Filipino martial arts
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Filipino Martial Arts refers to ancient and newer fighting methods devised in the Philippines, the most popular of which are known as Arnis/Eskrima/Kali. The intrinsic need for self-preservation was the genesis of these systems. Throughout the ages, invaders and evolving local conflict imposed new dynamics for combat in the islands now making up the Philippines. The Filipino people developed battle skills as a direct result of an appreciation of their ever-changing circumstances. They learned often out of necessity how to prioritize, allocate and use common resources in combative situations. Filipinos have been heavily influenced by a phenomenon of cultural and linguistic mixture. Some of the specific mechanisms responsible for cultural and martial change extended from phenomena such as war, political and social systems, technology, trade and of course, simple practicality.
Filipino martial arts have seen an increase in prominence due to several Hollywood movies and the teachings of modern masters such as Venancio "Anciong" Bacon, Dan Inosanto, Cacoy Canete, Mike Inay, Remy Presas and Ernesto Presas.
Today there are said to be almost as many Filipino fighting styles as there are islands in the Philippines. In 1972, the Philippine government included Filipino martial arts into the national sports arena. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports also incorporated them into the physical education curriculum for high school and college students. Knowledge of the Filipino fighting skills is mandatory in the Philippine military and police.
Filipino Martial Arts are considered the most advanced practical modern blade system in the world and are now a core component of the U.S. Army's Modern Army Combatives program and used by the Russian Spetsnaz (special forces).
The three umbrella terms for the most commonly seen forms are Eskrima, Arnis and Kali.
The word Eskrima derives from the Spanish term esgrima which means skirmish or fencing.
Arnis comes from arnes, old Spanish for harness or armor (harness is also an archaic English term for armor with the same roots), which is what the costumes worn during Moro-moro (MorosSIS y Cristianos) stage plays were called when practitioners disguised their art as merely stage fight choreography for public entertainment under the Spaniards' noses.
The origins of the word kali are uncertain. One theory is that it may come from the Indonesian word tjakalele., another is that it's a contraction of Kamot Lihok (Cebuano for hand-body movement) The multitude of languages spoken in the 7,107 islands have not only diverged into over 170 dialects, but they have been constantly mixing with one another and as a result, Filipino martial arts comprise a vocabulary of heterogeneous terms.
An Eskrima myth about Kali, or The Blind Princess of the Mountain, is that even though blind, she was the best fighter in the land. Many young men traveled to the top of the mountain to fight her, thereby winning her hand. She refused to fight these men with lethal weapons, instead fighting them in what Bruce Lee called "Short range." She never lost.
Eskrima and Arnis are used interchangeably for weapon-based martial arts, particularly those that focus on bladed weapons or stick-fighting. Panantukan, pangamut and pamuok all refer to empty-handed striking methods, while pantadyakan and pananjakman are kick-based. Dumog or wrestling is considered one of the oldest unarmed Filipino fighting styles.
Aside from the more commonly seen blade and stick-oriented arts Eskrima/Arnis/Kali, there are also distinctly separate arts such as Kuntao, Silat (practiced in the South, next to Indonesia), Sikaran (practiced in Rizal province, which is primarily kick-based) and Yaw-Yan, a recent style very similar to Muay Thai.
Filipino martial artists are noted for their ability to fight with weapons or empty hands interchangeably and their ability turn ordinary household items into lethal weapons. Weapons-training takes precedence because they give an edge in real fights, gears students to psychologically face armed opponents, and any object that can be picked up can be used as a weapon using FMA techniques. Empty hands training is then taught as the stick is merely an extension of the hand.
Another thing to note is that the Philippines is a blade culture. The Southern Philippines with the Moros were never really conquered by the Spaniards and the Americans; nor the Northern mountains of Luzon with their feared headhunter tribes so they kept their weapons and their fighting skills. For the more "civilized" provinces and the towns where citizens had been "disarmed", bolos (a cutting tool similar to the machete) and other knife variants are still commonly used for general work (farming in the provinces, chopping wood, coconuts, controlling talahib (sword grass), which could grow higher than roofs if not cut, etc.) and of course, the occasional bloody fight. Production of these weapons still survives and there are a few who still make some. In the province of Aklan, Talibongs are still being made in the remote areas. Until the 80s, balisong knives were still commonly used in the streets of Manila as general purpose pocket knives much like Swiss army knives or box cutters until new laws on allowable kinds of knives made it illegal to carry them in public without a permit or proof that it was a vital to one's livelihood (e.g. Martial arts instructor, vendor). They're still openly sold in their birthplace of Batangas, in the streets of Quiapo, souvenir shops and martial arts stores, wielded by practitioners and of course, street gangs. Thus, even when fighting systems were outlawed by the Spaniards, Filipinos still maintained their centuries-old relationships with blades and blade fighting techniques that survive from ancient times and are still much alive as they have been adapted and evolved to stay relevant and practical in colonial and modern times.
