Finnish railway signalling

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A main and distant signal combined in a single post. The main signal (upper) is showing the Proceed 35 aspect and the distant signal shows the Expect 35 aspect.

The signalling system used on the railway network in Finland comprises color-light signals and fixed signs, used together with the Automatic Train Control system ATP-VR/RHK (an EBICAB 900 system better known as JKV, Finnish: junakulunvalvonta).

Main signals[edit]

The main signal can have any of the following aspects:

Aspect Meaning Old system (Helsinki area)
Opaste seis.svg Stop The signal must not be passed. Opastin vanha3 seis.svg
Opaste aja.svg Proceed The signal may be passed with the maximum allowed speed. Opastin vanha3 aja.svg
Opaste aja sn35.svg Proceed 35 The signal may be passed and the maximum speed of 35 km/h (22 mph) is in effect from the next switch, which may lead to the diverging route. An ATC cab display may authorize a higher speed, typically 80 km/h (50 mph). The speed is in effect until the next main signal or after leaving the station area. The route may also lead to an occupied track section, but only if the driver has received a preliminary announcement. Opastin vanha3 aja Sn35.svg

If a main signal doesn't protect any switches or the speed restriction on a diverging route is the same as straight route, the signal doesn't need to show the Proceed 35 aspect and therefore the yellow bottom light may be absent. The two lamp version of the old system has the lights reversed, i.e. red at the top and green at the bottom.

Distant signals[edit]

The distant signal is located at least 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) before the main signal. It may also be located in the same post with a main signal, below it. In this combined arrangement, whenever the main signal shows a stop aspect, the distant signal doesn't show any aspect at all.

A distant signal can have any of the following aspects:

Aspect Meaning Old system (Helsinki area)
Opaste odota seis.svg Expect Stop The next signal shows the Stop aspect. The train route may also be set to a track section without further signals, e.g. toward unsignalled line or a buffer stop. Hel distant expect-stop.png
Opaste odota aja sn35.svg Expect 35 The next main signal shows the Proceed 35 aspect. Opastin vanha odota aja.svg
Opaste odota aja.svg Expect Proceed The next signal shows the aspect Proceed. Opastin vanha odota aja.svg

Note: Although the green light of the old system distant signal used in Helsinki area is named Expect Proceed aspect, the next main signal may in fact be showing the Proceed 35 aspect. Therefore the driver has to act as if the signal aspect is indeed Expect 35.

Block signals[edit]

A block signal can show any of the following three aspects:

Aspect Meaning
Suojastusopaste seis.svg Stop The signal must not be passed.
Suojastusopaste aja varovasti.svg Proceed, expect stop The signal may be passed. The next main or block signal is showing a Stop aspect.
Suojastusopaste aja.svg Proceed The next main or block signal is showing a permitting aspect. The following two blocks are not occupied.

Block signals are being replaced by combinations of main and distant signals, and no new block signals will be installed.

Dwarf signals[edit]

A dwarf signal showing the Stop aspect

A dwarf signal is used for controlling shunting movements. It can have any of the following aspects:

Aspect Meaning
Raideopaste seis.svg Stop The signal must not be passed.
Raideopaste aja varovasti.svg Proceed with caution The signal may be passed, but the track may be occupied by cars or another train.
Raideopaste paikallisluvat.svg Signal cancelled The signal may only be passed by the unit that has a permission to do shunting or track work.

A dwarf signal may also be placed in conjunction with a main signal. If the main signal shows any other aspect than Stop, the dwarf signal shows the Proceed with caution aspect.

Bridge signals[edit]

A bridge signal showing the Proceed aspect

Bridge signals are small signals used to display the orientation of a moveable bridge. They can have either of the following aspects:

Aspect Meaning
Siltaopaste seis.svg Stop The bridge is open and the signal must not be passed.
Siltaopaste aja.svg Proceed The bridge is closed and the signal may be passed.

Repeaters[edit]

Repeaters are sometimes used to repeat the aspect of the main signal in the Helsinki area in places where the main signal is not clearly visible.

Aspect Meaning
Kertaaja seis.svg The main signal is showing the Stop aspect.
Kertaaja aja.svg The main signal is showing some Proceed aspect. The train can be moved to the main signal.

Helsinki Metro[edit]

A stop signal is shown at Rastila as a train enters the station.

The Helsinki Metro signals differ from those used by the railways.

Main signals[edit]

Some aspects may be shown using a signal with only three lights, pictured on the right.

Aspect Meaning
Helsinki Metro signal Po 0.svg Stop The signal must not be passed. Forced stopping magnet is active.
Helsinki Metro signal Po 1.svg Proceed The signal may be passed with the maximum allowed speed.
Helsinki Metro signal Po 2.svg Proceed 35 The signal may be passed. Speed limit after the signal is 35 km/h (22 mph). The train may enter a diverging track through a switch.
Helsinki Metro signal Po 3.svg Coupling The signal may be passed, but the track may be reserved or is an ending track. Speed limit after the signal is 20 km/h (12 mph).
Helsinki Metro signal Pk 0.svg Exception Drive at driver's responsibility. Forced stopping magnet is active. Speed limit after the signal is 35 km/h (22 mph).

Distant signals[edit]

Aspect Meaning
Helsinki Metro signal Eo 0.svg Expect other than Proceed The next main signal is showing one of the aspects Stop, Proceed 35 or Coupling.
Helsinki Metro signal Eo 1.svg Expect Proceed The next main signal is showing the Proceed aspect.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Railway signals in Finland at Wikimedia Commons