First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency

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For a chronological listing of 2009 events, see Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama (2009).
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Barack Obama

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Second term

The first 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency began with his inauguration on January 20, 2009 as the 44th President of the United States. The first 100 days of a presidential term took on symbolic significance during Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration, and the period is considered a benchmark to measure the early success of a president. Obama's 100th day in office was April 29, 2009.

Obama began to formally create his presidential footprint during his first 100 days.[1] Obama quickly began attempting to foster support for his economic stimulus package, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[2] The bill passed in the House on January 28, 2009 by a 244–188 vote,[3] and it passed in the Senate on February 10 by a 61–37 margin.[4][5] Obama stated that he should not be judged by his first hundred days: "The first hundred days is going to be important, but it’s probably going to be the first thousand days that makes the difference."[6]

Obama's accomplishments after the first 100 days include passage of the $787 billion economic stimulus plan; signing into law the expanded State Children's Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP), that the White House says provides benefits to 4 million additional working families; signing the Ledbetter law requiring equal pay for women; winning approval of a congressional budget resolution that put Congress on record as dedicated to dealing with major health care reform legislation in 2009; implementing new ethics guidelines designed to significantly curtail the influence of lobbyists on the executive branch; breaking from the Bush administration on a number of policy fronts, except for Iraq, in which he followed through on Bush's Iraq withdrawal of U.S. troops;[7] supporting the UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity; relaxing enforcement of marijuana laws; and lifting the 7½-year ban on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research.[8] He also ordered the closure of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, in Cuba, though it's still open, as well as lifted some travel and money restrictions to the island.[7]

At the end of the first 100 days 65% of Americans approved of how Obama was doing and 29% disapproved.[9] According to Gallup's First quarter survey in April, President Obama received a 63% approval rating. Gallup began tracking presidential approval ratings of the first quarters since Eisenhower in 1953. President Kennedy received the highest in April 1961 with a 74% rating. Obama's 63% is the fourth highest and the highest since President Carter with a 69%. President Reagan's first quarter had 60% approval in 1981, President George.H.W. Bush with 57% in 1989, President Clinton with 55% in 1993, and President George W. Bush with 58% in 2001.[10]

Historical background[edit]

During the Great Depression, Roosevelt promised drastic initiatives within his first 100 days.[11] The New Deal legislation he got passed set a standard of action that subsequent presidents have been measured against. Although it has less significance, some analysts even make comparisons of the performances of presidents during their first 100 days of the second term.[11]

Obama and previous presidents have made statements that downplayed the significance of their first 100 days. John F. Kennedy once said his mission might never be accomplished: "All this will not be finished in the first hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin."[12]

Obama's first 100 days have been highly anticipated ever since he became the apparent presumptive nominee.[13] In his first 60 Minutes post-election interview Obama said that he had been studying Roosevelt's first 100 days.[14] Understanding the significance and symbolism of the first 100 days, Hillary Clinton's campaign strategy included mapping out a first 100 days plan.[15]

While Barack Obama began preparation for his first 100 days during the presidential transition following his election,[16] he stated that America only has one president at a time, especially for issues related to international affairs.[16] During the first hundred days in office presidents are highly scrutinised and heading into the period Obama's intention was to attempt to execute several plans that are going to be watched closely.[17][18]

Media coverage[edit]

Despite his attempt to downplay its significance, Obama's first 100 days were highly anticipated ever since he became the presumptive nominee.[13] Several news outlets, such as Fox News, CBS News, have even created special portals dedicated to covering the subject.[19] Commentators have weighed in on challenges and priorities within the fields of domestic and foreign policy, on economic issues and on the environment.[20][21][22][23] CNN lists a number of economic issues that "Obama and his team will have to tackle in their first 100 days", foremost among which is passing and implementing a recovery package to deal with the ongoing financial crisis.[22] In fact, CNN is among those news outlets that has a dedicated portal for the coverage of Obama's first 100 days.[24] Even MSNBC.com, which does not have a dedicated portal, acknowledges the notability of the first 100 days by including it in the titles of its stories.[25][26][27][28] BBC World Service released the results of an opinion poll of more than 17,000 people in 17 countries on Obama's first day in office that showed that 67% anticipated that Obama would strengthen U.S. relations abroad. The most optimistic respondents were Italians and Germans, 80% of whom thought U.S. relations with the rest of the world would improve under Obama.[29]

Clive Stafford Smith, a British human rights lawyer, has expressed hopes that the new president will close Guantanamo Bay detention camp in his first 100 days in office.[21] After aides of the president announced his intention to hold a major foreign policy speech in the capital of an Islamic country, there were speculations in Jakarta that he might return to his former home city within the first 100 days.[30]

The New York Times devoted a five-day series, which was spread out over two weeks, to anticipatory analysis of Obama's first hundred days. Each day the analysis of a political expert was followed by freely edited blog postings from readers. The writers compared Obama's prospects with the situations of Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 16 and February 2, Jean Edward Smith),[31][32] John F. Kennedy (January 19 and February 10, Richard Reeves),[33][34] Lyndon B. Johnson (January 23, Robert Dallek),[35] Ronald Reagan (January 27, Lou Cannon),[36] and Richard Nixon (February 4, Roger Morris).[37]

Even political advocacy groups such as Amnesty International have planned special strategies to leverage the strategic and political significance of the first 100 days. The group has organized its 100 Days Campaign for human rights.[38]

Comparisons[edit]