What separates Filipino Martial Arts from other weapon-based martial arts like Japanese Kendo & Kenjutsu, European Fencing and traditional Chinese Martial arts that teach the usage of classical Chinese weapons is that FMA teaches weapon use that is practical today: how to use and deal with weapons that one can actually encounter in the streets and how to turn ordinary items into improvised weapons. No one walks around with sabers, katanas or jians anymore, but knives, machetes and clubs are still among commonly encountered weapons on the street and in the field, thus making FMA very practical and geared towards military and street fighting.
Traditional weaponry varies in design, size, weight, materials and usage but because of the similarity of techniques and that the human being can move in only so many ways, any object that can be picked up can be turned into a weapon by a Filipino martial artist as a force multiplier.
- Mano Mano: (lit. hands to hand) Incorporates punches, kicks, elbows, knees, headbutts, finger-strikes, locks, blocks, grappling and disarming techniques
- Sikaran: Kicking techniques, also a kick-based separate art practiced in Rizal province
- Dumog and Buno: styles of grappling/wrestling
- Baston / Olisi: Short sticks, traditionally crafted from rattan or kamagong
- Bangkaw / Tongat: Staff, rod or pole
- Dulo-Dulo: Palmstick
- Tameng: Shield
- Improvised weapons: pens, keychains, keys (push knife grip), umbrellas, rolled-up newspapers/magazines, walking sticks, etc.
The walking stick in the middle of photo just left of the three arrows and right of the Luzon shield, doubles as an improvised weapon coming apart into two pieces, both with fixed blades on a long and short stick.
Pictured above is a closer look at the carving of a Negrito/Filipino man on top of the stick.
Also, a braid/weave encompasses the top portion of the walking stick to ensure a good grip.While partially unsheathed, we see the two blades hidden inside.Very rare from late 19th to early 20th century, beautiful weapon and great example of ingenuity and master craftsmanship of the people.
- Daga/Cuchillo: Spanish for dagger or knife. Traditional varieties include the gunong, punyal and barung or barong
- Balisong: Foldable butterfly knife
- Karambit: Small blade shaped like a tiger claw
- Espada: Spanish for sword. Includes kampilan, ginunting, pinuti and talibong
- Kalis: Poison-bladed dagger, also known as kris
- Golok: Machete or broadsword
- Sibat: Spear
- Sundang: Single-edged thick short sword
- Lagaraw: Single-edged flexible long sword with a bent tip. And longer balls.
- Latigo: Whip
- Buntot Pagi: Stingray tail
- Lubid: Rope
- Cadena / Tanikala: Chain
- Tabak-Toyok: Two sticks attached together by rope or chain, similar to nunchaku, but with shorter sticks and a longer chain
- Improvised: Belt, bandana, handkerchief, shirt, towel
- Pana: Bow and arrow
- Sibat: Spear
- Sumpit: Blowpipe
- Bagakay: Darts
- Tirador/Pintik/Saltik: Slingshot
- Kana (as in Indian Pana Kakana-kana/kakanain kita): Darts propelled by slingshots used by street gangs
- Lantaka: kerosene-propelled bamboo cannon
- Luthang: gas-powered mini bamboo cannon
Signs and symbols 
The triangle is one of the strongest geometrical structures and stands for strength. Many training halls incorporate the triangle into their logo. It represents numerous underlying philosophical, theoretical and metaphysical principles in the Filipino martial arts. Applications of the triangle are found in defensive and offensive tactical strategies, including footwork, stances, blocking and disarms.
During training, non-verbal gesture communication and recognition is used in teaching and identification. This sign language, utilizing hand, body, and weapons signals, is used to convey ideas, desires, information, or commands.
Basic tactical ranges 
The three combat ranges in the Filipino martial arts are corto (close-range), medio (medium-range) and largo (long-range).
- Hakbang: general term for footwork
- Corto Mano: close range, short movements, minimal extension of arms, legs and weapons, cutting distance
- Serrada: "split step", short range footwork, quick, split action, front and back, low stance. Serrada footwork is the base of a triangular framework methodology
- Largo Mano: long range, extended movements, full extension of arms, legs and weapons, creating distance
- Fraile: short range footwork, hopping action, balanced position, short hop, pushing off from the lead foot
- Ritriada: short range footwork, shuffling action, pushing backward by pushing off the lead foot, giving six to eight inches of range per action.
- Banda y banda: side to side action
Basic tactical methods 
Filipino martial arts contain a wide range of tactical concepts, both armed and unarmed. Each art includes several of the methods listed below. Some of these concepts have been taken in isolation to serve as the foundation for entire fighting systems in themselves.
