List of First Ladies of the United States

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First Lady of the
United States
Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Obama

since January 20, 2009
Style Mrs. Obama
Residence White House
Inaugural holder Martha Washington
Formation April 30, 1789
Website First Ladies

The First Lady of the United States is the hostess of the White House. The position is traditionally filled by the wife of the president of the United States, but, on occasion, the title has been applied to women who were not presidents’ wives, such as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. The First Lady is not an elected position; it carries no official duties and receives no salary. Nonetheless, she attends many official ceremonies and functions of state either along with or in place of the president. Traditionally, the First Lady does not hold outside employment while occupying the office.[1] She has her own staff, including the White House Social Secretary, the Chief of Staff, the Press Secretary, the Chief Floral Designer, and the Executive Chef. The Office of the First Lady is also in charge of all social and ceremonial events of the White House, and is a branch of the Executive Office of the President.

According to the White House and the National First Ladies' Library, there have been forty-six First Ladies and forty-seven First Ladyships. This discrepancy exists because Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the twenty-second and the twenty-fourth president; his wife Frances Folsom Cleveland is also counted twice. Following Barack Obama's first inauguration on January 20, 2009, his wife, Michelle Obama, became the forty-sixth official First Lady, succeeding Laura Bush, wife of former President George W. Bush.

There are five living former First Ladies: Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy Carter; Nancy Reagan, widow of Ronald Reagan; Barbara Bush, wife of George H. W. Bush; Hillary Rodham Clinton, wife of Bill Clinton; and Laura Bush, wife of George W. Bush. The first First Lady was Martha Washington, married to George Washington. Presidents John Tyler and Thomas Woodrow Wilson had two official First Ladies; both remarried during their presidential tenures. The wives of four Presidents died before their husbands were sworn into office but are still considered First Ladies by the White House and National First Ladies' Library: Martha Jefferson, wife of Thomas Jefferson;[2][3] Rachel Jackson, wife of Andrew Jackson;[4][5] Hannah Van Buren, wife of Martin Van Buren;[6][7] and Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur, wife of Chester A. Arthur.[8][9] One woman who was not married to a President but who is still considered an official First Lady: Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor James Buchanan. The other non-spousal relatives who served as White House hostesses are not recognized by the First Ladies' Library.

In 2007, the United States Mint began releasing a set of half-ounce $10 gold coins under the First Spouse Program with engravings of portraits of the First Ladies on the obverse.[10] When a President served without a spouse, a gold coin is issued that bears an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era and a reverse image emblematic of themes of that President's life. This is true for the coins for Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan's First Ladies, but not the coin for Chester A. Arthur's First Lady, which will instead depict suffragette Alice Paul.[11]

List of First Ladies

This list included all persons who served as First Ladies, regardless of whether they were married to the incumbent President or not, as well as persons who are officially considered First Ladies by the First Ladies' Library but who died before being able to serve in that role. First Ladies who were not married to the incumbent appear in light grey boxes, while official First Ladies who did not serve in that role appear in dark grey boxes. The numbering follows the First Ladies' Library listing, which includes presidents' wives that predeceased their husband's entering office. First Ladies not recognized by First Ladies' Library listing are marked with a footnote, and First Ladies officially recognized by the First Ladies' Library listing who never served in that capacity are marked with a footnote.

