Cabinet of Finland

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The headquarters of the Cabinet on Senate Square, Helsinki, seen flying the State flag.
Coat of arms of Finland.svg
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The Cabinet of Finland (also called the Council of State, Finnish: valtioneuvosto, Swedish: statsrådet; officially rendered Finnish Government) is the body that directs the Government of Finland. However, in governmental translations to English, the distinction is often blurred between cabinet and government in the wider sense. This wider sense includes the Parliament of Finland (on which the cabinet is dependent), the governmental agencies that are directed by the Cabinet, and the independent judicial branch of government. Despite of the occasional blurring by translators, the difference is significant. The Cabinet is directly responsible to the parliament and may be dismissed by a motion of no confidence. The President, according the 2000 constitution, formally appoints the cabinet, but the daily working is the responsibility of the Prime Minister.

In 1918, after Finland's independence, the Cabinet, that in the Grand Duchy of Finland had been called the Senate of Finland, was reorganized and renamed to the Council of State. One of the main objectives of that reform was to separate the judiciary from the executive branch.

According to the recent revision of the Constitution of Finland (as of 2000), the power over foreign affairs is retained by the president, as it also is in France, although with a narrow definition of foreign affairs that excludes influence over preparations of decisions within the European Union. International treaties and declaration of war are within the authority of the parliament.

Matters within the authority of the Cabinet are decided at plenary meetings, with a quorum of five ministers present, in the case of matters of wide importance and matters that are significant for reasons of principle. Less important matters are decided within the respective ministries.

Matters within the authority of the President are decided at plenary meetings of the Cabinet, with the exception of appointments, pardon, and calling of extraordinary elections.

Formation[edit]

After election, the party in plurality has the privilege to appoint a negotiator to form the government. In practice, this person is the leader of the party and becomes the Prime Minister. Since 1972, all cabinets have been formed as coalitions of multiple parties that together constitute a parliamentary majority. In an intense period after elections, the negotiator will attempt to forge a consensus between the participating parties on the issues to be prosecuted during the tenure of the government. This will then be written down in a government platform.

Following from President Urho Kekkonen's excessive direction over the government formation process, the 2000 constitution limited the President's power in government formation. Today, the President only formally appoints the government, but cannot select or remove individual members.

Current Council of State[edit]

The current Council of State, the 72nd since Finland's independence, was inaugurated by President Tarja Halonen on 22 June 2011.[1]

The current Council of State is a right-left, 19-minister coalition consisting of the National Coalition Party (kokoomus), the Social Democratic Party (sosiaalidemokraatit), the Left Alliance (vasemmistoliitto), the Green League (vihreät), the Swedish People's Party (svenska folkpartiet; ruotsalainen kansanpuolue) and the Christian Democrats (kristillisdemokraatit).[1][2]

The Chancellor of Justice is not a member of the Council of State but must by law attend its every meeting.

Previous Senates[edit]

Number Senate Term of office Type of government Parties in government Number of MP's
1.
Svinhufvud's first senate
27 November 1917 – 27 May 1918
Majority
Young Finnish Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Party, Agrarian League
103/200
2.
Paasikivi's first senate
27 May 1918 – 27 November 1918
Majority
Young Finnish Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Party, Agrarian League
103/200

Previous Councils of State[edit]

