Ballards Lane, Church End, Finchley
Finchley shown within Greater London
|OS grid reference|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||N2, N3, N12|
|UK Parliament||Finchley & Golders Green|
|London Assembly||Barnet and Camden|
Finchley (//) is an area of North London, England, in the London Borough of Barnet. Finchley is on high ground, 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Charing Cross. It formed an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, becoming a municipal borough in 1933, and has been part of Greater London since 1965. It is predominantly a residential suburb, with three town centres.
|# no census was held due to war|
|source: UK census|
Finchley probably means "Finch's clearing" or "finches' clearing" in late Anglo-Saxon; the name was first recorded in the early 13th century. Finchley is not recorded in Domesday Book, but by the 11th century its lands were already held by the Bishop of London. In early medieval period the area was sparsely populated woodland.
Proper farming began in the 12th and 13th centuries and by the 15th and 16th centuries the woods on the eastern side of the parish had been cleared to form Finchley Common. The medieval Great North Road, which ran through the common, was notorious for highwaymen until the early 19th century.
The parish church of St Mary is first recorded in the 1270s. The settlement at Church End grew up around it. Near the northern gate to the Bishop of London's park, the hamlet of East End, later East Finchley, had begun to develop by 1365.
The Edgware, Highgate and London Railway (later the Great Northern Railway) reached Finchley in 1867. It ran from Finsbury Park via Finchley to Edgware. The branch from Finchley to High Barnet opened in 1872. In 1905 tram services were established in Finchley, and extended shortly afterwards to Barnet. They were eventually replaced by trolleybuses.
In 1933, the Underground New Works Programme, 1935-1940 to electrify the lines through Finchley, and connect the Northern line from Archway to East Finchley, via a new tunnel was announced. Much of the work was carried out and East Finchley station was rebuilt, but the project was halted by the second world war. All passenger services from Finchley to Edgware ended in September 1939. Nevertheless, Underground trains began running from central London to High Barnet in 1940, and to Mill Hill East, to reach the army barracks, in 1941.
After the war, the introduction of London's Metropolitan Green Belt undermined pre-war plans and the upgrading between Mill Hill East and Edgware (the 'Northern Heights' project) was abandoned, although the line continued to be used by steam trains for goods traffic through Finchley, until 1964.
Governance and politics
From around 1547 Finchley had a parish vestry, which became a local board in 1878, an urban district council in 1895, and finally a municipal borough council between 1933 and 1965. The area is now part of the London Borough of Barnet.
From 1959 to 1992 the Finchley constituency was represented in Parliament by Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. Finchley is now included in the new constituency of Finchley and Golders Green.
Finchley is on a plateau, 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level 11 km (6.8 mi) north of Charing Cross and 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Barnet. To the west is the Dollis valley formed by Dollis Brook the natural western boundary of Finchley. Mutton Brook forms the southern boundary, joining the Dollis Brook to become the River Brent.
Most of Finchley is on boulder clay or glacial moraine, skirted by a layer of gravel, then the underlying layer of London clay. This roughly triangular gravel line was the most fertile area; hamlets which grew at the three corners evolved into Finchley's early population centres corresponding to the three town centres in the area:
- Church End, often known as "Finchley Central" (particularly since the station was renamed), the area north and west of the North Circular Road, centred on Ballards Lane and Finchley Central tube station, and in postal area N3;
- East Finchley, roughly between Highgate and the North Circular Road, and in postal area N2;
- North Finchley, surrounding Tally-Ho corner, stretching west to the Northern line, in postcode district N12.
The residential areas West Finchley, in postcode district N3, and Woodside Park, in postcode district N12, centre on their respective tube stations to the west of the area. Between East Finchley and Finchley Central is Long Lane, which runs parallel to the tube line which is dotted with small shopping parades.
The area of London known as 'Finchley Road', around Finchley Road tube station, is not part of Finchley, but instead refers to a district in Swiss Cottage, Camden. The area is named after a section of the A41 road, which continues to Golders Green and eventually runs north to Henlys Corner on the North Circular Road and Finchley.
|Mill Hill||Muswell Hill|
St Mary's at Finchley is the parish church, with parts dating from the 13th century.
College Farm is the last farm in Finchley; it was a model dairy farm, then a visitor attraction. The Phoenix Cinema in East Finchley with its 1930s art deco facade is one of the oldest purpose-built cinemas in the UK.
