Finnish presidential election, 1937

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Finnish presidential election, 1937
Finland
1931 ←
15–16 January 1937 → 1940

  Kyösti Kallio.png P. E. Svinhufvud.png
Nominee Kyösti Kallio Pehr Evind Svinhufvud
Party Agrarian National Coalition
Electoral vote 177 104

President before election

Pehr Evind Svinhufvud
National Coalition

Elected President

Kyösti Kallio
Agrarian

Coat of arms of Finland.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Finland

Two-stage presidential elections were held in Finland in 1937. On 15 and 16 January the public elected presidential electors to an electoral college.[1] They in turn elected the President. Whilst Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg was one vote short of winning on the first ballot, the result was a victory for Kyösti Kallio, who won on the second ballot.[2] The turnout for the popular vote was 57.8%.[3]

Background[edit]

The issues the election campaign was fought on included President Pehr Evind Svinhufvud's refusal in September and October 1936 to allow the Social Democrats - then clearly the largest political party in Finland - to enter the government, Prime Minister Kallio's moderate and conciliatory attitude towards the Social Democrats, former President Ståhlberg's second attempt to regain power, and the distribution of the new Finnish economic prosperity among the various social classes, especially labourers and peasants.

Almost one-third of the electors originally supported the Social Democratic candidate, Väinö Tanner, whose supporters conceded that he had no chance of being elected in the bourgeois Finland, but emphasized that his electors could probably decide who would win the presidency. President Svinhufvud also had almost one-third of the electors behind him (including the right-wing electors of the Swedish People's Party), while both Kallio and Ståhlberg each had just under one-fifth of the electors supporting them. However, Kallio had the fewest uncompromising opponents in the Electoral College. This made him easily the second-best choice (after Ståhlberg) for the Social Democrats and the moderate supporters of Ståhlberg. Thus Kallio won the presidency clearly on the second ballot. Kallio's victory was helped also by the fact that the ideological quarrels in Finland had calmed down considerably since the early and mid-1930s, given Finland's rising prosperity, the gradually increasing Agrarian-Social Democratic co-operation, and the far right's decreasing support.[4][5][6][7][8]

Results[edit]

Popular vote[edit]

Party Votes % Seats
Social Democratic Party 341,408 30.7 95
General electoral alliance for Svinhufvud 240,602 21.6 63
Supporters of Kallio 184,668 16.6 56
General electoral alliance for Ståhlberg 141,897 12.8 36
Swedish People's Party 102,250 9.2 25
Patriotic People's Movement 90,378 8.1 23
Swedish Left 10,743 1.0 2
Others 700 0.1 0
Invalid/blank votes 3,058
Total 1,115,704 100 300
Source: Nohln & Stöver

Electoral college[edit]

Candidate Party First ballot Second ballot
Votes % Votes %
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg National Progressive Party 150 50.0 19 6.3
Pehr Evind Svinhufvud National Coalition Party 94 31.3 104 34.7
Kyösti Kallio Agrarian League 56 18.7 177 59.0
Total 300 100 300 100
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p606 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p628
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p623
  4. ^ Seppo Zetterberg et al (2003) A Small Giant of Finnish History, WSOY, pp653–654
  5. ^ Pentti Virrankoski (2009) A History of Finland, Finnish Literature Society, pp823–824
  6. ^ Sakari Virkkunen (1994) Finland's Presidents I, Otava, pp201, 211–212
  7. ^ Kari Hokkanen (1986) Kyösti Kallio II, WSOY
  8. ^ Sakari Virkkunen (1994) Finland's Presidents II