First Quarter Storm
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|First Quarter Storm|
| Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas
Communist Party of the Philippines
New Peoples Army
Soviet Union(supporting the PKP)
China (allegedly supporting CPP-NPA)
| Philippine Army
Presidential Security Group
|Commanders and leaders|
| Jose Maria Sison
| Ferdinand Marcos
Maj Gen Fabian C. Ver
The First Quarter Storm (Filipino: Sigwa ng Unang Kuwarto) was a period of leftist unrest in the Philippines, composed of a series of heavy demonstrations, protests, and marches against the government from January to March 1970, or the first quarter of 1970. It was one of the factors leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972.
The Storm began in January 1970, when students welcomed Marcos with demonstrations after his speech in the Congress. The movement was led by the student leaders of the University of the Philippines, echoing recent student demonstrations all around the world before 1970. But then, the moderate demonstration turned into a radical one, led by the Kabataang Makabayan founder Jose Maria Sison as well as the leader of the New People's Army Bernabe "Kumander Dante" Buscayno. Laborers also took part, protesting against graft and corruption in the government, and the decline in the economy caused by high oil prices and the overkill electoral victory of Marcos for his second term. Some sources stated that the unrest was a plan to overthrow the government through communist as well as socialist support from the masses, as well as students and workers who facilitated the storm. Most of the activists carried Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs to counter the police attacks at the Malacañan Palace.
The "storm" ended violently when the police used tear gas and arms to quell the demonstrators. Students tried to counter using their Molotov cocktails and pillbox bombs while retreating. Those who were slow were beaten with gun butts. The storm extended to the Divisoria district in Tondo, Manila. After the failed protest, some of the surviving radical students, mostly from the University of the Philippines, Lyceum of the Philippines, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, and the University of the East, became avowed Marxists, and took up their arms engaging in guerilla warfare.
The First Quarter Storm was one of the factors that led President Ferdinand Marcos to declare Martial Law.
|Attempts at regime change in the Philippines (1970–2007)|
|Civil unrest (1970)|
|People Power (1986)|
|Honasan's Second (1989)|
|Fall of Estrada (2001)|
|May 1 riots (2001)|
|Oakwood mutiny (2003)|
|State of emergency (2006)|
|Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007)|
- German student movement, late 1960s communist student movement
- May 1968, general strike in 1968 France
- Tlatelolco massacre, violent student protests in 1968 Mexico just before the Summer Olympics held in Mexico City
- Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila,My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc.
- Mijares, Primitivo (1975). The Conjugal Dictatorship.
- gmanews.tv/story, activists to reclaim Mendiola on Jan 26
- Inquirer.net, First Quarter Storm commemorated