Finance in India
More than half of personal savings are invested in physical assets such as land, houses, cattle, and gold.
The Indian money market is classified into: the organised sector (comprising private, public and foreign owned commercial banks and cooperative banks, together known as scheduled banks); and the unorganised sector (comprising individual or family owned indigenous bankers or money lenders and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs)). The unorganised sector and microcredit are still preferred over traditional banks in rural and sub-urban areas, especially for non-productive purposes, like ceremonies and short duration loans.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi nationalised 14 banks in 1969, followed by six others in 1980, and made it mandatory for banks to provide 40% of their net credit to priority sectors like agriculture, small-scale industry, retail trade, small businesses, etc. to ensure that the banks fulfill their social and developmental goals. Since then, the number of bank branches has increased from 10,120 in 1969 to 98,910 in 2003 and the population covered by a branch decreased from 63,800 to 15,000 during the same period. The total deposits increased 32.6 times between 1971 to 1991 compared to 7 times between 1951 to 1971. Despite an increase of rural branches, from 1,860 or 22% of the total number of branches in 1969 to 32,270 or 48%, only 32,270 out of 5 lakh (500,000) villages are covered by a scheduled bank.
Since liberalisation, the government has approved significant banking reforms. While some of these relate to nationalised banks (like encouraging mergers, reducing government interference and increasing profitability and competitiveness), other reforms have opened up the banking and insurance sectors to private and foreign players.
As of 2007, banking in India is generally mature in terms of supply, product range and reach-even, though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, Indian banks are considered to have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies of Asia. The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Money of India.|
- Diana Farrell and Susan Lund. "Reforming India's Financial System".
- Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. "50". Indian Economy. pp. 847–850.
- Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. "50". Indian Economy. pp. 850–851.
- Ghosh, Jayati. "Bank Nationalisation: The Record". Macroscan. Retrieved 2005-08-05.
- Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. "50". Indian Economy. pp. 865–867.
- "CIA - The World Factbook - India". CIA. 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
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- Rajesh Chakrabarti Foreign Exchange Markets isb.edu Retrieved on- February 2008