#
Image
First Lady
Birth Marriage
President
(Husband, unless noted)
Tenure began
Age at tenure start Tenure ended Length of retirement
Death Lifespan
01.01 Portrait of Martha Washington Washington, Martha CustisMartha Washington
(née Dandridge)[12][13]
1731-06-02(1731-06-02)June 2, 1731 6 January 1759 Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington 1789 157 years, 332 days 1797 019041,904 days 1802-05-22May 22, 1802(1802-05-22) 25,921 days (70 years, 354 days)
02.02 Portrait painting of Abigail Adams Adams, AbigailAbigail Adams
(née Smith)[14][15]
1744-11-11(1744-11-11)November 11, 1744 25 October 1764 Adams, John John Adams 1797 152 years, 113 days 1801 064476,447 days 1818-10-28October 28, 1818(1818-10-28) 27,013 days (73 years, 351 days)
03.03 Silhouette of Martha Jefferson Jefferson, Martha SkeltonMartha Skelton Jefferson
[2][3]
(née Wayles)
1748-10-30(1748-10-30)October 30, 1748 1 January 1772 Jefferson, ThomasThomas Jefferson footnote -1 1782-09-06September 6, 1782(1782-09-06) 12,364 days (33 years, 311 days)
03.1footnote Portrait painting of Martha Jefferson Randolph, Martha JeffersonMartha Jefferson Randolph
[2][3]
1772-09-27(1772-09-27)September 27, 1772
[n 1]
Jefferson, ThomasThomas Jefferson*
(Father)
1801 128 years, 158 days 1809 1008210,082 days 1836-10-10October 10, 1836(1836-10-10) 23,388 days (64 years, 13 days)
04.04 Portrait painting of Dolley Madison Madison, Dolley ToddDolley Madison
(née Payne)[16][17]
1768-05-20(1768-05-20)May 20, 1768 14 September 1794 Madison, JamesJames Madison 1809 140 years, 288 days 1817 1181811,818 days 1849-07-12July 12, 1849(1849-07-12) 29,637 days (81 years, 53 days)
05.05 Portrait painting of Elizabeth Monroe Monroe, ElizabethElizabeth Monroe
(née Kortright)[18][19]



1768-06-30(1768-06-30)June 30, 1768 16 February 1786 Monroe, JamesJames Monroe 1817 148 years, 247 days 1825 020292,029 days 1830-09-23September 23, 1830(1830-09-23) 22,729 days (62 years, 85 days)
06.06 Portrait engraving of Louisa Adams Adams, Louisa CatherineLouisa Adams
(née Johnson)[20][21]
1775-02-12(1775-02-12)February 12, 1775 26 July 1797 Adams, John QuincyJohn Quincy Adams 1825 150 years, 20 days 1829 099349,934 days 1852-05-15May 15, 1852(1852-05-15) 28,216 days (77 years, 93 days)
07.07 Rachel Jackson Jackson, Rachel RobardsRachel Robards Jackson
[4][5]
(née Donelson)
1767-06-15(1767-06-15)June 15, 1767 7 January 1794 Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson footnote -1 1828-12-22December 22, 1828(1828-12-22) 22,501 days (61 years, 221 days)
07.1footnote Portrait painting of Emily Donelson Donelson, EmilyEmily Donelson
[4][5]
1807-06-01(1807-06-01)June 1, 1807
[n 2]
Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson
(Uncle)
1829 121 years, 276 days 1836 00000 1836-12-19December 19, 1836(1836-12-19) 10,794 days (29 years, 201 days)
07.2footnote Sarah Yorke Jackson (1).jpg Jackson, Sarah YorkeSarah Jackson
(née Yorke)[4][5]
1803-07-16(1803-07-16)July 16, 1803
[n 3]
Jackson, AndrewAndrew Jackson
(Father-in-law)
1834 131 years, 133 days 1837 1843418,434 days 1887-08-23August 23, 1887(1887-08-23) 30,719 days (84 years, 38 days)
08.08 Portrait painting of Hannah Van Buren Van Buren, HannahHannah Van Buren
[6][7]
(née Hoes)
1783-03-08(1783-03-08)March 8, 1783 21 February 1807 Van Buren, MartinMartin Van Buren footnote -1 1819-02-05February 5, 1819(1819-02-05) 13,117 days (35 years, 334 days)
08.1footnote Portrait painting of Angelica Singleton Van Buren Van Buren, Angelica SingletonAngelica Van Buren
(née Singleton)[6][7]

