First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (PRC), also referred to as the 1953 Chinese Census, was conducted by the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of June 30, 1953. The results were summarized in Chinese newspapers on November 1, 1954. As the full results were not published, they had to subsequently be assembled from Soviet sources over the next five years.

Results[edit]

Total Population[edit]

The official summaries listed the total population of Mainland China in 1953 as 582,603,417.

Demographics[edit]

13.26% of the population (77,257,282 persons) were listed as residing in urban areas comprising 163 cities,[n 1] industrial and mining districts,[n 2] and about 1450 towns.[n 3] Of the urban population, roughly 1 in 12 resided in Shanghai.

Distribution[edit]

City Province Population
1953 Census[1][2]
Population
previous estimates[3][4]
Numerical Change Relative Change
Huainan Anhui 286,900
Bengbu Anhui 253,000 201,000 Increase52,000 25.87%
Wuhu Anhui 242,100 204,000 Increase38,100 18.68%
Hefei Anhui 183,600 70,000 Increase113,600 162.3%
Anqing Anhui 105,300 121,000 Decrease15,700 -12.98%
Tunqi Anhui >50,000
Hangzhou Zhejiang 696,600 518,000 Increase178,600 34.48%
Ningbo Zhejiang 237,500 210,000 Increase27,500 13.10%
Wenzhou Zhejiang 201,600 157,000 Increase44,600 28.41%
Shaoxing Zhejiang 130,600 93,000 Increase37,600 40.43%
Jiaxing Zhejiang 78,300 53,000 Increase25,300 47.7%
Huzhou Zhejiang 62,700 45,000 Increase17,700 39.3%
Jinhua Zhejiang 46,200 23,000 Increase23,200 101%
Fuzhou Fujian 553,000 331,000 Increase222,000 67.1%
Xiamen Fujian 224,300 158,000 Increase66,300 41.96%
Quanzhou Fujian 107,700 121,000 Decrease13,300 -10.99%
Zhangzhou Fujian 81,200 62,000 Increase19,200 31.0%
Harbin Heilongjiang 1,163,000 760,000 Increase403,000 53.03%
Qiqihar Heilongjiang 344,700 175,000 Increase169,700 96.97%
Mudanjiang Heilongjiang 151,400 200,000 Decrease48,600 -24.3%
Jiamusi Heilongjiang 146,000 168,000 Decrease18,000 -10.7%
Hegang Heilongjiang 90,000
Zhengzhou Henan 594,700 197,000 Increase397,700 201.9%
Kaifeng Henan 299,100 303,000 Decrease3,900 -1.29%
Luoyang Henan 171,200 77,000 Increase94,200 122.3%
Xinxiang Henan 170,500
Shangqiu Henan 134,400 70,000 Increase64,400 92.0%
Anyang Henan 124,900 60,000 Increase64,900 108.2%
Zhoukou Henan 85,500 200,000 Decrease114,500 -57.3%
Xuchang Henan 58,000 50,000 Increase8,000 16.0%
Nanyang Henan >50,000 50,000
Xinyang Henan >50,000
Zhumadian Henan <50,000
Lohe[disambiguation needed] Henan <50,000
Beijing Hebei 2,768,149 1,603,000 Increase1,165,000 72.68%
Tianjin Hebei 2,693,831 1,687,000 Increase1,007,000 59.69%
Tangshan Hebei 693,300 137,000 Increase556,300 406.1%
Shijiazhuang Hebei 373,400 125,000 Increase248,400 198.7%
Zhangjiakou Hebei 229,300 151,000 Increase78,300 51.85%
Baoding Hebei 197,000 130,000 Increase67,000 51.5%
Qinhuangdao Hebei 186,800 100,000 Increase86,800 86.80%
Xuanhua Hebei 114,100
Chengde Hebei 92,900 60,000 Increase32,900 54.8%
Hangu Hebei >50,000
Handan Hebei >50,000
Botou Hebei >50,000
Xingtai Hebei >50,000
Tongzhou Hebei >50,000
Changsha Hunan 650,600 396,000 Increase254,600 64.29%
Hengyang Hunan 235,000 181,000 Increase54,000 29.8%
Xiangtan Hunan 183,600 83,000 Increase100,600 121.2%
Zhuzhou Hunan 127,300
Shaoyang Hunan 117,700 76,000 Increase41,700 54.87%
Changde Hunan 94,800 50,000 Increase44,800 89.6%
Jingshi Hunan >50,000 58,000
Yiyang Hunan >50,000 80,000
Hongjiang Hunan <50,000
Wuhan Hubei 1,427,300 1,100,000 Increase327,300 29.73%
Huangshi Hubei 110,500
Shashi Hubei 85,800 114,000 Decrease28,200 -24.7%
Xiangfan Hubei 73,300 66,000 Increase7,300 11.1%
Yichang Hubei >50,000 81,000
Baotou Inner Mongolia 149,400 82,000 Increase67,400 82.2%
Hohhot Inner Mongolia 148,400 110,000 Increase38,400 34.9%
Ulanhot Inner Mongolia 51,400
Hailar Inner Mongolia 43,200 16,000 Increase27,200 170%
Manzhouli Inner Mongolia <50,000
Tongliao Inner Mongolia <50,000
Lanzhou Gansu 387,400 156,000 Increase231,400 148.3%
Tianshui Gansu 63,000 50,000 Increase13,000 26%
Linxia Gansu >50,000
Pingliang Gansu >50,000 55,000
Nanchang Jiangxi 398,200 267,000 Increase131,200 49.1%
