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Baklava, made with filo pastry
Alternative names Filo pastry, phyllo, fillo
Type Pastry
Main ingredients Flour dough

Filo (or phyllo) (Greek: φύλλο 'leaf') is a kind of very thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava and börek in Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Filo-based pastries are made by layering many sheets of filo brushed with melted butter; the pastry is then baked.


Main article: Baklava § History

The practice of stretching raw dough into paper-thin sheets probably evolved in the kitchens of the Topkapı Palace during the Ottoman Empire, based on Central Asian and/or Roman prototypes.[1][2] Baklava is probably the earliest dish using filo, and is documented as early as the 13th century.[3]


Filo dough is made with flour, water, and a small amount of oil and rakı or white vinegar, though some dessert recipes also call for egg yolks. Homemade filo takes time and skill, requiring progressive rolling and stretching to a single thin and very large sheet. A very big table and a long roller are used, with continual flouring between layers to prevent tearing.

Machines for producing filo pastry were perfected in the 1970s, and have come to dominate the market.[4] Filo for domestic use is widely available from supermarkets, fresh or frozen.


When using filo to make pastries, the thin layers are made by first rolling out the sheets of dough to the final thickness, then stacking them with melted butter layers; this contrasts with puff pastry and croissant doughs, where the layers of butter are stacked into a thick layer of dough, then folded and rolled out multiple times to produce a laminated dough containing thin layers of dough and fat.

Related methods[edit]

Very thin pastry sheets can also be made by touching lumps of dough to a hot surface, as in the North African malsouka or by cooking very thin batters, as in the South Indian pootharekulu.


Filo can be used in many ways: layered, folded, rolled, or ruffled, with various fillings. Notable pastries made with filo include:


Though filo's roots are in Ottoman cuisine, the English term comes from the Greek name, which means leaf.[5][6]

The Turkish name yufka means both the thin dough used for baklava and börek, and a kind of flatbread, also called sac ekmeği, cooked on a sac, a domed metal plate.[7] The bread form may have been "an early form of filo" since the Kitab Diwan Lughat al-Turk, a dictionary of Turkic dialects by Mahmud Kashgari recorded plated/folded bread as one meaning of the word yuvgha.[citation needed]

Filo is known by a variety of names in ethnic and regional cuisines. Among them are:

See also[edit]



  • Perry, Charles. "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4.
  • Engin Akın, Mirsini Lambraki, Kosta Sarıoğlu, Aynı Sofrada İki Ülke: Türk ve Yunan Mutfağı, Istanbul 2003, ISBN 975-458-484-2.

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of filo at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Phyllo at Wikimedia Commons
  • Phyllo dough at Wikibook Cookbooks