1818-02-13(1818-02-13)February 13, 1818
[n 4]
Van Buren, MartinMartin Van Buren
(Father-in-law)
1839 120 years, 322 days 1841 1344913,449 days 1877-12-29December 29, 1877(1877-12-29) 21,869 days (59 years, 319 days)
09.09 Portrait painting of Anna Harrison Harrison, AnnaAnna Harrison
(née Symmes)[22][23]
1775-07-25(1775-07-25)July 25, 1775 22 November 1795 Harrison, William HenryWilliam Henry Harrison 1841[n 5] 165 years, 222 days 1841 083628,362 days 1864-02-25February 25, 1864(1864-02-25) 32,356 days (88 years, 215 days)
10 Portrait painting of Letitia Tyler Tyler, LetitiaLetitia Tyler
(née Christian)[24][25]
1790-11-12(1790-11-12)November 12, 1790 29 March 1813 Tyler, JohnJohn Tyler 1841 150 years, 143 days 1842 00000 1842-09-10September 10, 1842(1842-09-10) 18,929 days (51 years, 302 days)
10.1footnote Elizabeth Priscilla Cooper Tyler.jpg Tyler, Priscilla CooperPriscilla Tyler
(née Cooper)[24][25]
1816-06-14(1816-06-14)June 14, 1816
[n 6]
Tyler, JohnJohn Tyler
(Father-in-law)
1842 126 years, 88 days 1844 1662216,622 days 1889-12-29December 29, 1889(1889-12-29) 26,861 days (73 years, 198 days)
11 Portrait painting of Julia Tyler Tyler, JuliaJulia Tyler
(née Gardiner)[26][27]
1820-05-17(1820-05-17)May 17, 1820 26 June 1844 Tyler, JohnJohn Tyler 1844[n 7] 124 years, 53 days 1845 1619916,199 days 1889-07-10July 10, 1889(1889-07-10) 25,269 days (69 years, 54 days)
12 Portrait painting of Sarah Polk Polk, SarahSarah Polk
(née Childress)[28][29]
1803-09-04(1803-09-04)September 4, 1803 1 January 1824 Polk, James K.James K. Polk 1845 141 years, 181 days 1849 1550315,503 days 1891-08-14August 14, 1891(1891-08-14) 32,121 days (87 years, 344 days)
13 Portrait painting of Margaret Taylor Taylor, MargaretMargaret Taylor
(née Smith)[30][31]
1788-09-21(1788-09-21)September 21, 1788 21 June 1810 Taylor, ZacharyZachary Taylor 1849 160 years, 164 days 1850 00767767 days 1852-08-14August 14, 1852(1852-08-14) 23,337 days (63 years, 328 days)
14 Portrait painting of Abigail Fillmore Fillmore, AbigailAbigail Fillmore
(née Powers)[32][33]
1798-03-13(1798-03-13)March 13, 1798 5 February 1826 Fillmore, MillardMillard Fillmore 1850 152 years, 118 days 1853 0002626 days 1853-03-30March 30, 1853(1853-03-30) 20,105 days (55 years, 17 days)
15 Engraving of Jane Pierce Pierce, JaneJane Means Pierce
(née Appleton)[34][35]
1806-03-12(1806-03-12)March 12, 1806 19 November 1834 Pierce, FranklinFranklin Pierce 1853 146 years, 357 days 1857 024642,464 days 1863-12-02December 2, 1863(1863-12-02) 21,084 days (57 years, 265 days)
