Filmjölk

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Filmjölk in a glass.

Filmjölk (also known as fil) is a Nordic dairy product made from soured milk. It is similar to yogurt, but is produced using different bacteria and cultured at a lower temperature than yoghurt, which gives it a different taste and texture. It is the modern version of the traditional product surmjölk.[1]

It is a mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[2][3] The bacteria metabolize lactose, the sugar naturally found in milk, into lactic acid which means people who are lactose intolerant can tolerate it better than other dairy products.[citation needed] The acid gives filmjölk a sour taste and causes proteins in the milk, mainly casein, to coagulate, thus thickening the final product. The bacteria also produce a limited amount of diacetyl, which gives filmjölk its characteristic taste.[4] Filmjölk is similar to cultured buttermilk, kefir, or yogurt in consistency, has a different taste and texture. Its taste is mild and slightly acidic.[1] In Sweden, it is normally sold in 1-liter packages with live bacteria. It has a shelf-life of around 10–14 days at refrigeration temperature.[1]

Overview[edit]

In the Nordic countries, filmjölk is commonly eaten during breakfast or as a snack between meals in the same manner as yogurt, usually from a bowl with a spoon.[1] It can be drunk but is not normally done so since the liquid is fairly thick. Filmjölk is often eaten with breakfast cereal, muesli or crushed crisp bread on top. Since plain filmjölk tastes somewhat sour, many people add sugar, jam, apple sauce, cinnamon, ginger, fruits, and/or berries. In Norwegian it is called surmelk (Nynorsk: surmjølk) (sourmilk) but the official name is kulturmelk (Nynorsk: kulturmjølk). The drink is also popular in Latvian kitchens, where it is called rūgušpiens, rūgtpiens (fermented milk or sourmilk) and can be bought ready from stores but is more commonly made at home.

Manufactured filmjölk is made from pasteurised, homogenised, and standardised cow's milk. Although homemade filmjölk has been around for a long time (written records from the 18th century speak of filmjölk-like products, but it has probably been around since the Viking Age or longer),[5] it was first introduced to the Swedish market as a consumer product in 1931 by the Swedish dairy cooperative Arla.[4][6] The first filmjölk was unflavoured and contained 3% milkfat. Since the 1960s, different varieties of unflavoured filmjölk have been marketed in Swedish grocery stores. Långfil, a more elastic variant of filmjölk was introduced in 1965; lättfil, filmjölk with 0.5% milkfat was introduced in 1967; and mellanfil, filmjölk with 1.5% milkfat was introduced in 1990.[6][7] In 1997, Arla introduced its first flavoured filmjölk: strawberry flavoured filmjölk.[8] The flavoured filmjölk was so popular that different flavours soon followed. By 2001, almost one third of the filmjölk sold in Sweden was flavoured filmjölk.[9] Since 2007, variations of filmjölk include filmjölk with various fat content, filmjölk flavoured with fruit, vanilla, or honey, as well as filmjölk with probiotic bacteria that is claimed to be extra healthful, such as Onaka fil which contains Bifidobacterium lactis (a strain of bacteria popular in Japan)[10] and Verum Hälsofil which contains Lactococcus lactis L1A in quantities of at least 10 billion live bacteria per deciliter.[11]

In English[edit]

There is no single accepted English term for fil or filmjölk. In the United States it is referred to as 'Long Milk' Fil and/or filmjölk has been translated to English as sour milk,[12] soured milk,[12][13] acidulated milk,[14] fermented milk,[15] and curdled milk,[16] all of which are nearly synonymous and describe filmjölk but do not differentiate filmjölk from other types of soured/fermented milk. Filmjölk has also been described as viscous fermented milk[17] and viscous mesophilic fermented milk,[17] as well as incorrectly translated to junket.[18] Furthermore, articles written in English can be found that use the Swedish term filmjölk,[19][20] as well as the incorrect or Anglicised spellings filmjolk,[21] fil mjölk,[22][23] and fil mjolk.[24] In baking, when filmjölk is called for, cultured buttermilk can be substituted.

In Finland Swedish[edit]

In Finland Swedish, the dialects of Swedish spoken by Swedish-speaking Finns, fil in Finland is the equivalent of filbunke in Sweden.[25] Not all variants of filmjölk are found in Finland, normally only filbunke and långfil. Swedish-speaking Finns usually use the word surmjölk, which is the older name for filmjölk (also in Sweden) or piimä (in Finnish),[25] which is a fermented milk product that is thinner than filmjölk and resembles cultured buttermilk.

