Fireless locomotive

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Preserved Andrew Barclay 0-6-0 fireless steam locomotive, South of Scotland Electricity Board, No. 1 at Glasgow Museum of Transport
Pennsylvania Power and Light "D", a fireless steam locomotive

A fireless locomotive is a type of locomotive designed for use under conditions restricted by either the presence of flammable material (such as in mines and chemical factories) or the need for cleanliness (such as at a food factory). Thus a traditional steam locomotive is ruled out because of its open fire and the possibility of hot embers ejected from its chimney.

There are two types of fireless locomotive – fireless steam locomotives and compressed air locomotives. Diesel and battery electric locomotives fitted with equivalent protection are described as Flame-proof.[1]

Motive power types[edit]


fireless steam locomotive at railroad museum Bochum Dahlhausen, Germany

A fireless steam locomotive is similar to a conventional steam locomotive, but has a reservoir, known as a steam accumulator, instead of a boiler. This reservoir is charged with superheated water under pressure from a stationary boiler. The engine works like a conventional steam engine using the high pressure steam above the water in the accumulator. As the steam is used and pressure drops, the superheated water boils, replacing the used steam. The locomotive can work like this until the pressure has dropped to a minimum useful level or the water runs out, after which it must be recharged.

European fireless steam locomotives usually have the cylinders at the back, while American ones often have the cylinders at the front, as in a conventional locomotive. Major builders of fireless steam locomotives in the UK included Andrew Barclay and W.G. Bagnall.

Compressed air[edit]

Preserved Porter Locomotive Company No. 3290 of 1923.
Compressed air locomotive at Bankhead, Alberta, Canada, formerly used in coal mining.

Compressed air locomotives are used mainly in mines, but have also been used on tramways. (See Mekarski system)


Several hybrid locomotives have been built that have either used a fire for part of the time, e.g., Fowler's Ghost of London's Metropolitan in 1861, or have used a fire to superheat stored steam, such as the Receiver Locomotives built by Sentinel Waggon Works. None has been a success.

Wheel arrangements[edit]

Most fireless locomotives have been of 0-4-0 or 0-6-0 wheel arrangement but there have been some 0-8-0 and even a few 0-10-0. Some 600 mm (1 ft 11 58 in) gauge 0-10-0 fireless locomotives from the German company Henschel were used in the construction of the Baghdad Railway, probably to avoid the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning during the boring of tunnels.[2]

Another German company, Hohenzollern, built some articulated fireless steam locomotives with a cab at each end. Only one of the bogies was powered, making the wheel arrangement B-2.

Current use[edit]

Steam traction became unfashionable in the 1940s and was largely replaced by diesel or electric traction. However, fireless steam has its merits, especially where there is an abundant cheap source of steam, such as in industrial sites, at thermal power stations or refuse incineration plants, where fireless steam locomotives are used for shunting at very low cost.

As they do not emit any exhaust except steam, they can shunt into buildings without endangering the workforce with noxious fumes.

Considering that shunting locomotives are typically working for only about 10% of the time, 90% waiting for work; a diesel locomotive, idling most of the time, burns too much fuel producing nothing.[3] A well insulated modern steam accumulator can preserve pressure over many hours. Thus the operating cost of a fireless steam shunter can be far less than that of a comparable diesel.

Fireless locomotives are also safer to operate than conventional steam locomotives, aside from the elimination of ignition hazards. The primary cause of a locomotive boiler explosion is the depletion of boiler water, through inattention or excessive use, exposing the crown sheet directly to the flames of the firebox, weakening it to the point of failure. A fireless locomotive eliminates this danger—if it runs out of sufficient water, it simply ceases to move—although precautions must be taken as with any other pressure vessel. Furthermore, they did not require careful monitoring of water levels and boiler pressure, nor careful distribution of coal in the firebox for efficient combustion, and thus could be operated by less-skilled staff, not requiring a fully qualified locomotive engineer and fireman.


Several locomotive builders produced fireless engines throughout the 20th century. Meiningen Steam Locomotive Works was still building them in the 1980s. Some fireless locomotives are in daily use even in 2013. One example is the large coal-fired power station in Mannheim where coal is delivered by rail in long trains of self-discharging hopper wagons. Three fireless engines are used to shunt the hoppers on the premises of the power station.

Henschel fireless engine filling steam at the power station Mannheim

East Germany, preferring to use its abundant supply of lignite to imported fuel, used fireless engines extensively. A series of 200 fireless locomotives was built at Raw Meiningen as late as the 1980s.


Switzerland had used older fireless engines in industry, such a breweries. In 2010, the steam company Dampflokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik DLM refurbished two locomotives of the German Meiningen type and modernised them for use on sidings. [4]

fireless engine 002 of DLM, ready for industrial use at a demonstration in Schaffhausen 2010


Numerous examples have been preserved across the world.


The German Wikipedia has a list of steam accumulator locomotives preserved in that country. It entails over 100 preserved fireless engines, 8 of them operational.[5]

South Africa[edit]

The Electricity Supply Commission of South Africa (ESKOM) has preserved two fireless steam locomotives. They are Bagnall 0-6-0F no. 2571 of 1937 and Hawthorne Leslie 0-4-0F no. 3858 of 1935.[6]

United Kingdom[edit]

One notable example is "Lord Ashfield" (Andrew Barclay works no. 1989 of 1930) at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It ran in limited service in the 1990s sharing a steam supply with the stationary exhibits.[7]

The Ayrshire Railway Preservation Group is currently in the process of rebuilding its Andrew Barclay 0-4-0 fireless locomotive (Works Number 1952 of 1928) and intends to operate it as part of a demonstration freight train.

United States[edit]

The North Carolina Transportation Museum in Spencer has a fireless steam locomotive, the North Carolina Power and Light #3 0-4-0.

Three National Cash Register 0-4-0 fireless switchers have been preserved: one at Carillon Historical Park in Dayton, Ohio,[8][9] one at the Southeastern Railway Museum in Duluth, Georgia,[10] and one at the National Museum of Transportation in Kirkwood, Missouri.[11]

Philadelphia Power and Light "D", an 0-8-0 switcher, is preserved in the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania.

Union Electric Company 4, a 0-4-0 is preserved in the Illinois Railway Museum of Union Illinois.[12]

See also[edit]

Industrial fireless locomotive No.9305 at the Central Museum of Railway Transport, Russian Federation, at Varshavsky Rail Terminal, St.Petersburg. Built by Maschinenfabrik L. Schwarzkopff in Germany for the USSR in 1928. It worked at the Tuapse oil refinery.


  1. ^ Industrial Railway Society (2009). Industrial Locomotives (15EL). Industrial Railway Society. ISBN 978-1-901556-53-7. 
  2. ^ Cilician Gates, accessed 2007-09-14
  3. ^ presentation at ZHAW Winterthur, in German, 2013-03-13
  4. ^ Shunting in Schaffhausen 2012-09-07
  5. ^ de:Liste in Deutschland vorhandener Dampfspeicherlokomotiven List over fireless locomotives in Germany (in German)
  6. ^ "About - Company Information". 2008-11-24. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  7. ^ Photo of Lord Ashfield 'in steam'. (Accessed 14 Feb 2008)
  8. ^ "The Little Engines that Could",
  9. ^ Info for Lima Locomotive Works C/N 1087,""
  10. ^ Info for Lima Locomotive Works C/N 1310,""
  11. ^ Info for Lima Locomotive Works C/N 1139,""
  12. ^

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