The Sternberg Centre for Judaism in the old Manor House (formerly convent and school of St Mary Auxiliatrice) at 80 East End Road in Finchley is a Jewish cultural centre. It was founded to facilitate Reform and Liberal Jewish institutions,[clarification needed] attached to the Movement for Reform Judaism.
The Archer, on East Finchley tube station, is a 10-foot-tall (3.0 m) statue by Eric Aumonier of a kneeling archer having just released an arrow. The statue La Délivrance depicts a naked woman holding a sword; it stands at the approach to Finchley from the south, in Regent's Park Road, just north of Henlys Corner.
Transport for London is responsible for transport in Finchley. Finchley has four London Underground stations, all on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, which serves the West End and City (financial district).
- East Finchley tube station in zone three, serves East Finchley and is 21 minutes from Charing Cross.
- Finchley Central tube station in zone four, serves Finchley, Church End and is 25 minutes from Charing Cross.
- West Finchley tube station in zone four, serves North Finchley and is 27 minutes from Charing Cross.
- Woodside Park tube station in zone four, serves North Finchley and is 29 minutes from Charing Cross.
North Finchley bus station is a hub with nine bus routes using bus stops around Tally Ho Corner.
There are six secondary schools. Three are voluntary aided schools, all Catholic: Bishop Douglass Catholic, Finchley Catholic High and St Michael's Catholic Grammar. Two are community schools: Christ's College Finchley and The Compton. One is an academy, the 'Wren Academy', named after Sir Christopher Wren, and sponsored by the Church of England.
There is also a special school, Oak Lodge Special.
The local football team, Wingate & Finchley,plays in the premier division of the Isthmian league. The club was formed in 1991 following the merger between Finchley Football Club (est 1874) and Wingate Football Club (est 1946). Although the club is sometimes incorrectly perceived to be exclusively Jewish, it is open to people of every religion and ethnic background. Wingate & Finchley play home games at Summers Lane, N12.
The rugby team is Finchley RFC. Finchley Cricket Club (founded 1832), plays in the Middlesex premier league, at Arden Field, East End Road, N3. Finchley golf club on Frith Lane was designed by five-times Open Champion James Braid. Ken Brown, Ryder Cup player and BBC presenter, described it as "The best presented golf course for club play that I have seen in years".
Veolia Water Central Limited, formerly Three Valleys Water, supplies Finchley's water; the area is in the south-east corner of the company's water supply area. EDF Energy Networks is the Distribution network operator licensed to distribute electricity from the transmission grid to homes and businesses in Finchley.
Finchley Memorial Hospital, on Granville Road, North Finchley, was a small NHS hospital administered by NHS Barnet, a primary care trust. Built with local donations in 1908 it was originally Finchley Cottage Hospital, renamed and expanded after the first world war as a war memorial. A new hospital on adjacent land opened in September 2012; the old hospital buildings were demolished.
London Ambulance Service responds to medical emergencies in Finchley. Policing in Finchley is by the Metropolitan Police Service. Statutory emergency fire service is by London Fire Brigade, which has a station on Long Lane.
Victoria Park is off Ballards Lane between North Finchley and Finchley Central. It was proposed in 1887 to mark Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee and opened in 1902 to be Finchley's first public park.
Avenue House in East End Road was built in 1859. In 1874 it was acquired by Henry Charles Stephens, known as "Inky" Stephens, the son of the inventor of indelible blue-black ink Dr Henry Stephens. On his death in 1918 he bequeathed the house and its grounds to "the people of Finchley". The house has a small museum, the Stephens Collection, which covers the history of the Stephens Ink Company and the history of writing materials. The bequest also included Avenue House Grounds, designed by the leading nineteenth-century landscape gardener Robert Marnock. This has a tearoom, a children's playground, a walled garden called The Bothy, a pond and rare trees.
William Hogarth painted his satirical March of the Guards to Finchley in 1750. It is a depiction of a fictional mustering of troops on London's Tottenham Court Road to march north to Finchley to defend the capital from the second Jacobite rebellion of 1745.
A number of fictional characters have been associated with the area, including:
- In Charles Dickens' The Old Curiosity Shop Mr Garland, one of the principal characters, lives in "Abel Cottage, Finchley".
- Bluebottle, a character in the 1950s BBC radio series The Goon Show, hails from East Finchley, where Peter Sellers who played Bluebottle used to live at one time.
- In various episodes of the Channel 4 comedy Peep Show Finchley is used as an on-site shooting location.