16 Portrait photograph of Harriet Lane Lane, HarrietHarriet Lane
(later Johnston)[36][37]
1830-05-09(1830-05-09)May 9, 1830
[n 8]
Buchanan, JamesJames Buchanan
(Uncle)
1857 126 years, 299 days 1861 1546015,460 days 1903-07-03July 3, 1903(1903-07-03) 26,717 days (73 years, 55 days)
17 Portrait photograph of Mary Lincoln Lincoln, Mary ToddMary Lincoln
(née Todd)[38][39]
1818-12-13(1818-12-13)December 13, 1818 4 November 1842 Lincoln, AbrahamAbraham Lincoln 1861 142 years, 81 days 1865 063016,301 days 1882-07-16July 16, 1882(1882-07-16) 23,226 days (63 years, 215 days)
18 Portrait engraving of Eliza Johnson Johnson, ElizaEliza Johnson
(née McCardle)[40][41]
1810-10-04(1810-10-04)October 4, 1810 17 May 1827 Johnson, AndrewAndrew Johnson 1865 154 years, 193 days 1869 025082,508 days 1876-01-15January 15, 1876(1876-01-15) 23,844 days (65 years, 103 days)
19 Portrait photograph of Julia Grant Grant, Julia BoggsJulia Boggs Grant
(née Dent)[42][43]
1826-01-26(1826-01-26)January 26, 1826 22 August 1848 Grant, Ulysses S.Ulysses S. Grant 1869 143 years, 37 days 1877 094159,415 days 1902-12-14December 14, 1902(1902-12-14) 28,080 days (76 years, 322 days)
20 Portrait photograph of Lucy Hayes Hayes, Lucy WareLucy Hayes
(née Webb)[44][45]
1831-08-28(1831-08-28)August 28, 1831 30 December 1852 Hayes, Rutherford B.Rutherford B. Hayes 1877 145 years, 188 days 1881 030353,035 days 1889-06-25June 25, 1889(1889-06-25) 21,121 days (57 years, 301 days)
21 Portrait photograph of Lucretia Garfield Garfield, LucretiaLucretia Garfield
(née Rudolph)[46][47]
1832-04-19(1832-04-19)April 19, 1832 11 November 1858 Garfield, James A.James A. Garfield 1881 148 years, 319 days 1881 1332413,324 days 1918-03-14March 14, 1918(1918-03-14) 31,374 days (85 years, 329 days)
22 Portrait of Ellen Arthur Arthur, EllenEllen Arthur[8][9]
(née Herndon)
1837-08-30(1837-08-30)August 30, 1837 25 October 1859 Arthur, Chester A.Chester A. Arthur footnote -1 1880-01-12January 12, 1880(1880-01-12) 15,475 days (42 years, 135 days)
22.1footnote Portrait of Mary Arthur McElroy McElroy, Mary ArthurMary McElroy
(née Arthur)[8][9]
1841-07-05(1841-07-05)July 5, 1841
[n 9]
Arthur, Chester A.Chester A. Arthur
(Brother)
1881 140 years, 76 days 1885 1163211,632 days 1917-01-08January 8, 1917(1917-01-08) 27,580 days (75 years, 187 days)
22.9footnote Portrait of Rose Cleveland Cleveland, RoseRose Cleveland
[48][49]

