First Chinese domination of Vietnam
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2010)|
|History of Vietnam|
The First Chinese domination is an early historical period in Vietnamese history, during which the Vietnamese was under Chinese expansion from the north. It is the first of four periods of domination, the first three of which are almost continuous and referred to as the Bắc thuộc ("Northern domination").
In 111 B.C. Han armies conquered Vietnam and incorporated it into the expanding Han Empire. The Vietnamese resisted the Han government's efforts to introduce Chinese literature, arts and agricultural techniques. They not only guarded their national identity but also fought fiercely to preserve it. This finally ended in 39 AD when the most famous of several early Vietnamese revolts was led by the Trưng Sisters, both widows of local aristocrats. Their revolt was successful and the older sister, Trung Trac, became ruler of an independent state for three years.
In 111 BC, the Han Dynasty armies defeated the successors of Zhao Tuo (Triệu Đà) and incorporated Nam Việt and former Au Lac into the Han empire under the new name of Jiaozhi (Giao Chi), dividing the former kingdom into nine commanderies:
- Nanhai (南海; Vietnamese: Nam Hải; located in Lingnan, modern central Guangdong)
- Hepu (合浦; Vietnamese: Hợp Phố; located in Lingnan, modern southern coastal Guangxi)
- Cangwu (蒼梧; Vietnamese: Thương Ngô; located in Lingnan, modern eastern Guangxi)
- Yulin (郁林/鬱林; Vietnamese: Uất Lâm; located in Lingnan, probably Guilin, modern northeastern Guangxi)
- Zhuya (珠崖; Vietnamese: Châu Nhai; located on Hainan)
- Dan'er (儋耳; Vietnamese: Đạm Nhĩ; located on Hainan),
- Jiaozhi (交趾; Vietnamese: Giao Chỉ; located in northern Vietnam and part of southern Guangxi)
- Jiuzhen (九真; Vietnamese: Cửu Chân; probably located in central Vietnam)
- Rinan (日南; Vietnamese: Nhật Nam; probably located in central Vietnam)
The Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and taxes to the Hans. The Han mandarins tried to occupy large areas of land and changed them into Chinese style farms and brought Chinese peasants to work them. The Chinese attempted to impose Chinese culture, institutions, educational system, politics, language, art, music, architecture and religion on the Vietnamese, and imported Chinese administrators to replace the local nobility. However, implementation of a foreign administrative system and the Sinicization was not easy, frequent uprisings and rebellions were indicative of Vietnamese resistance to these changes.
Under foreign rule, the Vietnamese people had to adopt foreign writing system, but lost much of their spoken language, and their national identity.
The Hans were anxious to extend their control over the fertile Red River Delta, in part to serve as a convenient supply point for Han ships engaged in the growing maritime trade with South and Southeast Asia. During the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently, and the Lạc lords maintained their feudal offices. In the first century A.D., however, the Han dynasty intensified its efforts to assimilate its new territories by raising taxes and instituting marriage reforms aimed at turning Vietnam into a patriarchal society more amenable to political authority.
Historical accounts of the Triệu Dynasty 
Trưng uprising 
In response to increasingly oppressive Han rule, a revolt broke out in Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen (Cửu Chân), and Rinan (Nhật Nam) in 39, led by Trưng Trắc, the wife of a Lạc lord named Thi Sách who had been put to death by Su Ding (Tô Định) governor of Jiaozhi, and her sister Trưng Nhị. The Trưng Sisters incited a victorious armed revolt against Han authorities, took over 65 cities. They were crowned the queens in 40, renaming the country Lĩnh Nam. This marked the end of the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.
- Charles S. Prebish Buddhism: A Modern Perspective 1975 Page 174 "This was the first Chinese domination of Vietnam which lasted until A.d. 39, when the heroic Tru'un Trac, outraged at the Chinese for the unjust execution of her husband, and her younger sister Tru'un Nhi, managed to free the land for a brief four years."
- Google Books result
- Taylor 63
- Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam. ISBN 0-520-07417-3
|First Chinese domination of Vietnam
111 BC – 39 AD