- In the 2005 film The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Susan Pevensie says that she and her siblings, Peter, Edmund, and Lucy, are from Finchley, despite no mention of Finchley being made in C. S. Lewis's book - it is only mentioned that they are from London. In the next film, Prince Caspian, Edmund, on discovering in the ruins of Cair Paravel a gold Chess piece, says, "Well, I didn't exactly have a solid gold chess set in Finchley, did I?", saying that they are obviously in Narnia.
- The Monty Python's Flying Circus comedy sketch, The Funniest Joke in the World, is set in Finchley.
Octavia Hill, a social reformer and a founder of the National Trust, Kyrle Society and the Army Cadet movement lived at Brownswell Cottages on the High Road in East Finchley just south of the junction with the North Circular Road today.
Henry Stephens, who founded the Stephens Ink company, and his son Henry Charles Stephens, who was the local MP from 1887 until 1900, lived in Finchley: Henry Charles in Avenue House which he left, in 1918, as a bequest to the people of Finchley, along with its grounds, now known as Stephens House and Gardens.
Harry Beck, an engineering draftsman who created the present London Underground Tube map in 1931, lived in Finchey. There is a plaque commemorating him along with a copy of his original map on the southbound platform at Finchley Central tube station.
Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, 1979–1990, was Conservative MP for Finchley from 1959 to 1992, although she never lived in the area, preferring Dulwich and Chelsea before and after her time in Downing Street.
George Michael, the singer, was born in East Finchley.
Finchley Borough had four twin towns; the London Borough of Barnet continues these links.
- Jinja, Uganda, since 1963
- Le Raincy, France, since 1962
- Montclair, United States, since 1945
- Siegen-Wittgenstein, Germany, since 1951
Art Deco 'Archer' Statue at East Finchley Tube Station by Eric Aumonier
- Baker & Elrington (1980). "A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 6". Victoria County History. pp. 38–55. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- Heathfield, John. "A short history of Finchley". The Finchley Society. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- Nurse, Richard (2007-11-20). "Finchley and Friern Barnet". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Nurse, Richard (2008-02-13). "Finchley N3 Hendon Lane". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Weinreb, Ben; Christopher Hibbert. The London Encyclopedia. Julia Keay, John Keay (3rd ed.). Macmillan. pp. 290–291. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5.
- Nurse, Richard (2008-02-13). "Finchley N2 East End Road". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Clive's Underground Line Guides, Northern line, Dates
- London Transport Museum Tram in Finchley, dated 1905 to 1915
- London Transport Museum Trolley bus at North Finchley
- Baker, T F T; C R Elrington (1980). "Finchley Finchley Local government". British History Online. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "Historic Figures Margaret Thatcher (1925 - )". BBC. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- Lowe, Rebecca (21 February 2010). "Green Party conference held in Finchley". The Times Series. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
- "Buses from North Finchley". Transport for London. Retrieved 2009-09-22.
- Crouch, Suzanne (10/09/2009). "Schools and Colleges". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-09-24. Check date values in:
- Bishop Douglass School web site
- Finchley Catholic High School web site
- St. Michael's Catholic Grammar School web site
- Christ's College Finchley School web site
- The Compton School web site
- Wren Academy web site
- "why wren academy". Wren Academy. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- Lowe, Rebecca (10 December 2007). "Barnet cricket - 150 and not out". Times Series. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
- "Our supply area". Veolia Water. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- "Honouring a century of care at Finchley Memorial Hospital". Times Series. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- London Transport Museum artsdepot, 2006
- Victoria Park, London Gardens Online
- "The history of Avenue House Estate". Avenue House Estate. 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Nurse, Richard (2008-02-13). "Finchley N12 Fallow Corner". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "Early Social Reform Influences". Octavia Hill’s Birthplace House. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "The Octavia Hill Society". The Finchley Society. September 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- "Design Classics-The London Underground Map". BBC TV4.
- "Spike Milligan Statue Fund". Finchley Society. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- Godleman, Mike (04/07/2007). "Town twinning Jinja (Uganda)". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-04-28. Check date values in:
- Costello, Laura (2008-07-28). "Town twinning Le Raincy (France)". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- Costello, Laura (2008-07-29). "Town twinning Montclair (USA)". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- Godleman, Mike (2008-07-28). "Town twinning Siegen Wittgenstein (Germany)". LB Barnet. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- James Thorne (1876), "Finchley", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray