Filip began his career at his hometown club Red Star Belgrade, where he spent 8 years of his life. He also spent time on loan at Rad Belgrade. For Red Star he only appeared in eight league games before moving to France.
After being loaned to Ligue 2 side FC Nantes and helping them achieve promotion to France's top division after the 2007-08 season, Nantes agreed to sign him permanently to a four-year contract. In the club's return to Ligue 1, Đorđević featured in 19 league games and scored a total of two goals over the 2008-09 season, and Nantes was demoted to Ligue 2 again. In the subsequent 2009-10 season, he produced identical statistics compared to the previous season; Nantes remained in Ligue 2 without either promotion or demotion at the summer of 2010. Finally, Đorđević developed great consistency in the 2010-11 season and appeared in 36 league games, scoring a total of 12 goals and assisting on five occasions. In the 2011-12 season, with Nantes still in Ligue 2, Đorđević played 28 league games and scored six goals as well as providing five assists.
From the 2012-13 season, Đorđević exploded in form and directly contributed to Nantes' promotion at the end of the season. Over 34 league games, he scored 20 goals and was the top scorer of Ligue 2 at the end of the season. On August 16, 2013, Olympique Lyonnais allegedly proposed between €3-5 million for Đorđević, although Đorđević and Nantes declined the transfer. In the club's return to Ligue 1, Đorđević scored seven goals in the first 12 games, rivalling Radamel Falcao and Zlatan Ibrahimović for a top place in the Ligue's list of high scorers of the season.