1846-06-13(1846-06-13)June 13, 1846
[n 10]
Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland
(Brother)
1885 138 years, 264 days 1886 1186011,860 days 1918-11-22November 22, 1918(1918-11-22) 26,459 days (72 years, 162 days)
23 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Cleveland, Frances ClaraFrances Cleveland
(née Folsom, later Preston)[48][49]
1864-07-21(1864-07-21)July 21, 1864 2 June 1886 Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland 1886 121 years, 316 days 1889 014611,461 days 1947-10-29October 29, 1947(1947-10-29) 30,414 days (83 years, 100 days)
24 Portrait of Caroline Harrison Harrison, Caroline LaviniaCaroline Harrison
(née Scott)[50][51]
1832-10-01(1832-10-01)October 1, 1832 20 October 1853 Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison 1889 156 years, 154 days 1892 00000 1892-10-25October 25, 1892(1892-10-25) 21,939 days (60 years, 24 days)
24.1footnote Portrait of Mary Harrison McKee McKee, Mary HarrisonMary McKee
(née Harrison)[50][51]
1858-04-03(1858-04-03)April 3, 1858
[n 11]
Harrison, BenjaminBenjamin Harrison
(Father)
1892 134 years, 205 days 1893 1375113,751 days 1930-10-28October 28, 1930(1930-10-28) 26,505 days (72 years, 208 days)
25 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Cleveland, Frances ClaraFrances Cleveland
(née Folsom, later Preston)[48][49]
1864-07-21(1864-07-21)July 21, 1864 2 June 1886 Cleveland, GroverGrover Cleveland 1893 128 years, 226 days 1897 1850018,500 days 1947-10-29October 29, 1947(1947-10-29) 30,414 days (83 years, 100 days)
26 Portrait of Ida McKinley McKinley, IdaIda McKinley
(née Saxton)[52][53]
1847-06-08(1847-06-08)June 8, 1847 25 January 1871 McKinley, WilliamWilliam McKinley 1897 149 years, 269 days 1901 020802,080 days 1907-05-26May 26, 1907(1907-05-26) 21,901 days (59 years, 352 days)
27 Portrait of Edith Roosevelt Roosevelt, Edith KermitEdith Roosevelt
(née Carow )[54][55]
1861-08-06(1861-08-06)August 6, 1861 2 December 1886 Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt 1901 140 years, 39 days 1909 1445514,455 days 1948-09-30September 30, 1948(1948-09-30) 31,831 days (87 years, 55 days)
28 Portrait of Helen Taft Taft, Helen Louise HerronHelen Louise Taft
(née Herron)[56][57]
1861-06-02(1861-06-02)June 2, 1861 19 June 1886 Taft, William HowardWilliam Howard Taft 1909 147 years, 275 days 1913 1103611,036 days 1943-05-22May 22, 1943(1943-05-22) 29,938 days (81 years, 354 days)
29 Portrait of Ellen Wilson Wilson, Ellen AxsonEllen Wilson
(née Axson)[58][59]
1860-05-15(1860-05-15)May 15, 1860 24 June 1885 Wilson, Thomas WoodrowThomas Woodrow Wilson 1913 152 years, 293 days 1914 00000 1914-08-06August 6, 1914(1914-08-06) 19,805 days (54 years, 83 days)
29.1footnote Portrait of Margaret Woodrow Wilson Wilson, Margaret WoodrowMargaret Woodrow Wilson
[58][59]
1886-04-16(1886-04-16)April 16, 1886
[n 12]
Wilson, Thomas WoodrowThomas Woodrow Wilson
(Father)
1914 128 years, 112 days 1915 1028310,283 days 1944-02-12February 12, 1944(1944-02-12) 21,120 days (57 years, 302 days)
30 Portrait of Edith Wilson Wilson, Edith Bolling GaltEdith Wilson
(née Bolling, widowed Galt)[60][61]
1872-10-15(1872-10-15)October 15, 1872 18 December 1915 Wilson, Thomas WoodrowThomas Woodrow Wilson 1915 143 years, 64 days 1921 1490914,909 days 1961-12-28December 28, 1961(1961-12-28) 32,580 days (89 years, 74 days)
31 Portrait of Florence Harding Harding, Florence Mable deWolfeFlorence Harding
(née Kling)[62][63]
1860-08-15(1860-08-15)August 15, 1860 8 July 1891 Harding, Warren G.Warren G. Harding 1921 160 years, 201 days 1923 00477477 days 1924-11-21November 21, 1924(1924-11-21) 23,473 days (64 years, 98 days)
32 Grace Coolidge Coolidge, Grace AnnaGrace Anna Coolidge
(née Goodhue)[64][65]
1879-01-03(1879-01-03)January 3, 1879 4 October 1905 Coolidge, CalvinCalvin Coolidge 1923 144 years, 211 days 1929 1035310,353 days 1957-07-08July 8, 1957(1957-07-08) 28,675 days (78 years, 186 days)
33 Portrait of Lou Hoover Hoover, Lou HenryLou Hoover
(née Henry)[66][67]
1874-03-29(1874-03-29)March 29, 1874 10 February 1899 Hoover, HerbertHerbert Hoover 1929 154 years, 340 days 1933 039613,961 days 1944-01-07January 7, 1944(1944-01-07) 25,485 days (69 years, 284 days)
