Scandinavian Braille

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Danish Braille
Norwegian Braille
Swedish Braille
Finnish Braille
Greenlandic Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Greenlandic
Parent systems
Braille
  • French Braille
    • Danish Braille
      Norwegian Braille
      Swedish Braille
      Finnish Braille
      Greenlandic Braille
Print basis
Dano-Norwegian alphabet
Swedish alphabet

Scandinavian Braille is a braille alphabet used, with differences in orthography and punctuation, for the languages of the mainland Nordic countries: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish. In a generally reduced form it is used for Greenlandic. It is very close to French Braille, with slight modification of some of the accented letters, and optional use of the others to transcribe foreign languages.

Alphabet[edit]

The braille letters for the French print vowels â, œ, ä are used for the print vowels å, ö/ø, ä/æ of the Scandinavian alphabets. Thus, in numerical order, the letters are:

⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
d
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
f
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
j
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
q
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
x
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y
⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
z
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
å
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
ö/ø
⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
w
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
ä/æ
⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
&

(For foreign accented letters, French Braille is used.)

Greenlandic Braille uses a subset of these letters, a e f g i j k l m n o p q r s t u v, though the rest of the Scandinavian alphabet is available when needed.

Numbers[edit]

Digits are the first ten letters of the alphabet, and numbers are marked by , as in English Braille.

Punctuation[edit]

According to Unesco (2013), punctuation differs between the countries. It's possible that some of the differences are due to references being from different dates, if the countries coordinated changes in punctuation.

Single punctuation
Print , . '  ?  !  ;  : * - /
Finnish ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Swedish/
Norwegian
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠈ (braille pattern dots-4)

The ellipsis ... is thus .

Finnish  ! is not a copy error. It's the reverse of the found in all other Nordic countries, though the latter is the + sign in Finnish mathematical notation just as it is in those other countries. Finnish punctuation is used for Swedish text in Finland.

In Swedish Braille, there is also for the pipe, |, and for the bullet, •.

Paired punctuation
Print “ ... ” ‘ ... ’ ( ... ) [ ... ]
Finnish/
Swedish
⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
Norwegian ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) (?)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)

At least in Norwegian Braille, the braces { ... } are .

Formatting[edit]

Given the poor coverage, it is not clear how compatible formatting is between countries. (See Estonian Braille for formatting in an orthography with similar punctuation to Finnish and Swedish.)

Print (digit) (caps) (all caps) (italics) (bold)
Finnish/
Swedish
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
Norwegian (?) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) (?)

In Swedish Braille, is used to capitalize an entire word, and to capitalize several words. The sequences and are likewise used to italicize and bold several words. The end of any of these is marked with , for example for caps, for italics, and for bold.

Also in Swedish (and perhaps the others), the auxiliary parentheses are used to add comments that appear only in the braille text, such as a description of a picture in the print text being transcribed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]