Smith notes that prior to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, it was rare for a president to be under the microscope at the outset of his term. She notes that aside from Lincoln and Roosevelt, presidents faced little urgency to make an impact. Formerly, the Inauguration of the President did not occur until March 4 and the United States Congress often did not convene until December. Roosevelt requested that Congress perform unprecedented service by being in session for most of his first hundred days in order to enact a set of 15 laws such as the New Deal's Emergency Banking Act, Amendment of the Volstead Act, Farm Credit Act, legislation for the Civilian Conservation Corps, legislation for the Tennessee Valley Authority, Truth In Securities Act, Glass–Steagall Act, and National Industrial Recovery Act. Obama assumed power with a national crisis of extreme proportions. His first 100 days were anticipated with high expectations as a result.[31] Obama has made some early missteps in his handling of the press by locking most of the media out of the repeated Oath of Office and by not understanding the media's constant want for answers.[39] Smith notes he should take a note from Roosevelt who mastered the press rather than the traditional Dwight D. Eisenhower/James Hagerty method of keeping the press at arm's length. Roosevelt's semi-weekly responses to impromptu questions charmed the press, especially in comparison to predecessors Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover who required advance written questions. Roosevelt enabled the press to feel a part of the administration and made it an enjoyable experience. Roosevelt, a former Harvard Crimson editor-in-chief who felt comfortable around journalists, held 337 first term press conferences. Obama, a former Harvard Law Review editor-in-chief, could use a similar approach to press management.[32]

Reeves described Kennedy's challenge as a combination of an economic issue with seven percent unemployment rate in a recession and global competition with the Soviet Union on several fronts, such as economic growth, armament, and astronautic progress. He had to deal with the appearance of military vulnerability international pursuit of independence. Unlike Obama, Kennedy's inauguration speech reflected a time when global issues overshadowed domestic concerns although the Civil Rights Movement was gaining momentum. During his inauguration, like Obama, Kennedy invoked Lincoln.[33] Kennedy was similar to Obama in the speed with which the emphasis of his Presidency veered from the emphasis of his campaign according to Reeves.[34]

Dallek notes that although Obama focused on comparison with Roosevelt and Kennedy, both he and Johnson entered office at a time of international crisis and diminished confidence in the nation's institutions. However, while Obama represents the fruits of non-violent political action, Johnson's rise was a test of the nation's faith in it. As Johnson assumed office his largest responsibility was to reassure the country that he could effectively lead both at home and abroad. Dallek notes the conspicuous absence of deference to Johnson who served as the country's chief executive while shepherding the enactment of the voting rights laws of 1964 and 1965. He notes the similar need for faith in the country's institutions and provide hope for peace and prosperity. In a sense, Dallek likened Obama to Johnson as President who realises his role a national therapist in addition to that as a leader and an executive.[35]

Canon noted that although Obama has been urged to proactively legislate economic stimulus like Roosevelt and to provide transformational leadership like Kennedy, he should take some cues from Reagan who put personal projects on hold while gaining the country's confidence. Like Obama, Reagan's primary campaign issue had been the domestic economy, while he was influenced by Middle East strife. When he assumed office, he immediately realised that the domestic economy was the lynchpin to his success. Reagan faced high unemployment like Obama. Unlike Obama, Reagan had to make serious concessions with a Democratically controlled House. The Reagan administration cast aside social issues, such as abortion, for most of his first 100 days. This is similar to Obama's decision to remove the family-planning provisions from the stimulus package.[36] The removal of the contraceptive funding for Medicaid was a Reaganesque bipartisan appeal by Obama.[26] Obama has acknowledged Reagan in The Audacity of Hope and may follow more of his philosophies and leadership mantras as his term evolves.[36]

Like Clinton, Obama has the support of Democratic control of both houses of the United States Congress. In his early days, the Republican leadership seemed fractured and ineffective as it operated in the minority.[40]

Barack Obama preparing for his weekly address.

In his first week, Obama established a policy of producing a weekly Saturday morning video address available on Whitehouse.gov and YouTube,[41][42][43] much like those released during his transition period.[44][45] The first address had been viewed by 600,000 YouTube viewers by the next afternoon.[46] The policy is likened to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's fireside chats and other presidents' weekly radio addresses.[45][46]

Although the first hundred days was not a concept relevant in the Lincoln Administration, Obama followed Lincoln by naming the former party front-running Senator from New York as his United States Secretary of State.[citation needed] Lincoln had chosen William H. Seward and Obama chose Hillary Clinton.[47]

Obama has some similarities to Nixon who had a brief tenure in Congress (4 years in the House and 2 years in the Senate) before assuming a position in the Executive Branch.[37] Nixon's 1968 campaign included a plank to "end the war with honor." Nixon employed rivals in key positions including Democrat Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Nelson Rockefeller supporter Henry Kissinger.[37]

Inauguration[edit]

The first 100 days of the Presidency of Barack Obama began during the Inauguration of Barack Obama with the conversion of Whitehouse.gov from the Bush Administration version to the Obama Administration version at 12:00 pm on January 20, 2009.[48] This was only the second presidential online portal transition.[49] At 12:01, White House Director of New Media Macon Phillips posted the website's first blog post with themes of "communication", "transparency" and "participation".[49][50] However, after the first week, the reporters covering the White House became dubious about the pledge of transparency.[39]

Oath of Office[edit]

Presidential Oath of Office

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Obama retaking the oath of office on January 21, 2009
Retaking the Presidential Oath of Office
Re-administering the Presidential Oath, January 21, 2009

Article 2, Section 1, Clause 8 of the Constitution states: "Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:"[51] Then, Article Two of the United States Constitution sets out the language that should be used in the Oath of office of the President of the United States: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." The Vice President also has an oath of office, but it is not mandated by the Constitution and is prescribed by statute.[52]

During the inauguration, there were two matters of controversy. First, although Obama constitutionally assumed the Presidency at noon on January 20, he did not complete the oath of office until 12:05 pm[53][54] Clinton also completed the oath about five minutes late during his first inauguration.[53] Additionally, Obama and the administering official, Chief Justice of the United States John G. Roberts, did not execute the 35-word oath as prescribed by the United States Constitution. First, Obama jumped in before the "do solemnly swear" phrase, which seemed to throw the Chief Justice off his stride. Subsequently, Roberts moved the word "faithfully" back nine spots, and used "to" instead of "of." That threw the president off, and he smiled and paused to collect his thoughts, then decided to follow Roberts' lead. The flaw is recorded in the transcript of the oath as follows:[53][55]

Roberts: I, Barack Hussein Obama …
Obama: I, Barack …
Roberts: … do solemnly swear …
Obama: I, Barack Hussein Obama, do solemnly swear …
Roberts: … that I will execute the office of president to the United States faithfully …
Obama: … that I will execute …
Roberts: … the off – faithfully the pres – the office of president of the United States …
Obama (at the same time): … the office of president of the United States faithfully …

According to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Section 1: "The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January". Thus, Bush had relinquished the Presidency at 12:00. According to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Section 3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President,... if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified." By Article Two, Section 1, Clause 8 of the Constitution and Amendment 20, Some feel that Obama was not able to assume the Presidency until 12:05.[56] In fact, since Obama did not complete his oath until 12:01, there was further speculation as to who was President for the first minute after Bush relinquished control.[56]

Several political and constitutional law experts questioned whether Obama was officially the president since he had not correctly performed the constitutional duty of the Oath.[54] The following day at about 7:35 pm the White House,[57] Roberts re-administered the oath in an act that White House Counsel Greg Craig described as stemming from "an abundance of caution," to quell any concerns that the President may not have been properly sworn in.[51] Both Calvin Coolidge and Chester Arthur retook the oath under similar circumstances.[51]

Administration and Cabinet[edit]

US Cabinet official group photo July 26, 2012.jpg
The Obama Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Barack Obama 2009–present
Vice President Joe Biden 2009–present
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton 2009–2013
John Kerry 2013–present
Secretary of Treasury Timothy Geithner 2009–2013
Jack Lew 2013–present
Secretary of Defense Robert Gates* 2006–2011
Leon Panetta 2011–2013
Chuck Hagel 2013–present
Attorney General Eric Holder 2009–present
Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar 2009–2013
Sally Jewell 2013–present
Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack 2009–present
Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke 2009–2011
John Bryson 2011–2012
Penny Pritzker 2013–present
Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis 2009–2013
Thomas Perez 2013–present
Secretary of Health and
Human Services
Kathleen Sebelius 2009–2014
Sylvia Burwell 2014–present
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan 2009–present
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
Shaun Donovan 2009–2014
Julian Castro 2014–present
Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood 2009–2013
Anthony Foxx 2013–present
Secretary of Energy Steven Chu 2009–2013
Ernest Moniz 2013–present
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki 2009–2014
Robert McDonald 2014–present
Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano 2009–2013
Jeh Johnson 2013–present
Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel 2009–2010
William Daley 2011–2012
Jack Lew 2012–2013
Denis McDonough 2013–present
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Lisa Jackson 2009–2013
Gina McCarthy 2013–present
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
Peter Orszag 2009–2010
Jack Lew 2010–2012
Sylvia Burwell 2013–2014
Shaun Donovan 2014–present
Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice 2009–2013
Samantha Power 2013–present
United States Trade Representative Ron Kirk 2009–2013
Michael Froman 2013–present
*Retained from previous administration
**Elevated to cabinet-level in January 2012

Twenty-two members of the Obama administration are either in the United States Cabinet (15) or are in positions considered to be Cabinet-level (7) and must be confirmed by the current Senate. The members of the Cabinet are the heads of the fifteen major departments (State, Defense, Justice, etc.), and the seven cabinet-level positions are the Vice President, White House Chief of Staff, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, U.S. Trade Representative, Ambassador to the United Nations, and Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy.[58] Since Robert Gates was a member of the previous administration, his letter of resignation (a formality at the end of a President's term) was simply not accepted, and he did not need confirmation.[59] On January 19, 2009, Senate Democratic leaders requested fifteen of the twenty-two positions to be ratified by unanimous consent,[60] and seven gained unanimous confirmation by voice vote the next day: Ken Salazar, Steven Chu, Arne Duncan, Peter Orszag, Eric Shinseki, Tom Vilsack, and Janet Napolitano.[59][61] On January 21, Obama presided over the swearing in of the seven unanimous nominees.[62] Later that day, the Senate confirmed Hillary Clinton by a 94–2 vote.[59][63] On January 22, several more confirmations were approved unanimously: Susan E. Rice, Ray LaHood, Lisa P. Jackson, and Shaun Donovan.[59][64] On January 26, the Senate confirmed Timothy Geithner by a 60–34 margin,[65] and Holder was confirmed on February 2 by a 75–21 margin.[66] Of the 31 nominations that Obama has made to senior posts only 17 were approved in January.[67]

Unanimous Cabinet Confirmations
Left to right: Salazar, Vilsack, Duncan, and Chu were unanimous Inauguration Day confirmations.

At the conclusion of Obama's first week as President, Hilda Solis, Tom Daschle, Ron Kirk, and Eric Holder had yet to be confirmed, and there had been no second appointment for Secretary of Commerce.[68] Republicans were also delaying Solis's confirmation due to a perceived lack of transparency.[68] Holder was later confirmed by a vote of 75–21 on February 2,[69] and on February 3, Obama announced Senator Judd Gregg as his second nomination for Secretary of Commerce, since Bill Richardson had withdrawn amid a grand jury investigation into a state contract awarded to his political donors.[70] Daschle withdrew later that day amid controversy over his failure to pay income taxes and potential conflicts of interest related to the speaking fees he accepted from health care interests.[71] On February 12, Judd Gregg withdrew his nomination as Secretary of Commerce, citing "irresolvable conflicts" with President Obama and his staff over how to conduct the 2010 census and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[72][73] On February 24, Solis was confirmed by an 80–17 vote.[74][75]

The same day rumours abounded that former Democratic two-term Washington governor Gary Locke would be named as the third Obama Commerce Secretary nominee.[76][77][78] Locke was formally nominated on February 26,[79] and was confirmed on March 24 by voice vote.[80]

Left to right: Shinseki and Napolitano were Inauguration Day unanimous confirmations. LaHood and Donovan were confirmed unanimously two days later.

On March 2, Obama introduced Kansas governor Kathleen Sebelius as his second choice for Secretary of Health and Human Services. He also introduced Nancy-Ann DeParle as head of the new White House Office of Health Reform, which he suggested would work closely with the Department of Health and Human Services.[81] Ron Kirk was confirmed on March 18 by a 92–5 vote in the Senate.,[82] and by the end of March, Sebelius was the only remaining Cabinet member yet to be confirmed.[80]

By comparison, Bill Clinton only had one outstanding Cabinet confirmation at the end of his first day in office and George W. Bush had all but one approved before February 1, 2001. Ronald Reagan had twelve of thirteen Cabinet members confirmed before February 1, and Jimmy Carter had all eleven of his confirmed. George H. W. Bush only had seven of thirteen confirmed by this time.[68] Whereas his predecessors had to trade favours for contentious approvals such as Zoe Baird (Clinton), John Tower (G.H.W. Bush), or John Ashcroft (G.W. Bush), Obama has largely focused on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a proposed economic stimulus package totalling nearly $1 trillion.[68]

Cabinet nominations[edit]

During the presidential transition between the election and the inauguration, Obama named Bill Richardson to be his Commerce Secretary. Richardson withdrew his nomination on January 5 because of scrutiny regarding a pay to play scandal in which he was being investigated because his donors curiously received a lucrative transportation contract.[83] On February 3, Obama announced the nomination of Republican Judd Gregg in his place.[84][85]

Cabinet Confirmations
Left to right: Clinton, Geithner, and Holder were controversial confirmations during the first two weeks.

Tom Daschle was Obama's original nominee for Health and Human Services Secretary. However, he owed over $128,000 in taxes over three years, failed to report more than $83,000 in consulting fees in 2007, and owed $12,000 in interest and penalties. He also provided insufficient documentation for $15,000 of the $276,000 in charitable contributions that he and his wife, Linda, gave during the three-year period being studied by the panel. Daschle also had some miscommunications with his accountant on the $255,000 use of a luxury car service that was used 80% for personal services. Daschle paid his back taxes six days before his first confirmation hearings with the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.[86] On February 3, The New York Times called the Daschle nomination into question both for his tax issues and for his extensive private sector work in the health services industry. The editorial noted that although Daschle was aware of his tax problem in June 2008, he did not correct it until his cabinet nomination.[87] Later that day, Daschle withdrew his nomination.[88]

Though Hillary Clinton was ultimately confirmed on January 21 by a 95–2 vote, with David Vitter (R-Louisiana) and Jim DeMint (R-South Carolina) in dissent,[63] Senate Republicans slowed the process due to objections over the charitable activities of Clinton's husband, former President Bill Clinton.[63] John Cornyn (R-Texas) held up proceedings for a day to discuss this matter. Richard Lugar (R-Indiana), the ranking Republican on the Foreign Relations Committee, expressed an interest in President Bill Clinton's foundation reject foreign contributions to avoid possible conflict of interest. Sen. Clinton contended that the foundation's disclosure plans already exceeded legal requirements.

Cabinet Withdrawals
Left to right: Richardson, Daschle and Gregg were original Obama appointees who withdrew their nominations.

Timothy Geithner, who was nominated as Treasury Secretary, also encountered tax issues.[89] He apologised to the United States Senate Committee on Finance for having overlooked paying $34,000 in Social Security and Medicare taxes earlier this decade.[90] The committee endorsed Geithner by an 18–5 margin with half of the ten Republicans opposing the nomination.[91] He was confirmed despite failure to pay a total of $43,000 in taxes and penalties, which troubled the Senate.[92]

Holder was endorsed by the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary by a 17–2 margin on January 28. Dissent on his confirmation centred on his support for some of Bill Clinton's controversial pardons and commutations of sentence.[93] Republican Cornyn had sought a pledge from Holder that he would not prosecute intelligence agents who participated in harsh interrogations, but Holder, who if confirmed will have to review Justice Department officials who may have violated the law for possible prosecution, refused to give such a pledge.[94]

Obama had nominated Nancy Killefer for the position of Chief Performance Officer, but Killefer withdrew on February 3 after it was revealed that she had failed to pay the unemployment compensation tax for a household employee for a period of 18 months.[95]

Late Cabinet Confirmations
Left to right: Solis was confirmed on February 24 and Gary Locke was confirmed as the Commerce Secretary on March 24. Kathleen Sebelius was confirmed as the Health and Human Services Secretary on April 28. Sebelius was the last Cabinet nominee to be confirmed by the Senate.

The vote on Hilda Solis for Secretary of Labor had originally been scheduled for February 5, but she faced delayed confirmation hearings due to her pro-labor activities as a board member of American Rights at Work and because of $6,400 in unpaid tax liens against her husband's auto repair business.[96] Both Solis, who was uninvolved in the business, and her husband claimed not to have had any knowledge of the 16-year old liens prior to their disclosure by a newspaper, and they paid it when notified.[97] Delays were however exacerbated due to Solis' perceived unresponsiveness to questions.[98] On February 11, the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions voted by voice vote to endorse Hilda Solis as the Labor Secretary,[97][98] with the only dissenting members of the 22-person committee Republicans Tom Coburn and Pat Roberts.[99] Solis was later confirmed on February 24.[100]

On February 12, Senator Judd Gregg withdrew his name from consideration as United States Commerce Secretary. Judd cited policy differences between himself and the Obama administration as his primary reasons and noted that unlike earlier withdrawals he was not having difficulties with the vetting process. He had reservations about the stimulus package and about the changes being made in the United States Census Bureau as his primary concerns.[72][101][102]

Gregg has a track record of opposing funding for the Census, that is highlighted by his tenure as the Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on the Budget. The Congressional Black Caucus and National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials both expressed disappointment at Gregg's nomination because the United States Department of Commerce oversees the Census. The White House subsequently said it take control of the 2010 United States Census, but then backpedaled saying that they would "work closely" with the United States Census Director. Republicans were alarmed by the foreshadowing of "backroom deals" by the White House and Rahm Emanuel.[103][104]

While pundits puzzled over U.S. Trade Representative-designate Ron Kirk's failure to be confirmed by March 2009, it was reported on March 2 that Kirk owed over $10,000 in back taxes. Kirk agreed to pay them in exchange for Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus's aid in speeding up the confirmation process;[105] he was later confirmed on March 18.[82]

On March 31, Kathleen Sebelius, Obama's nominee for Health and Human Services secretary, revealed in a letter to the Senate Finance Committee that her Certified Public Accountant found errors in her tax returns for years 2005–2007. She, along with her husband, paid more than $7,000 in back taxes, along with $878 in interest.[106]

Notable non-Cabinet positions[edit]

Appointees serve at the pleasure of the President and were nominated by Barack Obama except as noted.

1Appointed by George W. Bush in 2006 to a five-year term
2Appointed by George W. Bush in 2001 to a ten-year term

Policy[edit]

Obama addresses a joint session of Congress, with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.
Obama addresses the 111th United States Congress

Audio-only version

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One of the first acts by the Obama administration after assuming control was an order signed by Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel that suspended all pending federal regulations proposed by outgoing President George W. Bush so that they could be reviewed. This was comparable to prior moves by the Bush Administration upon assuming control from Bill Clinton, who in his final 20 days in office issued 12 executive orders.[107]

Due to the economic crisis, the President enacted a pay freeze for senior White House staff making more than $100,000 per year.[108] The action affected approximately 120 staffers and added up to about a $443,000 savings for the United States government.[109]

Obama also announced stricter guidelines regarding lobbyists in an effort to raise the ethical standards of the White House.[110] The new policy bans aides from attempting to influence the administration for at least two years if they leave his staff. It also bans aides on staff from working on matters they have previously lobbied on, or to approach agencies that they targeted while on staff. Their ban also included a gift-giving ban.[111] However, one day later he nominated William J. Lynn III, a lobbyist for defence contractor Raytheon, for the position of Deputy Secretary of Defense.[112][113] Obama later nominated William Corr, an anti-tobacco lobbyist, for Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services.[114]

In his first week in office, President Obama signed an executive order suspending all the ongoing proceedings of Guantanamo military commission and ordering that the detention facility would be shut down within the year.[115][116][117] He also signed an order requiring the Army Field Manual to be used as guide for terror interrogations, banning torture and other illegal coercive techniques, such as waterboarding.[118] Obama also issued an executive order entitled "Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel," setting stricter limitations on incoming executive branch employees and placing tighter restrictions on lobbying in the White House.[119] Obama signed two Presidential Memoranda concerning energy independence, ordering the Department of Transportation to establish higher fuel efficiency standards before 2011 models are released and allowing states to raise their emissions standards above the national standard.[120] He also ended the Mexico City Policy, which banned funds to international groups that provide abortion services or counselling.[121][122]

In his first week he also established a policy of producing a weekly Saturday morning video address available on Whitehouse.gov and YouTube,[41][42][43] much like those released during his transition period.[44][45] The first address had been viewed by 600,000 YouTube viewers by the next afternoon.[46] The policy is likened to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's fireside chats and George W. Bush's weekly radio addresses.[45][46]

The first piece of legislation signed by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act on January 29, which promoted fair pay regardless of gender, race, or age. Lilly Ledbetter joined Obama and his wife, Michelle, as he signed the bill, fulfilling his campaign pledge to nullify Ledbetter v. Goodyear.[123]

On February 18, 2009, Obama announced that the U.S. military presence in Afghanistan would be bolstered by 17,000 new troops by summer.[124] The announcement followed the recommendation of several experts including Defense Secretary Robert Gates that additional troops be deployed to the strife-torn South Asian country.[125]

Nine days after his speech on Afghanistan, Obama addressed Marines at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, and outlined an exit strategy for the Iraq War. Obama promised to withdraw all combat troops from Iraq by August 31, 2010, and a "transitional force" of up to 50,000 counterterrorism, advisory, training, and support personnel by the end of 2011.[126]

On April 5, 2009, Barack Obama promoted the goal of a nuclear-free world.[127]

Policy review[edit]