Number Government Term of office Type of government Parties in government Number of MP's
1.
Ingman's first cabinet
27 November 1918 – 17 April 1919
Majority
National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, National Progressive Party
77/200 or 77/108
2.
K. Castrén's cabinet
17 April 1919 – 15 August 1919
Minority
Swedish People's Party, National Progressive Party, Agrarian League
90/200
3.
Vennola's first cabinet
15 August 1919 – 15 March 1920
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League
68/200
4.
Erich's cabinet
15 March 1920 – 9 April 1921
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party
118/200
5.
Vennola's second cabinet
9 April 1921 – 6 June 1922
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League
68/200
6.
Cajander's first cabinet
2 June 1922 – 14 November 1922
caretaker government
7.
Kallio's first cabinet
14 November 1922 – 18 January 1924
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League
60/200
8.
Cajander's second cabinet
18 January 1924 – 31 May 1924
caretaker government
9.
Ingman's second cabinet
31 May 1924 – 31 March 1925
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party
122/200
10.
Antti Tulenheimo's cabinet
31 March 1925 – 31 December 1925
Minority
Agrarian League, National Coalition Party
82/200
11.
Kallio's second cabinet
31 December 1925 – 13 December 1926
Minority
Agrarian League, National Coalition Party
82/200
12.
Tanner's cabinet
13 December 1926 – 17 December 1927
Minority
Social Democratic Party
52/100
13.
Sunila's first cabinet
17 December 1927 – 22 December 1928
Minority
Agrarian League
52/100
14.
Mantere's cabinet
22 December 1928 – 16 August 1929
Minority
National Progressive Party
10/200
15.
Kyösti Kallio's third cabinet
16 August 1929 – 4 July 1930
Minority
Agrarian League
60/200
16.
Svinhufvud's second cabinet
4 July 1930 – 21 March 1931
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party
132/200
17.
Sunila's second cabinet
21 March 1931 – 14 December 1932
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party
132/200
18.
Kivimäki's cabinet
14 December 1932 – 10 October 1936
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party
85/200
19.
Kyösti Kallio's fourth cabinet
7 October 1936 – 12 March 1937
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League
60/200
20.
A.Cajander's third cabinet
3 March 1937 – 1 December 1939
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party
164/200
21.
Risto Ryti's first cabinet
1 December 1939 – 3 March 1940
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party
165/200
22.
Risto Ryti's second cabinet
27 March 1940 – 4 December 1941
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party
190/200
23.
Rangell's cabinet
4 January 1941 – 5 March 1943
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party Patriotic People's Movement
198/200
24.
Edwin Linkomies' cabinet
5 March 1943 – 8 September 1944
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party
190/200
25.
Hackzell's cabinet
8 September 1944 – 21 October 1944
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party
190/200
26.
U. Castrén's cabinet
21 October 1944 – 17 November 1944
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, National Coalition Party
190/200
27.
Paasikivi's second cabinet
17 November 1944 – 17 April 1945
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League
165/200
28.
Paasikivi's third cabinet
17 April 1945 – 26 March 1946
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League
171/200
29.
Mauno Pekkala's cabinet
26 March 1946 – 29 August 1948
Majority
Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Finnish People's Democratic League
162/200
30.
Fagerholm's first cabinet
29 August 1948 – 17 March 1950
Minority
Social Democratic Party
54/200
31.
Kekkonen's first cabinet
17 March 1950 – 17 January 1951
Minority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party
75/200
32.
Urho Kekkonen's second cabinet
17 January 1951 – 20 October 1951
Majority
National Progressive Party, Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party
129/200
33.
Kekkonen's third cabinet
20 October 1951 – 9 August 1953
Minority
Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party
119/200
34.
Kekkonen's fourth cabinet
9 August 1953 – 17 November 1953
Minority
Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party
66/200
35.
Sakari Tuomioja's cabinet
17 November 1953 – 5 May 1954
caretaker government
53/200
36.
Törngren's cabinet
5 May 1954 – 20 October 1954
Majority
Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party, Agrarian League
120/200
37.
Kekkonen's fifth cabinet
20 October 1954 – 3 March 1956
Majority
Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party
107/200
38.
Fagerholm's second cabinet
3 March 1956 – 27 May 1957
Majority
Agrarian League, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party
120/200
39.
Sukselainen's first cabinet
27 April 1957 – 29 November 1957
Minority
Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Finnish People's Party
