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One of the first streams of Romanesque architecture in Europe from the 10th century and the beginning of 11th century is called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque. It took place in the regions of Catalonia and Lombardy and in the south of France. Its principal decoration for the exterior, bands of ornamental blind arches are called lombard bands. It was characterized by thick walls and lack of sculpture in facades, and with interiors profusely painted with frescoes.
Catalan architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch suggested that what was formerly considered the late form of pre-Romanesque architecture in Catalonia bore features of Romanesque and thus classified it as First Romanesque (primer romànic). The First Romanesque churches of the Vall de Boí were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in November 2000.
The geographical proximity of this Iberian region to the rest of Europe, resulted in depictions of the emerging Romanesque art being brought to Catalonia. While the art failed to take root in the rest of the Iberian Peninsula until the second third of the 11th century, there are numerous examples of its presence in Catalan counties before this time. Though this style may not be considered fully Romanesque, the area contained many of the defining characteristics of this artistic style.
To avoid the term Pre-Romanesque, often used with a much broader meaning than is generally suited to refer to early Medieval and early Christian art, and in Spain may also refer to the Visigothic, Asturias, Mozarabic and Repoblación art forms, Puig i Cadafalch preferred to use the term "First Romanesque" or "first Romanesque art" to designate those Catalan anticipations of the Romanesque itself. This term is now commonly accepted. (See Romanesque architecture in Spain).
During the first quarter of the 11th century, much architectural activity by groups composed of Lombard teachers and stonemasons, who worked throughout Catalan territories, erected fairly uniform temples, some of which still exist today. The large promoter and sponsor of this art was Oliva, monk and abbot of the monastery of Ripoll who, in 1032, ordered the extension of the body of this building with a façade with two towers, plus a transept which included seven apses, all decorated on the outside with the Lombardic ornamentation of blind arches and vertical strips.
List of First Romanesque buildings
- San Pietro in Agliate (near Monza) built in 875, considered to be the probable first church with elements of Lombard Romanesque.
- Priorato di Sant'Egidio
- Basilica di Santa Giulia
- Priorato di Piona
- Baptistry of Velezzo Lomellina
- Sant'Ambrogio in Milan c. 1048
- Sant Pere de Roda, founded 943, started construction c. 950
- Ripoll Monastery. Finished and consecrated in 977
- Church of St. Vicenç in Cardona, started in 1029 and consecrated in 1040
- Sant Cristòfol of Beget
- Sant Pere of Besalú
- Sant Vicenç of Besalú
- Monastery of Sant Miquel de Cruïlles
- Sant Vicenç of Espinelves
- Part of Girona's Cathedral
- Monastery of Sant Pere de Galligans in Girona
- Sant Nicolau in Girona
- Saint Cecil of Molló
- Church of Sant Joan in Palau-saverdera
- Monastery of Sant Quirze de Colera in Rabós d'Empordá
- Monastery of Sant Aniol d'Aguja
- Monastery of Santa Maria of Vilabertran
- Churches of Saint Mary and Saint Clement of Taüll, Sant Feliu, Sant Joan de Boí, Santa Maria de l'Assumpció, Santa Maria de Cardet, la Nativitat de Durro, Ermita de Sant Quiric and Santa Eulàlia, in Vall de Boí,
- Churches of Santa Maria, Sant Pere and Sant Miquel in Terrassa
- Church of Saint Caprasio (Saint Caprasius) in Santa Cruz de la Serós (Huesca)
- Monastery of San Pedro de Siresa (Huesca)
- Church of San Adrián de Sasave (Huesca)
- Church of Baros (Huesca)
- Church of Asieso (Huesca)
- Church of Binacua (Huesca)
- Churches of the Serrablo (Huesca), it is debatable whether they are Romanesque or Mozarab: Ordovés, Rasal, Lasieso, Arto, Isún, Satué, Lárrade, San Juan de Busa, Oliván, Orós Bajo, Susín, Basarán (now in Formigal), Otal, S. Juan de Espierre and San Bartolomé de Gavín
- Nuestra Señora de la Anunciada Hermitage, in Urueña
- Church of Saint-Étienne, Vignory 1050-1057
- St Philibert at Tournus
- Saint-Martin-du-Canigou, begun 1001
- The Monastery of Santa Maria de Roses of 1022 is the oldest of the Lombard features in Catalonia.
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- Armi, Edson. Orders and Continuous Orders in Romanesque Architecture., Department of Art, University of Chicago. Oct 1975. pp. 173-188.
- Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Chueca Goitia, Fernando Historia de la Arquitectura Española, Edad Antigua y Media Editorial DOSSAT, 1965. Chapter: El primer arte románico. pp. 148-156. ISBN 84-923918-4-7
- Chueca Goitia, Fernando Historia de la Arquitectura occidental: Edad Media cristiana en España Ed. DOSSAT, 2000. ISBN 84-95312-35-2
- Yarza, Joaquín Arte y arquitectura en España, 500-1250 Manuales arte Cátedra, 1997. ISBN 84-376-0200-9