Types of filmjölk in Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, there are five Swedish dairy cooperatives that produce filmjölk: Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Norrmejerier, and Skånemejerier. In addition, Wapnö AB, a Swedish dairy company, and Valio, a Finnish dairy company, also sell a limited variety of filmjölk in Sweden. Prior to the manufacture of filmjölk, many families made filmjölk at home.

Fil culture is a variety of bacterium from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, e.g., Arla's fil culture contains Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris.[2][3][9]

Classical filmjölk variants[edit]

Name Literal translation Milkfat content Fermentation culture Produced by Year introduced Description
Filmjölk 2.5%-3%[26][6][27][28] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1931 (Arla) "Regular" filmjölk. Filmjölk made from 3% milkfat. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Also comes in a variant made from organic milk, a low-lactose variant that has been treated with lactase enzyme, a variant with added fiber (f-fil, fil med fiber), and a variant with higher milkfat content (Arla Vår finaste filmjölk, 3.8–4.5% milkfat). Has been in the Swedish language since 1741.[29]
Mellanfil middle (lowfat) filmjölk 1.3%,[28] 1.5%[30] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier 1990 (Arla) Filmjölk made from 1.5% milkfat. Comes unflavoured only.
Lättfil light (nonfat) filmjölk 0.4%, 0.5%[28][31] fil culture Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Norrmejerier, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1967 (Arla), 1968[32] Filmjölk made from 0.5% milkfat. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Also comes in a low-lactose variant that has been treated with lactase enzyme.
Långfil

fi: pitkäviili

long fil 3%[7] fil culture + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis var. longi[7] Arla Foods, Gefleortens Mejeri, Norrmejerier 1965 (Arla)[7] Filmjölk with a characteristic long and almost elastic texture due to Lactococcus lactis var. Longi, a strain of bacteria that converts the carbohydrates in milk into long chains of polysaccharides. Comes unflavoured only. More common in northern Sweden. Sometimes eaten with ground ginger. Has been in the Swedish language since 1896.[33]
Bollnäsfil[34][35] Bollnäs fil 3% fil culture from Bollnäs Milko Filmjölk that originated in Bollnäs. Comes unflavoured or vanilla flavoured.
Fjällfil[36][37] fell fil 0.8%, 3.8–4.5% special fil culture Milko Comes unflavoured only.

Filbunke
fi-se: Fil[38]
fi: Viili

bowl of fil 1%, 1.9%, 2.2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%,[39] 4%[40] special fil culture Milko, Valio Milk that has fermented, unstirred, in small bowls.[41] Has a pudding-like consistency. Similar to unstirred långfil. Traditionally made in small bowls from (unpasteurized and unhomogenized) raw milk, which normally contains some cream. The cream forms a yellowish layer of sour cream on top. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Has been in the Swedish language since 1652.[41]
Laktosfri Fil[42] lactose-free fil 3.5% fil culture Valio Filmjölk made from 3.5% milkfat and treated with lactase enzyme. Comes unflavoured only.

Probiotic filmjölk variants[edit]

Name Literal translation Milkfat content Fermentation culture Produced by Year introduced Description
A-fil 0.5%, 2.7%, 3%[43] fil culture + Lactobacillus acidophilus[43] Arla Foods, Falköpings Mejeri, Gefleortens Mejeri, Milko, Skånemejerier, Wapnö AB 1984 (Arla)[8] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus acidophilus, a commonly used probiotic bacteria.[44][45] Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Cultura aktiv fil[46] Cultura active fil 0.1% fil culture + Lactobacillus casei F19 Arla Foods 2004[47] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus casei F19, a patented[48] probiotic[49] bacteria. Comes unflavoured only.
Kefir[9] 3% Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Candida kefyr Arla Foods 1977 Filmjölk variant based on kefir, a probiotic food;[50] only contains a small subset of microorganisms found in kefir grains. Originated in Caucasus. Comes unflavoured.
Onaka[10] stomach (Japanese) 1.5% fil culture + Bifidobacterium lactis Arla Foods 1990 Filmjölk with Bifidobacterium lactis, a probiotic bacteria[45] popular in Japan[citation needed]. Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Philura[51][52] 1.5%, 2.6% Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei Milko 2003[53] Tastes somewhere between regular filmjölk and yogurt. Contains probiotic bacteria[44][45] that is normally found in the digestive system. Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
Verum hälsofil[11] Verum health fil 0.5%, 4% Lactococcus lactis L1A Norrmejerier 1990[54] Filmjölk that contains at least 10 x 109 Lactococcus lactis L1A bacteria per deciliter. Comes unflavoured and flavoured. Lactococcus lactis L1A is a patented strain of probiotic bacteria that originated from a culture of långfil from a farm in Västerbotten.[54] In 1998 Verum hälsofil was approved as a natural medical product (naturläkemedel) by the Swedish national regulatory agency Medical Products Agency (Läkemedelsverket).[55] It has been shown to have a positive effect on the immune and digestive system.
Öresundsfil[56][57][58] Öresund fil 0.9%, 1% fil culture + Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium Skånemejerier 2000[59] Filmjölk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, probiotic bacteria.[44][45] Comes unflavoured and flavoured.
ProViva Naturell Filmjölk[60] ProViva unflavoured filmjölk 1% fil cuture + Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Skånemejerier 1994[61] Filmjölk that contains at least 50 x 106 Lp 299v per milliliter. Comes unflavoured. Lp 299v, a patented probiotic bacteria,[62] has been shown to decrease the symptoms of colon irritation and stressed digestive system in people who consumed ProViva.[63][64]