79/200
40.
Von Fieandt's cabinet
29 November 1957 – 26 April 1958
caretaker government
41.
Kuuskoski's cabinet
26 April 1958 – 29 September 1958
caretaker government
42.
Karl-August Fagerholm's third cabinet
29 September 1958 – 13 January 1959
Majority
Social Democratic Party, Agrarian League, National Coalition Party, Finnish People's Party, Swedish People's Party
152/200
43.
Sukselainen's second cabinet
13 January 1959 – 14 August 1961
Minority
Agrarian League, Swedish People's Party
62/200
44.
Miettunen's first cabinet
14 August 1961 – 13 April 1962
Minority
Agrarian League
48/200
45.
Karjalainen's first cabinet
13 April 1962 – 18 December 1963
Majority
Agrarian League, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Swedish People's Party, National Coalition Party, Finnish People's Party
114/200
46.
Lehto's cabinet
18 December 1963 – 12 October 1964
caretaker government
47.
Virolainen's Cabinet
12 October 1964 – 27 May 1966
Majority
Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish People's Party
112/200
48.
Paasio's first cabinet
27 May 1966 – 22 March 1968
Majority
Finnish People's Democratic League, Social Democratic Party, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Centre Party
152/200
49.
Koivisto's first cabinet
22 March 1968 – 14 May 1970
Majority
Social Democratic Party, Social Democratic Union of Workers and Smallholders, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish People's Democratic League
164/200
50.
Aura's First cabinet
14 May 1970 – 15 August 1970
caretaker government
51.
Ahti Karjalainen's second cabinet
15 August 1970 – 29 October 1971
Majority
Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals
144/200
52.
Aura's second cabinet
29 October 1971 – 23 February 1972
caretaker government
53.
Paasio's second cabinet
23 February 1972 – 4 October 1972
Minority
Social Democratic Party
55/200
54.
Sorsa's first cabinet
4 October 1972 – 13 June 1975
Majority
Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party
109/200
55.
Liinamaa's cabinet
13 June 1975 – 30 November 1975
caretaker government
56.
Miettunen's second cabinet
30 November 1975 – 29 October 1976
Majority
Finnish People's Democratic League, Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party
152/200
57.
Miettunen's third cabinet
29 October 1976 – 15 May 1977
Minority
Centre Party, Swedish People's Party, Liberals
58/200
58.
Sorsa's second cabinet
15 May 1977 – 26 May 1979
Majority
Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Liberals, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party
152/200
59.
Koivisto's second cabinet
26 May 1979 – 19 February 1982
Majority
Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party
133/200
60.
Sorsa's third cabinet
19 February 1982 – 6 May 1983
Majority
Finnish People's Democratic League, Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party
133/200 and 102/200
61.
Sorsa's fourth cabinet
6 May 1983 – 30 April 1987
Majority
Swedish People's Party, Social Democratic Party, Centre Party, Finnish Rural Party
123/200
62.
Holkeri's cabinet
30 April 1987 – 26 April 1991
Majority
National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Finnish Rural Party
131/200
63.
Esko Aho's cabinet
26 April 1991 – 13 April 1995
Majority
Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats
115/200
64.
Lipponen's first cabinet
13 April 1995 – 15 April 1999
Majority
National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Left Alliance, Green League
145/200
65.
Paavo Lipponen's second Cabinet
15 April 1999 – 17 April 2003
Majority
National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party, Left Alliance, Green League (−2002)
140/200 and 129/200
66.
Anneli Jäätteenmäki's Cabinet
17 April – 24 June 2003
Majority
Centre Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party
117/200
67.
Matti Vanhanen's first cabinet
24 June 2003 – 19 April 2007
Majority
Centre Party, Social Democratic Party, Swedish People's Party
117/200
68.
Matti Vanhanen's second cabinet
19 April 2007 – 22 June 2010
Majority
Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Green League, Swedish People's Party
126/200
69.
Mari Kiviniemi's cabinet
22 June 2010 – 22 June 2011
Majority
Centre Party, National Coalition Party, Green League, Swedish People's Party
126/200
70.
Jyrki Katainen's cabinet
22 June 2011 — 24 June 2014
Majority
National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Left Alliance (−2014), Green League, Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats
124/200 and 112/200
71.
Alexander Stubb's cabinet
24 June 2014 —
Majority
National Coalition Party, Social Democratic Party, Green League, Swedish People's Party, Christian Democrats
112/200

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Jyrki Katainen becomes Prime Minister". Yleisradio. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "Eduskunta valitsi Jyrki Kataisen pääministeriksi" (in Finnish). Parliament of Finland. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 

See also[edit]

External links[edit]