Screenshot of a Firefox OS development build
|Company / developer||Mozilla Corporation|
|Working state||In development|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||April 23, 2013|
|Latest stable release||1.0.0 / February 21, 2013|
|Latest unstable release||1.0.1 / updated daily|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux kernel)|
|Default user interface||Graphical|
On July 25, 2011, Dr. Andreas Gal, Director of Research at Mozilla Corporation, announced the "Boot to Gecko" Project on the mozilla.dev.platform mailing list. The project proposal was to "pursue the goal of building a complete, standalone operating system for the open web" in order to "find the gaps that keep web developers from being able to build apps that are – in every way – the equals of native apps built for the iPhone [iOS], Android, and WP7 [Windows Phone 7]." The announcement identified these work areas: new web APIs to expose device and OS capabilities such as telephone and camera, a privilege model to safely expose these to web pages, applications to prove these capabilities, and low-level code to boot on an Android-compatible device.
This led to much blog coverage. According to Ars Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standards-based open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems."
In September 2012 analysts Strategy Analytics forecasted Firefox OS would account for 1% of the global smartphone market in 2013 – its first year of commercial availability.
In February 2013 Mozilla announced plans for global commercial roll-out of Firefox OS. Mozilla announced at a press conference before the start of Mobile World Congress in Barcelona that the first wave of Firefox OS devices will be available to consumers in Brazil, Colombia, Hungary, Mexico, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Venezuela. Firefox have also announced that LG Electronics, ZTE, Huawei and TCL Corporation have committed to making Firefox OS devices.
At Mobile World Congress 2012, Mozilla and Telefónica announced that the Spanish telecommunications provider intended to deliver "open Web devices" in 2012 based on HTML5 and these APIs. Mozilla also announced support for the project from Adobe and Qualcomm, and that Deutsche Telekom’s Innovation Labs will join the project. Mozilla demonstrated a "sneak preview" of the software and apps running on Samsung Galaxy S II phones (replacing their usual Android operating system). In August 2012, a Nokia employee demonstrated the OS running on a Raspberry Pi.
In December 2012, Mozilla rolled out another update and released Firefox OS Simulator 1.0 which can be downloaded as an add-on for Firefox.
Release history 
|Version ||Release Date ||Codename||Gecko Version||Included Security Fixes|
|1.0||February 21, 2013||TEF||Gecko 18||Gecko 18|
|1.0.1||TBD||Shira||Gecko 18||Gecko 20|
|1.1.0||TBD||Leo||Gecko 18||Gecko 21|
|This section requires expansion. (March 2013)|
When interviewed, Mozilla’s Director of Research Andreas Gal characterised the current set of mobile OS pages as "walled gardens" and presented Firefox OS as more accessible: "We use completely open standards and there’s no proprietary software or technology involved." Gal also said that because the software stack is entirely HTML5, there are already a large number of established developers. This assumption is employed in Mozilla's WebAPI. These are intended W3C standards that attempt to bridge the capability gap that currently exists between native frameworks and web applications. The goal of these efforts is to enable developers to build applications using WebAPI which would then run in any standards compliant browser without the need to rewrite their application for each platform.
Open web technologies stack 
The initial development work involves three major software layers: Gonk, Gecko, and the HTML5 layer, which includes the Gaia user-interface.
Gonk consists of a Linux kernel and userspace hardware abstraction layer (HAL). The kernel and several userspace libraries are common open-source projects: Linux, libusb, BlueZ, etc. Some other parts of the HAL are shared with the Android project: GPS, camera, among others. Gonk is basically an extremely simple Linux distribution and is therefore a porting target of Gecko; there is a port of Gecko to Gonk, just like there is a port of Gecko to OS X, and a port of Gecko to Android. Since the B2G project has full control over Gonk, the developers can expose interfaces to Gecko that aren't possible to expose on other OSes. For example, Gecko has direct access to the full telephony stack and display framebuffer on Gonk, but doesn't have this access on any other OS.