Homemade filmjölk[edit]

To make filmjölk, a small amount of bacteria from an active batch of filmjölk is normally transferred to pasteurised milk and then left one to two days to ferment at room temperature or in a cool cellar. The fil culture is needed when using pasteurised milk because the bacteria occurring naturally in milk are killed during the pasteurization process.

A variant of filmjölk called tätmjölk, filtäte, täte or långmjölk is made by rubbing the inside of a container with leaves of certain plants: sundew (Drosera, Swedish: sileshår)[65] or butterwort (Pinguicula, Swedish: tätört).[66][67][68] Lukewarm milk is added to the container and left to ferment for one to two days. More tätmjölk can then be made by adding completed tätmjölk to milk. In Flora Lapponica (1737), Carl von Linné described a recipe for tätmjölk and wrote that any species of butterwort could be used to make tätmjölk.[66]

Sundew and butterwort are carnivorous plants that have enzymes that degrade proteins,[69] which make the milk thick. How butterwort influences the production of tätmjölk is not completely understood – lactic acid bacteria have not been isolated during analyses of butterwort.[clarification needed][66]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Fondén, Leporanta & Svensson 2007, p. 167
  2. ^ a b "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  3. ^ a b "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  4. ^ a b "Kulturmjölk - grundfakta" (in Swedish). Mjölkfrämjandet. 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  5. ^ Även Linné åt filmjölk, www.naringslivshistoria.se
  6. ^ a b c "Filmjölk: Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Filmjölk: Långfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  8. ^ a b "Arla genom åren" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  9. ^ a b c "Mjölkkultur och kulturmjölk" (PDF) (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  10. ^ a b "Filmjölk: Onaka" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  11. ^ a b "Verum Hälsofil 0,5 % och 4,0 %" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  12. ^ a b "Translation of: fil". Language Council of Sweden: Institute for Language and Folklore. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  13. ^ "A wide choice: Products for its own specific purpose" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  14. ^ "What is Proviva: The probiotic bacteria LP 299v" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  15. ^ "Milk-based drinks provide strong competition to fizzy drinks". Arla Foods. 2003-02-28. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  16. ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 2091/2005 of 15 December 2005 publishing, for 2006, the agricultural product nomenclature for export refunds introduced by Regulation (EEC) No 3846/87". Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2005-12-15. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  17. ^ a b "The World of Fermented Milks, Part 4: Viili and Långfil – exotic fermented products from Scandinavia" (PDF). Valio Foods & Functionals (Valio) 2003 (2): 3–5. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  18. ^ "New Gaio products in Sweden". Arla Foods. 2001-08-20. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  19. ^ "Fermented Milk Products". Canadian Dairy Commission. 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  20. ^ Carlsson, P.; D. Bratthall (July 1985). "Secretory and serum antibodies against Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in relation to ingestion of fermented milk products". Acta Odontol Scand 43 (3): 147–53. doi:10.3109/00016358509064145. PMID 3933276. 
  21. ^ Doeff, Gail Rosenbaum (1993-02-01). "All about Arla - Arla Ekonomisk Forening gears up for European Common Market". Dairy Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  22. ^ "Self-Renewing DAIRY Cultures: FRESH FIL MJÖLK (from Sweden)". gemcultures.com. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  23. ^ "Fil Mjölk Dairy/Soy Starter Culture". Anahata Balance. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  24. ^ "Fermented Treasures: Cultured Food and Beverage Starter Cultures". fermentedtreasures.com. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  25. ^ a b "Får man fil i Sverige?" (in Finland Swedish). Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. April 1997. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "Vår härliga fil motsvaras i Sverige av filbunke som filvännerna får laga hemma eftersom den inte saluförs av de svenska mejerierna. Surmjölk kan svensken missförstå som mjölk som förfarits eller förskämts (inte farit illa), så säg hellre filmjölk i Sverige även om det inte är riktigt samma sak." 
  26. ^ "Fil > Hallonfil med vanilj" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  27. ^ "Hallonfil 2,6 %" (in Swedish). Gefleortens Mejeri. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  28. ^ a b c "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Falköpings Mejeri. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  29. ^ Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 400. ISBN 91-7133-802-0. 
