First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union

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Promotional poster to the 1926 Census

The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in December 1926. It was an important tool in the state-building of the USSR, provided the government with important ethnographic information, and helped in the transformation from Imperial Russian society to Soviet society. The decisions made by ethnographers in determining the ethnicity (narodnost) of individuals, whether in the Asiatic or European parts of the former Russian Empire, through the drawing up of the "List of Ethnicities of the USSR", and how borders were drawn in mixed areas had a significant influence on Soviet policies. Ethnographers, statisticians, and linguists were drawing up questionnaires and list of ethnicities for the census. However, they also had the more ambitious goal of deliberately transforming their identities according to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. As Anastas Mikoyan put it, the Soviet Union was: "creating and organising new nations".[1]

Previous censuses[edit]

The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union followed two partial censuses carried out by the Bolsheviks following their seizure of power in Russia. The first, the general census of 1920, took place during the Civil War and the Soviet-Polish War. It was thus unable to deal with the Crimea, much of Transcaucasia, Ukraine, Belarus, Far Eastern, Siberian, and Central Asian parts of the Soviet Union as well as with its Far Northern parts. Yet it is worth to note that there was only 15,000,000 population increase between 1920 and 1926 constituting in some 131,304,931 people according to the TIME magazine while is still undisclosed in Russian history.[2] The 1923 Census was restricted to cities. Prior to the Russian Revolution, the only Russian Empire Census was done in 1897.

Methodology[edit]

By classifying the population in terms of narodnosti (nationalities)—as opposed to tribe or clan—along with policies which gave these nations land, resources, and rights, experts and local elites were encouraged to interfere with the information collecting.

List of ethnicities[edit]

This list, called Programmy i posobiya po razrabotke Vsesoyuznoy perepisi naseleniya 1926 goda, vol. 7, Perechen i slovar narodnostey, Moscow 1927, was developed by the Central Statistical Administration of the USSR.[3]

  1. Russian - 77 791 124
  2. Ukrainian - 31 194 976
  3. Belarusian - 4 738 923
  4. Polish - 782 334
  5. Czech
  6. Slovak
  7. Serb
  8. Bulgarian - 111 296
  9. Latvian - 151 410
  10. Lithuanian - 41 463
  11. Latgalian
  12. Samogitian (Zhmud)
  13. German - 1 238 549
  14. British
  15. Swedish
  16. Dutch
  17. Italian
  18. French
  19. Romanian - 278 903
  20. Moldovan - 278 903
  21. Greek - 213 765
  22. Albanian (Arnaut)
  23. Jewish - 2 599 973
  24. Crimean Jewish
  25. Mountain Jewish (Dag Chufut)
  26. Georgian Jewish
  27. Bukharan Jewish (Dzhugur)
  28. Karaim
  29. Finnish
  30. Leningrad Finnish (Chukhon)
  31. Karelian
  32. Tavastian
  33. Estonian - 154 666
  34. Vepsian (Chud)
  35. Vod (Vote)
  36. Izhorian (Ingrian)
  37. Kven
  38. Lopar (Sami people)
  39. Zyrian
  40. Permyak
  41. Udmurt (Votiak)
  42. Besermyan
  43. Mari (Cheremis)
  44. Mordva (Moksha, Erzya, Teryukhan, Karatai)
  45. Magyar (Hungarian)
  46. Gagauz
  47. Chuvash - 1 117 419
  48. Tatar - 2 916 536
  49. Mishar (Meshcheriak)
  50. Bashkir - 713 693
  51. Nagaybak
  52. Nogai
  53. Gypsy
  54. Kalmyk
  55. Mongol
  56. Buryat
  57. Sart-Kalmyk
  58. Mansi (Vogul)
  59. Khanty (Ostyak)
  60. Selkup (Ostyak-Samoyed)
  61. Nenets (Samoyed)
  62. Yurak
  63. Soyot (Uriankhai)
  64. Barabin (Barbara Tartar)
  65. Bukharan (Bukharlyk)
  66. Chernevyy Tatar (Tubalar, Tuba-Kizhi)
  67. Altai (Altai-Kizhi, Mountain or White Kalmyk)
  68. Teleut
  69. Telengit (Telengut)
  70. Kumandin (Lebedin, Ku-Kohzi)
  71. Shors
  72. Kharagas (Tuba, Kharagaz)
  73. Kızıl (Kyzyl)
  74. Kachin
  75. Sagai
  76. Koybal
  77. Beltir
  78. Dolgan (Dolgan-Iakut)
  79. Yakut (Sakha, Urangkhai-Sakha) - 240 709
  80. Tungus (Ovenk, Murchen)
  81. Lamut
  82. Orochon
  83. Goldai (Nanai)
  84. Olchi (Mangun, Ulchi)
  85. Negidal (Negda, Eleke Beye)
  86. Orochi
  87. Udegei (Ude)
  88. Orok
  89. Manegir
  90. Samogir
  91. Manchurian
  92. Chukchi
  93. Koryaks
  94. Kamchadal (Itel'men)
  95. Gilyak (Nivkhi)
  96. Yukagir
  97. Chuvan
  98. Aleut
  99. Eskimo
  100. Enisei (Ket, Enisei Ostiak)
  101. Aino (Ainu, Kuchi)
  102. Chinese
  103. Korean
  104. Japanese
  105. Georgian (Kartvelian) - 1 821 184
  106. Ajar
  107. Megeli (Mingrelian)
  108. Laz (Chan)
  109. Svan (Svanetian)
  110. Abkhaz (Abkhazian) - 56 957
  111. Cherkess (Adyghe)
  112. Beskesek-Abaza (Abazin)
  113. Kabard
  114. Ubykh
  115. Chechen (Nakh, Nakhchuo)
  116. Ingush (Galgai, Kist)
  117. Batsbi (Tsova-Tish, Batswa)
  118. Maistvei
  119. Lezgin
  120. Tabasaran
  121. Agul
  122. Archi
  123. Rutul (Mykhad)
  124. Tsakhur
  125. Khinalug
  126. Dzhek (Dzhektsy)
  127. Khaput (Gaputlin,Khaputlin)
  128. Kryz
  129. Budukh (Budug)
  130. Udin
  131. Dargin
  132. Kubachin (Ughbug)
  133. Lak (Kazi-Kumukh)
  134. Avar (Avartsy, Khunzal)
  135. Andi (Andiitsy, Kwanally)
  136. Botlog (Buikhatli)
  137. Godoberi
  138. Karatai
  139. Akhvakh
  140. Bagulal (Kvanandin)
  141. Chamalal
  142. Tindi (Tindal, Idera)
  143. Didoi (Tsez)
  144. Kvarshi
  145. Kapuchin (Bezheta)
  146. Khunzal (Enzebi, Nakhad)
  147. Armenian - 1 567 568
  148. Hemshin
  149. Arab
  150. Aisor (Assyrian, Syriac, Chaldean)
  151. Kaytak (Karakaitak)
  152. Bosha (Karachi, Armenian Gypsy)
  153. Ossetian - 272 272
  154. Kurd
  155. Yazid
  156. Talysh
  157. Tat
  158. Persian
  159. Karachai
  160. Kumyk
  161. Balkar (Mountain Tartar, Malkar)
  162. Karakalpak
  163. Turk
  164. Ottoman Turk (Osmanli)
  165. Samarkand and Fergana Turk
  166. Turkmen - 763 940
  167. Kirgiz (Kyrgyz, Kara-Kirgiz)
  168. Karakalpak - 146 317
  169. Kypchak
  170. Kashgar
  171. Taranchi
  172. Kazakh (Kirgiz-Kazakh, Kirgiz-Kaisak) - 3 968 289
  173. Kurama
  174. Uzbek - 3 904 622
  175. Dungan
  176. Afghan
  177. Tajik - 978 680
  178. Vakhan
  179. Ishkashim
  180. Shugnan
  181. Yagnob
  182. Yazgul
  183. Iranian
  184. Jemshid
  185. Beludji
  186. Berber
  187. Khazara
  188. Hindu (Indian)
  189. Other Ethnicities
  190. Ethnicities not noted or noted inexactly
a) Tavlin
b) Kryashen
c) Teptyar
d) Uigar
e) Oirot
f) Khakass
g) Others

191. Foreign subjects

Population by republics[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Национальный вопрос и национальная култура в Северо-Кавказском крае (Итоги и перспективы): К предстоящему съезду горских народов" (Natsionalny vopros i natsionalnaya kultura v Severo-Kavkazskom kraye (Itogi i perspektivy): K predstoyashchemu syezdu gorskikh narodov), Rostov-on-Don, 1926.
  2. ^ Russia:Decennial. Overview of Russian life 10 years after the revolution by the TIME magazine (English)
  3. ^ Empire of Nations:Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union by Francine Hirsch, Cornell University Press, 2005, pp. 329–333