There are some who hold the opinion that Obama has not restored confidence in the economy along many levels and point to the 332-point decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average on Inauguration Day as the first evidence of this fact. They take issue with both the Troubled Assets Relief Program and the stimulus package.[128]

The stimulus package passed in the House of Representatives on January 28 without a single Republican vote. The Republicans developed opposition without developing consensus on an alternative plan.[40] Conservatives who have been supportive of Obama have come out against the plan.[25] The Wall Street Journal has questioned whether the $825 billion package is well designed.[129] However, Duncan notes that one of the largest components, $140 billion earmarked for education, is well spent.[130] Christopher Dodd is credited with inserting the last-minute pay limit into American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The pay restrictions included prohibition of bonuses in excess of one-third of total salary for any company receiving any money from the plan and was retroactive to companies that received funds under Troubled Assets Relief Program. The limit was a significant alteration of the administration's plan and caught Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner and National Economic Council Chairman Lawrence Summers by surprise.[131]

After Obama announced deadlines for the phased withdrawal of U.S. military forces from Iraq, Congress broadly endorsed the president's plan and agreed to legislate the stated timetables, though some in the Democratic Party balked at the 50,000-head figure for the transitional force and many in the Republican Party criticised the deadlines' rigidity. Arizona Senator John McCain, the Republican presidential nominee in the 2008 election, voiced support for his former rival's plan.[132]

Other notable events[edit]