  30. ^ "Filmjölk: Mellanfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  31. ^ "Filmjölk: Lättfil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  32. ^ Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 986. ISBN 91-7133-802-0. "sedan 1968" 
  33. ^ Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 972. ISBN 91-7133-802-0. 
  34. ^ "Bollnäsfil Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  35. ^ "Bollnäsfil Vanilj" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  36. ^ "Fjällfil Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  37. ^ "Fjällfil 0,8%" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  38. ^ "Får man fil i Sverige?" (in Swedish). Research Institute for the Languages of Finland. 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  39. ^ "Viilit" (in Finnish). Valio. Retrieved 2014-06-29. 
  40. ^ "Filbunke" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  41. ^ a b Språkdata, Göteborgs universitet (2000). Nationalencyklopedins ordbok (in Swedish). Höganäs: Bra Böcker. p. 399. ISBN 91-7133-802-0. 
  42. ^ "Laktosfri Fil-naturell" (in Swedish). Valio. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  43. ^ a b "Filmjölk: Ekologisk A-fil original" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  44. ^ a b c "Lactobacillus acidophilus". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2002-04-01. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  45. ^ a b c d "Probiotics". PDRhealth, Thomson Healthcare. Archived from the original on 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  46. ^ "Filmjölk: Cultura aktiv fil" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  47. ^ "Arlas Cultura smakar och gör gott" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. 2004-02-25. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  48. ^ "Arla världspatent på ny laktobacill" (in Swedish). LivsmedelsSverige SLU. 2001-08-15. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  49. ^ "Lactobacillus F19" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  50. ^ Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rementeria, Aitor; Elguezabal, Natalia; Garaizar, Javier (2006). "Kefir: A symbiotic yeast-bacteria community with alleged healthy capabilities". Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 23: 67–74. PMID 16854180. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  51. ^ "Philura Original" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  52. ^ "Philura äpple & nypon" (in Swedish). Milko. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  53. ^ "Milko årsredovisning 2003: Filmjölk" (PDF) (in Swedish). Milko. 2003. p. 13. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  54. ^ a b "Premiär för smaksatt Verum Hälsofil" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. 2002-04-22. Archived from the original on 2007-09-18. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  55. ^ "Nyttiga bakterier bringar ordning i oroliga sommarmagar" (in Swedish). Norrmejerier. 2003-07-01. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  56. ^ "Öresundsfil naturell fil 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  57. ^ "Öresundsfil björnbärsfil 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  58. ^ "Öresundsfil vanilj 1,0 L" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-07-01. 
  59. ^ Uhlin, Torbjörn (2000). "Mjölkbonde med koll på miljön". Sveriges Natur (in Swedish) 2000 (3–4). Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  60. ^ "ProViva Naturell Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  61. ^ Ahrné, Siv (2006). "ProViva – ett levande livsmedel" (PDF) (in Swedish). Mejeritekniskt Forum. p. 10. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  62. ^ "Lactobacillus Plantarum 299v". Probi AB. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  63. ^ "ProViva Frågor och svar" (PDF) (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. p. 6. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  64. ^ "Documentation of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v" (DOC). Probi AB. 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
  65. ^ Arne Anderberg; Anna-Lena Anderberg (1999-10-13). "Den virtuella floran: Drosera L.: Sileshår" (in Swedish). Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  66. ^ a b c "Filmjölk från Linnés tid" (PDF). Verumjournalen (in Swedish) 2002: 10. 2002. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  67. ^ Östman, Elisabeth (1911). "Recept på filmjölk, filbunke och långmjölk". Iduns kokbok (in Swedish). Stockholm: Aktiebolaget Ljus, Isaac Marcus' Boktryckeriaktiebolag. p. 161. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  68. ^ "Vad gjorde man med mjölken?" (in Swedish). Järnriket Gästrikland, Länsmuseet Gävleborg. Archived from the original on 2007-03-22. Retrieved 2007-08-05. 
  69. ^ Lindquist, John A. (1975). "Pitcher Plant Project: Literature Review: Part II: Digestive Activities of Carnivorous Plants". Retrieved 2007-11-12. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]