34 Portrait of Eleanor Roosevelt Roosevelt, Anna EleanorEleanor Roosevelt
[68][69]
1884-10-11(1884-10-11)October 11, 1884 17 March 1905 Roosevelt, Franklin D.Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933 148 years, 144 days 1945 064186,418 days 1962-11-07November 7, 1962(1962-11-07) 28,515 days (78 years, 27 days)
35 Portrait of Bess Truman Truman, Elizabeth "Bess" VirginiaElizabeth "Bess" Truman
(née Wallace)[70][71]
1885-02-13(1885-02-13)February 13, 1885 28 June 1919 Truman, Harry S.Harry S. Truman 1945 160 years, 58 days 1953 1086310,863 days 1982-10-18October 18, 1982(1982-10-18) 35,675 days (97 years, 247 days)
36 Portrait of Mamie Eisenhower Eisenhower, Mamie GenevaMamie Eisenhower
(née Doud)[72][73]
1896-11-14(1896-11-14)November 14, 1896 1 July 1916 Eisenhower, Dwight D.Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 156 years, 67 days 1961 068596,859 days 1979-11-01November 1, 1979(1979-11-01) 30,301 days (82 years, 352 days)
37 Portrait Of Jaqueline Kennedy Kennedy, Jacqueline LeeJacqueline Kennedy
(née Bouvier, later Onassis)[74][75]
1929-07-28(1929-07-28)July 28, 1929 12 September 1953 Kennedy, John F.John F. Kennedy 1961 131 years, 176 days 1963 1405111,136 days 1994-05-19May 19, 1994(1994-05-19) 23,671 days (64 years, 295 days)
38 Portrait of Lady Bird Johnson Johnson, Claudia "Lady Bird" AltaLady Bird Johnson
(née Taylor)[76][77]
1912-12-22(1912-12-22)December 22, 1912 17 November 1934 Johnson, Lyndon B.Lyndon B. Johnson 1963 150 years, 335 days 1969 1405114,051 days 2007-07-11July 11, 2007(2007-07-11) 34,534 days (94 years, 201 days)
39 Portrait of Pat Nixon Nixon, Thelma "Pat" CatherineThelma "Pat" Nixon
(née Ryan)[78][79]
1912-03-16(1912-03-16)March 16, 1912 21 June 1940 Nixon, RichardRichard Nixon 1969 156 years, 310 days 1974 068926,892 days 1993-06-22June 22, 1993(1993-06-22) 29,683 days (81 years, 98 days)
40 Portrait of Betty Ford Ford, Elizabeth "Betty" Ann WarrenElizabeth Ann "Betty" Ford
(née Bloomer)[80][81]
1918-04-08(1918-04-08)April 8, 1918 15 October 1948 Ford, Gerald RudolphGerald Ford 1974 156 years, 123 days 1977 1258712,587 days 2011-07-08July 8, 2011(2011-07-08) 34,059 days (93 years, 91 days)
41 Portrait of Rosalynn Carter Carter, Eleanor RosalynnEleanor Rosalynn Carter
(née Smith)[82][83]
1927-08-18(1927-08-18)August 18, 1927 7 July 1946 Carter, JimmmyJimmy Carter 1977 149 years, 155 days 1981 1143712,22512,225 days 2014-07-11 31,739 days (86 years, 327 days)
42 Portrait of Nancy Reagan Reagan, Nancy DavisNancy Reagan
(née Robbins, adopted Davis)[84][85]
1921-07-06(1921-07-06)July 6, 1921 4 March 1952 Reagan, RonaldRonald Reagan 1981 159 years, 198 days 1989 085159,3039,303 days 2014-07-11 33,973 days (93 years, 5 days)
43 Portrait of Barbara Bush Bush, BarbaraBarbara Bush
(née Pierce)[86][87]
1925-06-08(1925-06-08)June 8, 1925 6 January 1945 Bush, George H. W.George H. W. Bush 1989 163 years, 226 days 1993 070547,8427,842 days 2014-07-11 32,540 days (89 years, 33 days)
44 Portrait of Hillary Rodham Clinton Clinton, Hillary Diane RodhamHillary Rodham Clinton
(née Rodham)[88][89]
1947-10-26(1947-10-26)October 26, 1947 11 October 1975 Clinton, BillBill Clinton 1993 145 years, 86 days 2001 041324,9204,920 days 2014-07-11 24,365 days (66 years, 258 days)
45 Portrait of Laura Bush Bush, Laura Lane WelchLaura Bush
(née Welch)[90][91]
1946-11-04(1946-11-04)November 4, 1946 5 November 1977 Bush, George W.George W. Bush 2001 154 years, 77 days 2009 012101,9981,998 days 2014-07-11 24,721 days (67 years, 249 days)
46 Portrait of Michelle Obama Obama, Michelle LaVaughnMichelle Obama
(née Robinson)[92][93]
1964-01-17(1964-01-17)January 17, 1964 3 October 1992[94] Obama, BarackBarack Obama 2009 145 years, 3 days 00001Incumbent 2014-07-11 18,438 days (50 years, 175 days)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson died in 1782, nineteen years before Thomas Jefferson became President. Their daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph assumed the role of White House hostess and unofficial First Lady during his incumbency; when she was unavailable Jefferson called upon Dolley Madison, wife of his Secretary of State, James Madison.[2][3]