On March 19, Obama became the first sitting president to appear on a late night talk show when he was a guest on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.[133][134] On April 2, Obama attended the G-20 London Summit. On April 17–19 he attended the 5th Summit of the Americas where he met Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez, a longtime enemy of Washington, who shook his hand and gave him the book Las venas abiertas de América Latina (Open Veins of Latin America) of Eduardo Galeano while media was present.[135] On April 28, day 99 of Obama's presidency, Senator Arlen Specter (a former Democrat who switched to the Republican party in 1966) returned to the Democratic Party. Specter increased the Democratic senators to 59, one short of a filibuster-proof majority.[136] At the conclusion of the first 100 days, over 100 federal judgeships remained vacant.[137]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Jumping the gun". The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Limited). December 4, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Obama: 'Dramatic Action' Needed Now to Fix Economy". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 17, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009. [dead link]
  3. ^ Calmes, Jackie (January 28, 2009). "House Passes Stimulus Plan Despite G.O.P. Opposition". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  4. ^ Phillips, Kate (February 10, 2009). "Senate Passes Stimulus Bill, 61-37". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  5. ^ Ahrens, Frank (February 10, 2009). "Senate Passes Stimulus Bill, 61-37". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  6. ^ Reid, Tim (November 1, 2008). "Barack Obama lays plans to deaden expectation after election victory". The Times (London). Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b King: Second 100 days will be bigger test for Obama, CNN, John King
  8. ^ In First 100 Days, Obama Flips Bush Admin's Policies, ABC News, Huma Khan, April 29, 2009
  9. ^ "At 100 Days, Obama Approval Broad as Well as Deep". Gallup.com. April 29, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Obama Averages 63% Approval in His First quarter". Gallup.com. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Schuster, David (May 2, 2005). "First 100 days of the second term: President Bush has reached an important milestone". MSNBC. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  12. ^ Meacham, Jon (January 18, 2009). "How Will He Govern? Watch the First Day.". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b Dorning, Mike (May 28, 2008). "Obama's priorities for first 100 days". The Swamp. Tribune Interactive. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  14. ^ Chernus, Ira (December 16, 2008). "The First Hundred Days or the Last Hundred Days?". The LA Progressive. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Clinton sketches her first 100 days agenda: Says Bush-Cheney era would be over in name and in practice on day one". MSNBC. April 15, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b Shear, Michael D. (January 17, 2009). "Obama's "one president" gambit". Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  17. ^ Cilizza, Chris (January 9, 2009). "Wag the Blog Redux: Obama's First 100 Days". The Fix. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  18. ^ Greenberg, David (January 16, 2009). "Fearless Leader". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  19. ^ Examples of "100 days"–portals:
  20. ^ Hall, Ashley (January 21, 2009). "Domestic issues to dominate Obama's first 100 days in office". ABC Online, Australia. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b Naughton, Philippe (January 21, 2009). "Barack Obama calls halt to Guantanamo trials". The Times (London). Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Sahadi, Jeanne (January 20, 2009). "First 100 days: Obama's burden". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  23. ^ West, Larry (January 20, 2009). "Obama’s First 100 Days: An Environmental Agenda for Obama’s First 100 Days". About.com. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  24. ^ "The 44th President: First 100 days". CNNPolitics.com (Cable News Network). Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  25. ^ a b Montanaro, Domenico (January 30, 2009). "First 100 days: Selling the stimulus". MSNBC. Retrieved February 4, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b Montanaro, Domenico (January 27, 2009). "First 100 days: Heading to the Hill". MSNBC. Retrieved February 4, 2009. 
  27. ^ "First 100 days: Green offensive". MSNBC. January 26, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2003. 
  28. ^ "First 100 days: Obama vs. Wall Street". MSNBC. January 30, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2003. 
  29. ^ Thomas, Archie (January 20, 2009). "World watches Obama inauguration: International audiences have mixed views". Variety. Retrieved March 9, 2009. 
  30. ^ Murray, Lisa (January 22, 2009). "Jakarta schoolchildren cheer for the rise of a former student". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved January 21, 2009. 
  31. ^ a b Smith, Jean Edward (January 16, 2009). "How F.D.R. Made the Presidency Matter". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  32. ^ a b Smith, Jean Edward (February 2, 2009). "Obama, F.D.R. and Taming the Press". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 4, 2009. 
  33. ^ a b Reeves, Richard (January 19, 2009). "Kennedy’s Words, Obama’s Challenge". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  34. ^ a b Reeves, Richard (February 10, 2009). "Missile Gaps and Other Broken Promises". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  35. ^ a b Dallek, Richard (January 23, 2009). "L.B.J., Obama and Reassuring a Worried Nation". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  36. ^ a b c Cannon, Lou (January 27, 2009). "Obama’s Reagan Transformation?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  37. ^ a b c Morris, Roger (February 4, 2009). "The President Behind the Mask". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  38. ^ "100 Days Action!". Amnesty International USA. Retrieved February 16, 2009. 
  39. ^ a b Folkenflik, David (January 27, 2009). "Obama Pledges 'Openness,' But Reporters Wonder". NPR. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  40. ^ a b Barabak, Mark Z. and Janet Hook (January 30, 2009). "Republicans lack a party line on economy". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 4, 2009. 
  41. ^ a b "President Barack Obama's Weekly Video Address". Whitehouse.gov. White House. January 24, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  42. ^ a b "Official White House YouTube Channel". YouTube, LLC. January 24, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b Baker, Peter (January 24, 2009). "In Effort to Build Support, Obama Details Stimulus Plan". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  44. ^ a b Bleeker, Andrew (November 15, 2008). "Your Weekly Address from the President-elect". Change.gov. The Office of the President-elect. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  45. ^ a b c d Vargas, Jose Antonio (November 14, 2008). "The YouTube Presidency". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  46. ^ a b c d Rutenberg, Jim and Adam Nagourney (January 25, 2009). "Melding Obama’s Web to a YouTube Presidency". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  47. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (November 17, 2008). "Hillary Clinton to accept Obama's offer of secretary of state job". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  48. ^ Schonfeld, Erick (January 20, 2009). "Whitehouse.gov Has A New Face, And a Blog". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  49. ^ a b Vargas, Jose Antonio and Sarah Cohen (January 21, 2009). "Democracy Online: WhiteHouse.gov Turns the Page". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  50. ^ Phillips, Macon (January 20, 2009). "Change has come to WhiteHouse.gov". Whitehouse.gov. White House. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  51. ^ a b c "Obama retakes oath of office after flub". MSNBC. 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Oath of office in the US : Title 5, 3331. Oath of office". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved November 11, 2008. 
