Islam in the Philippines

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This article is about the religion of Islam in the Philippines. For the Muslim ethnic group, see Moro (ethnic group).
Mosque in Marawi City in the Philippines.

Islam is the oldest recorded monotheistic religion in the Philippines. Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Muslim traders from the Persian Gulf, Southern India, and their followers from several sultanate governments in the Malay Archipelago. According to the U.S. Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for 2010, the Muslim population of the Philippines is between 5% to 11% of the total population.[1] The vast majority of Muslims are Sunni belonging to Shafi school of jurisprudence, with small Shia and Ahmadiyya minorities.[2] While the majority of the population are Roman Catholic, some ethnic groups are Protestant, non-religious, Hindu, Buddhist and Animist.[3]

History[edit]

Mosque in Isabela City.

In 1380 Karim ul' Makhdum the first Arabian trader reached the Sulu Archipelago and Jolo in the Philippines and through trade throughout the island established Islam in the country. In 1390 the Minangkabau's Prince Rajah Baguinda and his followers preached Islam on the islands.[4] The Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque was the first mosque established in the Philippines on Simunul in Mindanao in the 14th century. Subsequent settlements by Arab missionaries traveling to Malaysia and Indonesia helped strengthen Islam in the Philippines and each settlement was governed by a Datu, Rajah and a Sultan. Islamic provinces founded in the Philippines included the Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Lanao and other parts of the southern Philippines.

When the Spanish fleet led by Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Kingdom of Maynila, they were met by Rajah Sulaiman III.

By the next century conquests had reached the Sulu islands in the southern tip of the Philippines where the population was animistic and they took up the task of converting the animistic population to Islam with renewed zeal. By the 15th century, half of Luzon (Northern Philippines) and the islands of Mindanao in the south had become subject to the various Muslim sultanates of Borneo and much of the population in the South were converted to Islam. However, the Visayas was largely dominated by Hindu-Buddhist societies led by rajahs and datus who strongly resisted Islam. One reason could be due to the economic and political disasters prehispanic Muslim pirates from the Mindanao region bring during raids. These frequent attacks gave way to naming present-day Cebu as then-Sugbo or scorched earth which was a defensive technique implemented by the Visayans so the pirates have nothing much to loot.[5][6]

During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei having seen the feature of Manila as a natural port, the Brunei Sultan tried to have a part of Tondo's the incoming China trade by attacking its environs and establishing its own Sultanate of Kota Seludong, now Manila ruling under and giving yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as its satellite state.[7] A new dynasty under the a local Lumad leader who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Rajah Sulayman I. He also started to established a trading challenge the already rich House of Rajah Lakandula in Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders and from Jolo, Mindanao, Malaysia and Indonesia.[8]

Spanish encounter[edit]

Rajah Sulayman was the Muslim Rajah of Maynila, a kingdom at the mouth of the Pasig River where it meets Manila Bay, at the time the Spanish forces first came to Luzon.[9][10][11]

Sulayman resisted the Spanish forces, and thus, along with Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula, was one of three Rajahs who played significant roles in what was the Spanish conquest of their kingdoms of the Pasig River delta in the early 1570s.[12]

Moro (derived from the Spanish word meaning Moors) is the appellation inherited from the Spaniards, for Filipino Muslims and tribal groups of Mindanao. The Moros seek to establish an independent Islamic province in Mindanao to be named Bangsamoro. The term Bangsamoro is a combination of an Old Malay word meaning nation or state with the Spanish word Moro. A significant Moro Rebellion occurred during the Philippine–American War. Conflicts and rebellion have continued in the Philippines from the pre-colonial period up to the present. Other related issue with the Moro secession is the territorial dispute of eastern Sabah in Malaysia which claimed by the Sultanate of Sulu as their territory.

Islam Population in Regional Area as of 2014[edit]

Region Total Muslim Population Percent to Regional Population
National Capital Region 1 166.345 10.90
Cordillera Administrative Region 34.258 2.10
Region 1 62.871 1.30
Region 2 58.293 1.90
Region 3 359.929 3.60
Region 4-A 589.607 4.50
Region 4-B 232.416 9.50
Region 5 113.902 2.10
Region 6 154.231 2.10
Region 7 268.921 4.30
Region 8 112.969 2.70
Region 9 1162.134 38.20
Region 10 692.124 15.60
Region 11 470.319 10.80
Region 12 2.199.164 57.30
Region 13 124.546 5.40
ARMM 3.095.106 95.20
Total Muslims 10.105.965 11.20

Muslim Mindanao[edit]

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is the region of the Philippines that is composed of all the Philippines' predominantly Muslim provinces, namely: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and the Islamic City of Marawi. It is the only region that has its own government. The regional capital is at Cotabato City, although this city is outside of its jurisdiction.

Islamic art from the Philippines[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Philippines". 2012 Report on International Religious Freedom. U.S. Department of State. May 20, 2013. Section I. Religious Demography. 
  2. ^ R Michael Feener, Terenjit Sevea. Islamic Connections: Muslim Societies in South and Southeast Asia. p. 144. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Religious Demographic Profile — Philippines". The PEW forum on Religion & Public Life. Archived from the original on 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  4. ^ "Kerinduan orang-orang moro". TEMPO- Majalah Berita Mingguan. Retrieved June 23, 1990. 
  5. ^ "A Rapid Journal Article Volume 10, No. 2". Celestino C. Macachor. Retrieved August 11, 2012. 
  6. ^ "The Aginid". Maria Eleanor Elape Valeros. Retrieved August 11, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 04-03-10.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990). History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Garotech Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 971-8711-06-6. 
  9. ^ Joaqiun, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila: A History for the Young. City of Manila: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-971-569-313-4. 
  10. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4. 
  11. ^ Dery, Luis Camara (2001). A History of the Inarticulate. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN 971-10-1069-0. 
  12. ^ 222. "Rajah Soliman". National Heroes. Globalpinoy.com. Retrieved February 5, 2008. 

External links[edit]