  2. ^ Rachel Jackson died in December, 1828, three months before Andrew Jackson became President. His niece, Emily Donelson, assumed the role of White House hostess until her death on December 19, 1836. Jackson's daughter-in-law, Sarah Yorke Jackson, was also brought into the White House to serve as White House hostess on November 26, 1834. She remained at the White House until Jackson's term expired on March 4, 1837.[4][5]
  3. ^ Jackson's daughter-in-law, Sarah Yorke Jackson, was brought into the White House to serve as White House hostess alongside the widowed President's niece Emily Donelson. Jackson's term expired on March 4, 1837.[4][5]
  4. ^ Hannah Van Buren died on February 5, 1819, eighteen years before Martin Van Buren became President. Angelica Singleton Van Buren, Martin's daughter-in-law, assumed the role of White House hostess during his incumbency.[6][7]
  5. ^ Anna Harrison, President William Henry Harrison's wife, was too sick to travel with William to Washington D.C. for his inauguration, and asked their daughter-in-law Jane Irwin Harrison to accompany him and act as hostess until her proposed arrival in May. William Harrison died after serving only 31 days in office, and Anna never made the trip to the White House.[22][23]
  6. ^ Letitia Tyler died while her husband, John Tyler, was still in office. Their daughter-in-law, Priscilla Cooper Tyler acted as White House hostess until John Tyler remarried on June 26, 1844.[24][25]
  7. ^ Julia Tyler married John Tyler on June 26, 1844.[26][27]
  8. ^ James Buchanan was a life-long bachelor. His niece Harriet Lane served as First Lady.[36][37]
  9. ^ Ellen Arthur died in 1880. When Chester A. Arthur became President after James A. Garfield died, he asked his sister, Mary Arthur McElroy to be the White House hostess.[8][9]
  10. ^ Grover Cleveland entered office as a bachelor. His sister Rose Cleveland served as White House hostess until he married Frances Cornelia Folsom on June 2, 1886.[48][49]
  11. ^ Caroline Harrison died while her husband, Benjamin Harrison, was still in office. Their daughter Mary Harrison McKee acted as White House hostess for the remainder of his incumbency.[50][51]
  12. ^ Ellen Wilson died on August 6, 1914, while her husband, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, was still in office. Their daughter Margaret Woodrow Wilson acted as White House hostess until President Wilson remarried on December 18, 1915.[58][59]

References

  1. ^ Caroli, Betty Boyd (2003). First Ladies from Martha Washington to Laura Bush. Oxford University Press. p. 200. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Biography of Martha Jefferson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d "First Lady Biography: Martha Jefferson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Biography of Rachel Jackson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "First Lady Biography: Rachel Jackson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Biography of Hannah Van Buren". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d "First Lady Biography: Hannah Van Buren". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Biography of Ellen Arthur". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d "First Lady Biography: Ellen Arthur". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  10. ^ "The First Spouse Gold Coins". United States Mint. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  11. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II) Denominations, specifications, and design of coins. The First Spouse Gold Coins. Cornell University. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  12. ^ "Biography of Martha Washington". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  13. ^ "First Lady Biography: Martha Washington". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
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  42. ^ "Biography of Julia Grant". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
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  44. ^ "Biography of Lucy Hayes". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
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  46. ^ "Biography of Lucretia Garfield". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
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