Erceg was born in Slavonski Brod, but lived his childhood in Bjelovar. He graduated in politology at the Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Zagreb. As a student, he co-edited Hrvatska ljevica and was a member of the Central Committee of the Socialist Labour Party (and later also the Vice-President of the party). He was a member of the editorial board of the philosophical journal 11. teza ("Thesis Eleven") and is on the executive committee of August Cesarec Foundation. Filip Erceg is also a member of the editorial board of a left-wing magazine Novi Plamen. Erceg is credited with inventing the term "altermodernism" as a contemporary reinvention or recalibration of modernism. He has also been publicly outspoken on what he perceives as the retrograde historical phenomena associated with far Right clericalism.
His first book is Krvav povoj rane (2006) ISBN 953-95475-0-4. He has also written a book of political essays Od socijalizma do pesimizma, published in 2008 by the Demokratska misao publishing house.