Ganzhou Jiangxi 98,600 59,000 Increase39,600 67.1%
Jingdezhen Jiangxi 92,000 87,000 Increase5,000 5.7%
Jiujiang Jiangxi 64,600 121,000 Decrease56,400 -46.6%
Ji'an Jiangxi 52,800 69,000 Decrease16,200 -23.5%
Shangrao Jiangxi >50,000 31,000
Shanghai Jiangsu 6,204,417 4,300,000 Increase1,900,000 44.2%
Nanjing Jiangsu 1,091,600 1,137,000 Decrease45,400 -3.99%
Wuxi Jiangsu 581,500 273,000 Increase308,500 113.0%
Suzhou Jiangsu 474,000 381,000 Increase93,000 24.4%
Xuzhou Jiangsu 373,200 340,000 Increase33,200 9.76%
Changzhou Jiangsu 296,500 125,000 Increase171,500 137.2%
Nantong Jiangsu 260,400 133,000 Increase127,400 95.79%
Xinhailian Jiangsu 207,600 48,000 Increase159,600 332.5%
Zhenjiang Jiangsu 201,400 179,000 Increase22,400 12.5%
Yangzhou Jiangsu 180,200 127,000 Increase53,200 41.9%
Taizhou Jiangsu 159,800 131,000 Increase28,800 22.0%
Changshu Jiangsu 101,400 64,000 Increase37,400 58.4%
Qingjiang Jiangsu 77,000 47,000 Increase30,000 65%
Changchun Jilin 855,200 630,000 Increase225,200 35.75%
Jilin Jilin 435,400 247,000 Increase188,400 76.28%
Tonghua Jilin 129,100 80,000 Increase49,100 61.4%
Siping Jilin 125,900 76,000 Increase49,900 65.7%
Liaoyuan Jilin 120,100
Yanji Jilin 70,000 43,000 Increase37,000 86%
Nanning Guangxi 194,900 203,000 Decrease8,100 -4.0%
Liuzhou Guangxi 158,800 208,000 Decrease49,200 -23.65%
Guilin Guangxi 145,100 142,000 Increase3,100 2.18%
Wuzhou Guangxi 110,800 207,000 Decrease96,200 -46.5%
Guangzhou Guangdong 1,598,900 1,413,000 Increase185,900 13.16%
Shantou Guangdong 280,400 215,000 Increase65,400 30.4%
Zhanjiang Guangdong 166,000 268,000 Decrease102,000 -38.1%
Haikou Guangdong 135,300 60,000 Increase75,300 126%
Foshan Guangdong 122,500 96,000 Increase26,500 27.6%
Chaozhou Guangdong 101,300 59,000 Increase42,300 71.7%
Jiangmen Guangdong 85,000 50,000 Increase35,000 70%
Shaoguan Guangdong 81,700 73,000 Increase8,700 11.9%
Beihai Guangdong >50,000 36,000
Guiyang Guizhou 270,900 240,000 Increase30,900 12.9%
Zunyi Guizhou 97,500 66,000 Increase31,500 47.7%
Shenyang Liaoning 2,299,900 1,121,000 Increase1,178,900 105.1%
Dalian Liaoning 766,400 544,000 Increase222,400 40.88%
Fushun Liaoning 678,600 280,000 Increase398,600 142.4%
Anshan Liaoning 548,900 166,000 Increase382,900 230.7%
Benqi Liaoning 449,000 98,000 Increase351,000 358%
Andong Liaoning 360,000 271,000 Increase89,000 32.8%
Jinzhou Liaoning 352,200 148,000 Increase104,200 70.4%
Fuxin Liaoning 188,600 166,000 Increase22,600 13.6%
Yingkou Liaoning 131,400 159,000 Decrease27,600 -17.4%
Lüshun Liaoning 126,000 27,000 Increase99,000 367%
Liaoyang Liaoning >100,000 102,000
Yinchuan Ningxia 84,000 41,000 Increase43,000 105%
Wuzhong Ningxia <50,000
Taiyuan Shanxi 720,700 252,000 Increase 468,700 186.0%
Datong Shanxi 228,500 80,000 Increase148,500 185.6%
Yangquan Shanxi 177,400
Changzhi Shanxi 97,800
Yuci Shanxi 60,000
Qingdao Shandong 916,800 788,000 Increase128,800 16.35%
Ji'nan Shandong 680,100 575,000 Increase105,100 18.3%
Zibo Shandong 184,200
Weifang Shandong 148,900
Jining Shandong 86,200 150,000 Decrease63,800 -42.5%
Zhangzhou Shandong >50,000
Linqing Shandong <50,000 50,000
Dezhou Shandong <50,000
Weihai Shandong <50,000 175,000
Xi'an Shaanxi 787,300 503,000 Increase284,300 56.52%
Baoji Shaanxi 130,100 56,000 Increase84,100 150%
Hanzhong Shaanxi >50,000 59,000
Xianyang Shaanxi >50,000 16,000
Urumchi Xinjiang 140,700 70,000 Increase70,700 101%
Yining Xinjiang 108,200
Kashgar Xinjiang 91,000 50,000 Increase41,000 82%
Chongqing Sichuan 1,772,500 1,000,000 Increase772,500 77.3%
Chengdu Sichuan 856,700 648,000 Increase 208,700 32.21%
Zigong Sichuan 291,300 223,000 Increase68,300 30.6%
Luzhou Sichuan 289,000 50,000 Increase239,000 478%
Wutongqiao Sichuan 199,100
Neijiang Sichuan 190,200 32,000 Increase158,200 494%
Yibin Sichuan 177,500 80,000 Increase97,500 121.9%
Nanchong Sichuan 164,700 60,000 Increase104,700 174.5%
Beipei Sichuan >100,000
Yaan Sichuan 55,200
Wanxian Sichuan >50,000 110,000
Hechuan Sichuan >50,000 40,000
Lhasa Tibet 50,000
Xining Qinghai 93,700 59,000 Increase34,700 58.8%
Kunming Yunnan 698,900 300,000 Increase398,900 133.0%
Gejiu Yunnan 159,700 16,000 Increase143,700 898%
Xiaguan Yunnan 26,200

