gancho, colgada en apertura, barrida, colgada y gancho, americana, colgada y gancho, boleo, colgada y sacada, colgada en apertura con cruce, volcada y gancho, volcada líneal y circular).
  10. ^ a b Rosas, Gustavo and Natoli, Gisela (2010). Tango "Milonguero Nuevo", Vol. 1., DVD, Tango tradicional con elementos nuevos. Gus Prodduciones.  (step of Gisela, the stop and pasada, soltada in turn to the right, stop and colgada positions, soltada and back sacada, blockade soltada, linear boleo, linear boleo with enganche, volcadas and colgadas, ela paso básico, salida simple, salida cruzada (salida of 1940's), ocho atrás, ocho adelante),
  11. ^ a b c Paez, Luiza and Esbrez, Norberto ("Pulpo"). Pulpo's tango en La Patriótica.  (trap sacadas, wrap sacadas, drags, basic ganchos, 3 ganchos, 4 ganchos, gancho boleo, carried gancho, enganches)
  12. ^ Gavito, Carlos and Duran, Marcela (2000). Un tal Gavito (Someone called Gavito), Classes de tango, DVD and tape, Vol. 1. MusicMedia Productions.  (salida in two steps, salida or basic step, cadence with woman's sweep, walking on the edge of the roof, the corkscrew, walk with sacada and boleo (role of the knee), walking on both sides of the woman, cadence with turn, "fan" with barrida sacada and boleo, enrosque with walk).
  13. ^ a b Gavito, Carlos and Duran, Marcela (2000). Un tal Gavito (Someone called Gavito), Classes de tango, DVD and tape, Vol. 2. MusicMedia Productions.  (tent salida, barrida with backwards sandwich, barrida with forward turn, boleo with traspie, back sacada, forward cross, natural cross, enrosque, sacada-sacada, escape with boleos).
  14. ^ a b Gavito, Carlos and Duran, Marcela (2000). Un tal Gavito (Someone called Gavito), Classes de tango, DVD and tape, Vol. 3. MusicMedia Productions.  (waiting, beauty and simplicity, veiled glances, subtle expressions, apíle o carpa, syncopated salida, sandwiches in turn, barrida from position 2, double cross, wheel with sandwich, induced barrida).
  15. ^ a b c Balmaceda, Julio and Rosa, Corina (2005). Tango giros, Vol. 2. DVD. Julio Balmaceda y Corina de la Rosa Prodduciones.  (foundation of the circular movement, structure of the twist, double time in turn, showing medio tempo to the woman, twists with entradas (difference between sacada and entrada), twist with entrada to the right, twist with entrada to the left, twist with entrada both ways, exercises for lapiz, turn to the left with lapiz, exercises with the lapiz: woman, turn with entradas and lapiz to the right, turn with enrosques (twists), twist with entradas and sacadas, twist with entradas and sacada behind the man, La Bordona)
  16. ^ Tejastango.com
  17. ^ Saba, Benzecry (2010). New glossary of tango dance, key tango Argentino dance terms, prefaces by Juan Carlos Copes and Carlos Gavito, epilogue Miguel Angel Zotto. Abrazos. ISBN 978-987-24481-8-9. 
  18. ^ Saba, Gustawo Benzecry (2007). Embracing tango, techniques and metaphors between tango and life. Abrazos. ISBN 978-3-939871-03-3. 
  19. ^ Denniston, C. (2007). The meaning of tango; the story of the Argentinian dance. Portico. ISBN 978-1-906032-16-6. 
  20. ^ Turner, David (2004). A passion for tango. Dingley Press. ISBN 0-9547083-1-8. 
  21. ^ Paz, Alberto and Hart, Valorie. Gotta tango. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5630-4. 
  22. ^ Gift, Virginia (2008). Tango: A history of obsession. ISBN 1-4392-1462-X.  includes chapter "New Tango" by Gustavo Naveira
  23. ^ Dancevision.com