  53. ^ a b c Mears, Bill (January 21, 2009). "Obama re-takes oath of office at the White House". Political Ticker (Cable News Network LP, LLLP). Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  54. ^ a b Knowles, David (January 21, 2009). "Is Obama Really President After Oath Flub?". Political Machine. AOL, LLC. Archived from the original on 2009-03-25. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  55. ^ Montanaro, Domenico (January 20, 2009). "About That Oath Flub". MSNBC. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  56. ^ a b Beaujon, Andrew (January 20, 2009). "Remember When Biden Was President?". Washington City Paper. Creative Loafing Media. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  57. ^ "Obama retakes oath of office after Roberts' mistake". CNNPolitics.com (Cable News Network). January 22, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  58. ^ Daniel Guarnera (December 19, 2008). "Obama's Cabinet Full ... Except for Drug Czar". Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  59. ^ a b c d "The Obama Cabinet: Confirmations & Nominations". National Public Radio. January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  60. ^ Rushing, J. Taylor (January 19, 2009). "Senate considers unanimous-consent on Obama Cabinet". The Hill. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Senate confirms 7 Obama Cabinet nominees: Vote on Clinton delayed a day after Cornyn's objection". The Houston Chronicle. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  62. ^ Knowlton, Brian (January 21, 2009). "On His First Full Day, Obama Tackles Sobering Challenges". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  63. ^ a b c Meyer, Josh and Paul Richter (January 21, 2009). "Hillary Clinton confirmed for Cabinet, but Eric Holder delayed". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  64. ^ Phillips (January 22, 2009). "More Obama Cabinet Nominees Confirmed". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  65. ^ "Geithner confirmed, sworn in at Treasury: Obama cites urgency of acting quickly". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). January 27, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Holder confirmed as attorney general". Cable News Network. February 2, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  67. ^ Kamen, Al (February 2, 2009). "The Nomination Express, Stuck in First Gear". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  68. ^ a b c d Weisman, Jonathan (January 24, 2009). "Delays in Cabinet Nominations Demonstrate GOP Resolve". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  69. ^ Senate confirms Holder as first black AG
  70. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (February 2, 2009). "Obama Set to Add Republican to Cabinet". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  71. ^ Daschle withdraws as nominee for HHS secretary
  72. ^ a b Kady, Martin II and Jonathan Martin (February 12, 2009). "W.H. 'blindsided' by Gregg withdrawal". The Politico. Capitol News Company LLC. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  73. ^ Gregg withdraws nomination to become commerce secy
  74. ^ Phillips, Kate (February 24, 2009). "Senate Confirms Solis as Labor Secretary". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  75. ^ Fletcher, Michael A. (February 24, 2009). "Solis Confirmed as Labor Secretary". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  76. ^ Baker, Peter (February 23, 2009). "Official Says Ex-Governor Is New Commerce Choice". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  77. ^ Bandyk, Matthew (February 24, 2009). "What You Should Know About Gary Locke, Obama's Potential Commerce Secretary". U.S.News & World Report (U.S.News & World Report LP). Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  78. ^ Cillizza, Chris (February 24, 2009). "Locke Called Commerce Pick: Former Washington Governor Was a Clinton Supporter". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  79. ^ Former Gov. Gary Locke nominated for Commerce secretary
  80. ^ a b Wheaton, Sarah (March 24, 2009). "Locke Confirmed as Commerce Secretary". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  81. ^ CQ Transcript: President Obama Announces Nomination of Gov. Kathleen Sebelius to Head HHS[dead link]
  82. ^ a b Former Dallas Mayor Ron Kirk confirmed as US trade representative
  83. ^ Mitchell, Andrea (January 6, 2009). "Richardson withdrawal leaves cabinet gap: New Mexico governor insists he will be cleared in a grand jury probe". MSNBC. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  84. ^ Bandyk, Matt (February 3, 2009). "Judd Gregg To Be Commerce Secretary, Stick Out Like Sore Thumb In Obama Cabinet". U.S.News & World Report. U.S.News & World Report LP. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  85. ^ Bandyk, Matt (February 3, 2009). "Judd Gregg: The Anti-Commerce Secretary?". U.S.News & World Report. U.S.News & World Report LP. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  86. ^ Connolly, Ceci, Paul Kane and Joe Stephens (January 31, 2009). "Daschle Owed Back Taxes That Exceeded $128,000". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  87. ^ "Editorial: The Travails of Tom Daschle". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  88. ^ Henry, Ed and Kristi Keck (February 3, 2009). "Daschle withdraws as HHS nominee". The 44th President: First 100 Days (Cable News Network). Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  89. ^ Obama's promise of ethics reform faces early test, International Herald Tribune, February 3, 2009
  90. ^ Flaherty, Anne (January 22, 2009). "Senate confirms Clinton as secretary of state". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 2, 2009. [dead link]
  91. ^ "Geithner Gets Senate Committee Approval For Treasury". CNBC. CNBC, Inc. January 29, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. [dead link]
  92. ^ Cho, David (January 27, 2009). "Taking Office at Treasury, Geithner Vows Swift Action". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  93. ^ "Senate set to confirm Holder as AG on Monday". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). January 29, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. [dead link]
  94. ^ Margasak, Larry (February 2, 2009). "Holder debate turns partisan". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 2, 2009. [dead link]
  95. ^ Official: Performance czar withdraws candidacy, Associated Press, February 3, 2009
  96. ^ Tax problems delay vote on Hilda Solis, UPI Online, February 5, 2009
  97. ^ a b Rhee, Foon (February 11, 2009). "Solis nomination clears committee". The Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  98. ^ a b Fletcher, Michael A. (February 11, 2009). "Solis Nomination Sent to Full Senate". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  99. ^ Allen, JoAnne (February 11, 2009). "Obama's labor nominee advances despite tax problem". Thomson Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  100. ^ political ticker
  101. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (February 12, 2009). "Gregg Withdraws as Commerce Secretary Nominee". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  102. ^ Murray, Mark and Ken Strickland (February 12, 2009). "Judd Gregg withdraws nomination". MSNBC. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  103. ^ "Gregg Withdrawal Complicates Plans for 2010 Census". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. [dead link]
  104. ^ "Political Fight Brewing Over Gregg, Census". WMUR-TV. Internet Broadcasting Systems, Inc./The Associated Press. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. [dead link]
  105. ^ Trade nominee Ron Kirk agrees to pay back taxes[dead link]
  106. ^ Another Obama Nominee Has Tax Issues, CBS News, March 31, 2009
  107. ^ "Obama halts all regulations pending review". Associated Press. January 20, 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  108. ^ "Obama's first day: Pay freeze, lobbying rules". MSNBC. January 21, 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  109. ^ Kravitz, Derek (January 22, 2009). "Adding Up the White House Pay Freeze". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  110. ^ Memmott, Mark (January 21, 2009). "Obama freezing pay of top staff; signs ethics rules". USA Today. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  111. ^ Loven, Jennifer (January 21, 2009). "Obama freezes salaries of some White House aides". Yahoo! News. Yahoo! Inc./The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  112. ^ "Obama breaks his own rule". CNN. January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  113. ^ Obama Nominee Runs Into New Lobby Rules, Washington Post, January 23, 2009
  114. ^ "Promises, Promises: No lobbyists at WH, except ...". Associated Press. February 2, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved February 3, 2009. 
  115. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Glaberson, William (January 21, 2009). "Obama Issues Directive to Shut Down Guantánamo". NY Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010. 
  116. ^ "Closure Of Guantanamo Detention Facilities". Whitehouse.gov. January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Obama signs order to close Guantanamo in a year". USA Today. January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2009. [dead link]
  118. ^ Obama Reverses Key Bush Security Policies, New York Times, January 22, 2009
  119. ^ "Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel". Whitehouse.gov. White House. Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  120. ^ "From Peril to Progress". Whitehouse.gov. White House. January 26, 2009. Retrieved January 26, 2009. 
  121. ^ "Obama ends funding ban for abortion groups abroad". Reuters. January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  122. ^ Obama reverses Bush abortion-funds policy January 23, 2009
  123. ^ "A Wonderful Day". Whitehouse.gov. White House. January 29, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  124. ^ Hodge, Amanda (February 19, 2009). "Obama launches Afghanistan surge". The Australian.  (If you receive a 403 "forbidden" error using the previous link, try this one instead)
  125. ^ "Gates: More Troops For Afghanistan". The New York Post. January 27, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Obama outlines Iraq pullout plan". BBC News. February 27, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  127. ^ Obama promotes nuclear-free world April 5, 2009
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  129. ^ "A 40-Year Wish List: You won't believe what's in that stimulus bill.". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). January 28, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009. 
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  134. ^ The Associated Press: Maria Shriver: Obama Special Olympics 'joke' hurts
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External links[edit]