Gecko is the application runtime of B2G. Gecko implements open standards for HTML, CSS, and JS. Gecko includes a networking stack, graphics stack, layout engine, virtual machine (for JS), and porting layers.
Chris Ziegler of the technology blog The Verge wrote that it will take app distribution to pre-iPhone era, requiring application developers to deal with multiple carriers and their app stores. But at the Mobile World Congress, Gary Kovacs, the CEO of Mozilla, said that the devices matter less than what they're able to run, apps make or break a mobile platform these days, not hardware, and the advantage is that they don't have to install an app to use it. Mozilla is making the most of this with the search functionality built into Firefox OS, a core feature of the platform. Janne Lindqvist, a mobile security researcher at the Rutgers University Winlab, expressed concerns related to the discovery mechanism of a web-based platform, but a Mozilla spokesperson has stated that they are "requiring developers to package downloadable apps in a zip file that has been cryptographically signed by the store from which it originated, assuring that it has been reviewed," additionally "apps coming back from search are given only limited access to device programming interfaces and applications, unless the user grants permission for further access."
See also 
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (May 2013)|
- B2G/Architecture - Mozilla Wiki.
- - Mozilla Licensing Policies
- "Index of /pub/mozilla.org/b2g/manifests/". Mozilla FTP server. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "The first mobile in Spain with firefox OS. Geekphone Keon y Peak". 22 January 2013.
- "Firefox OS". Mozilla. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- Ginny Maies (2012-02-28). "First Look at Mozilla's Web Platform for Phones: 'Boot to Gecko'". PCWorld. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Mozilla making mobile OS using Android". blog. I Didn't Know That!. July 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- "Raspberry Pi". The Register. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "CES 2013: ZTE Firefox OS Smartphone Coming In 2013 | TechWeekEurope UK". Techweekeurope.co.uk. 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
- Gal, Andreas (2011-07-25). "Booting to the web". mozilla.dev.platform mailing list. http://groups.google.com/group/mozilla.dev.platform/browse_thread/thread/7668a9d46a43e482?pli=1. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- "The Firefox Phone? Mozilla Working on Android-Esque OS". blog. Gagagadget. July 26, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Andrew Kameka (July 26, 2011). "Mozilla borrows from Android to create its own mobile operating system". blog. androinica. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Ryan Paul (July 26, 2011). "Mozilla eyes mobile OS landscape with new Boot to Gecko project". Ars Technica. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- Brown, Mark (2012-08-08). "Mozilla's HTML5 phone platform now called Firefox OS, launching 2013 (Wired UK)". Wired.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Mozilla shows off Firefox OS screenshots". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "Firefox OS to Capture 1 Percent Share of Global Smartphone Market in 2013". Strategy Analytics. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- "Mozilla Announces Global Expansion for Firefox OS". mozilla. 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2013-03-27.
- "Mozilla reveals Firefox smartphone launch partners". BBC. 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- "Telefónica and Mozilla pioneer first Open Web Devices" (Press release). Telefónica. 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Mozilla in Mobile – the Web is the Platform" (Press release). Mozilla. 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- Chloe Albanesius (2012-02-28). "Mozilla Tackles Walled Gardens, Demos 'Boot to Gecko' Mobile OS". PCMag.com. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Raspberry Pi now comes in Firefox OS flavour". Theregister.com. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
- "B2G Build Prerequisites". Mozilla Developer Network. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Release Management/B2G Landing - MozillaWiki". MozillaWiki. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Mozilla’s Boot 2 Gecko and why it could change the world - Features". Know Your Mobile. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- "B2G/Architecture wiki page". Mozilla wiki. Mozilla. 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
- Mozilla Explains Why Firefox OS Apps Are Fundamentally Better than Native Mobile Apps softpedia.com
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Firefox OS|
- Official Firefox OS website
- Firefox OS project page on MDN
- Latest build version of Firefox OS Simulator