Controversy[edit]

China had never previously had an official national census in the modern period[5] and estimates of its population even in 1911 varied between 200,000,000 and 400,000,000.[6] Mistrust of PRC statistics that saw the number of cities go from 60 under the Nationalist government to 103 within four years and that involved "indirectly survey[ing]" several areas including Tibet led some Western academics like George Cressey to claim, "These inflated figures are designed to impress the world with China's strength, to support claims for a falling death rate, or to supply an excuse for food shortages."[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Chinese: , p shì. (103 locations with a population greater than 100,000 and 60 others considered to be major economic centers.)
  2. ^ t 工礦處, s 工矿处, p gōngkuàngchù, w kung-k'uang ch'ü.
  3. ^ t , s , p zhèn, w chen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shiger, A.G. The Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Foreign Countries, 2d ed, pp. 142–144. (Moscow), 1957 (Using 1953 census). Op cit. in Shabad, Theodore. "The Population of China's Cities PDF". Geographical Review, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 32–42. American Geographical Society, Jan. 1959. Accessed 8 October 2011.
  2. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 2d ed. (Moscow), 1958. Op cit. in Shabad, supra.
  3. ^ Trewartha, G.T. "Chinese Cities: Numbers and Distribution". Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 41, pp. 331–347. 1951 (Using prior surveys from 1922–1948). Op cit. in Shabad, supra.
  4. ^ Seltzer, L.E. (ed.) Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World. (New York), 1952 (Using prior surveys from 1948). Op cit. in Shabad, supra.
  5. ^ Alexander, John W. "The Prewar Population of China: Distribution and Density". Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 1 ff. Taylor & Francis, Ltd, Mar. 1948.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. "China". 1911.
  7. ^ Cressey, George B. Land of the 500 Million, p. 9. 1955. Op. cit. in Shabad, supra.