- Solo baston - single stick
- Doble Baston - double stick
- Bati-Bati - butt of stick methods
- Dulo-Dulo/Dulo y Dulo - palm stick methods
- Bantay-Kamay, Tapi-Tapi- "guardian hand" or "alive hand", auxiliary weapon used in conjunction with the primary weapon for checking, blocking, monitoring, trapping, locking, disarming, striking, cutting, etc. Examples include the empty hand when using a single stick or the dagger when fighting with sword and dagger
- Mano Mano, pangamut, pamuok - empty hands
- Baraw - knife and dagger
- Mano y Daga - hand and dagger
- Baston y Daga - stick and dagger
- Daga y Daga - pair of daggers
- Espada y Daga - sword and dagger
- Latigo y Daga - whip and dagger
- Tapon-Tapon - hand thrown knives and weapons tactics
- Numerado - striking and blocking by the numbers, refers to the most basic strikes and angles
- Cinco Teros - five strikes, refers to the five most basic strikes and counters
- Doblete - two-weapon blocking and countering method of doubles
- Sinawali - "weaving"; rhythmic, flowing, striking patterns and tactics, utilizing two impact or edged weapons.
- Redonda - circular double-stick vertical downward pattern of six strikes
- Ocho ocho - repeating pattern, strikes and tactics, such as the figure-eight. This also refers to a dance move.
- Palis Palis - meeting force with force
- Abaniko - fanning techniques
- Witik - whipping, snapping back or picking movements
- Lobtik - follow-through strikes; horizontal, vertical, diagonal methods
- Crossada - cross blocking methods, hands and weapons
- Gunting - "scissors"; armed and unarmed scissoring techniques aimed at disabling an opponent's arm or hand
- Lock and block - dynamic countering, attacks based on the striking and blocking methods of the system
- Free flow - live interaction and play, flowing practice, rapid, rhythmic, weapons tactics
- Kadena De Mano - chain of hands, close quarters, continuous, empty-handed combat
- Hubud Lubud - to tie and untie, continuous trapping methods
- Trankada - joint locking and breaking techniques
- Kino mutai - a sub-section of pangamut that specializes in biting and eye-gouges
- Panganaw - disarming techniques
- Panantukan / Panuntukan, kulata, sumbagay - dirty street boxing method with elbows, headbutts and low kicks
- Pananjakman, Sipa, patid or sikad - low kicks (heel impact point)
- Suntukan - empty-hand striking (usually with closed fist)
- Dumog - wrestling or grappling methods with an emphasis on disabling or controlling the opponent by manipulation of the head and neck. This also refers directly to a wresting competition on muddy ground.
Other traditional or "common sense" techniques:
- Balitok - acrobatic flip or back-flip to evade attacks. This can also be used in combination of kicking to hit opponents.
- Bikil, sapiti or sapid - hitting an opponent's center of gravity to cause imbalance
- Bunal, bangag or puspos - downward striking with a blunt weapon
- Bungot sa kanding - a goatee sported by men to supposedly intimidate or distract an opponent.
- Busdak - throwing an opponent down to the ground
- Dunggab, duslak or luba - stealthy stabbing stroke
- Dusmo - to push an opponent's face to the ground
- Hapak or sumbag - packed punch aimed to take down an opponent
- Hata - fake movement intended to open up opponent's defensive stance
- Kawras or kamras - scratching attack to sensitive parts such as the eyes
- Ku-ot or kumot - stealthy grabbing and grappling of body parts such as hair
- Kulata - combo punches to disable or overwhelm an opponnent
- Laparo or tamparos - slapping using the lower part of the palm
- Lihay - evading attacks
- Lubag - twisting of joints to unnatural position to disable a physically stronger opponent. This includes a lethal twisting and snapping of the neck.
- Luglog - forward striking (or stabbing) and immediate withdrawal with a blunt weapon. It could also refer to poking sensitive body parts such as the eyes
- Pa-ak - biting
- Pakug - headbutting
- Sablig - throwing natural eye irritants such as sand to the unwary opponent
- Sagang - blocking of striking attacks
- Tigbas - slashing and cutting stroke
- Tu-ok - strangling or locking the neck
Esoteric practices 
- Agimat: An eskrimador's amulet worn to protect against misfortune and increase the chance of victory. Also known as habak or anting-anting. It was superstitiously believed that Manny Pacquiao possessed one.
- Albularyo: A shaman who carries out the initiation ceremony and treats injuries
- Hilot: A traditional system of herbalism, massage and first-aid that was traditionally taught alongside martial arts
- Kulam or Barang : Witchcraft or spell-rituals carried out by witch-doctors. Also known as barang in Visayas.
- Oracion: Special prayers, incantations or mantra that may be recited before battle as a protective armor. This is also used for driving out or summoning spiritual entities. This is usually written in Latin language.
See also 
- "Modern Army Combatives - History".
- Jessica Zafra. "The Greatest Filipino Export is Kicking Ass". Philippine Star.
- Ross Harper Alonso. "In the Stick of Things". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- "The Bladed Hand: The Global Impact of Filipino Martial Arts trailer".
- Edgar Sulite. The Secrets of Arnis.
- Remy Presas, 1974, "Modern Arnis", pp. 10-12 ISBN 971-08-6041-0
- Finding Aklan Swords - Filipino Culture
- Finding a Philippine Sword in Aklan - Filipino Culture
- Filipino martial arts at the Open Directory Project
- Traditional Filipino Weapons
- The FMA-Eskrima-Kali FAQ
- Overview and Differences in Filipino Martial Arts