Thanksgiving (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from First Thanksgiving)
Jump to: navigation, search
Thanksgiving
Thanksgiving grace 1942.jpg
Saying grace before carving a turkey at Thanksgiving dinner in Neffsville, Pennsylvania, 1942
Observed by United States
Type National
Celebrations Giving thanks, prayer, spending time with family, feasting, football games, parades
Date Fourth Thursday in November
2013 date November 28  (2013-11-28)
2014 date November 27  (2014-11-27)
2015 date November 26  (2015-11-26)
2016 date November 24  (2016-11-24)
Frequency annual

Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a holiday celebrated in the United States on the fourth Thursday in November. It became an official Federal holiday in 1863, when, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national day of "Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens", to be celebrated on Thursday, November 26.[1] Also, there are reports that the original Thanksgiving proclamation was signed by George Washington.[2] As a federal and public holiday in the U.S., Thanksgiving is one of the major holidays of the year. Together with Christmas and New Year, Thanksgiving is a part of the broader holiday season.

The event that Americans commonly call the "First Thanksgiving" was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World in 1621.[3] This feast lasted three days, and it was attended by 90 Native Americans (as accounted by attendee Edward Winslow)[4] and 53 Pilgrims.[5] The New England colonists were accustomed to regularly celebrating "thanksgivings"—days of prayer thanking God for blessings such as military victory or the end of a drought.[6]

History[edit]

Early observances[edit]

The traditional representation of where the first Thanksgiving was held in the United States has often been a subject of boosterism and debate, though the debate is often confused by mixing up the ideas of a Thanksgiving holiday celebration and a Thanksgiving religious service. According to author James Baker, this debate is a "tempest in a beanpot".[7]

Local boosters in Virginia, Florida, and Texas promote their own colonists, who (like many people getting off a boat) gave thanks for setting foot again on dry land.

—Jeremy Bangs[8]

The first documented thanksgiving services in territory currently belonging to the United States were conducted by Spaniards in the 16th century.[9][10][11] Thanksgiving services were routine in what was to become the Commonwealth of Virginia as early as 1607,[12] with the first permanent settlement of Jamestown, Virginia holding a thanksgiving in 1610.[9]

On December 4, 1619, 38 English settlers arrived at Berkeley Hundred. The group's charter required that the day of arrival be observed yearly as a "day of thanksgiving" to God. On that first day, Captain John Woodlief held the service of thanksgiving. As quoted from the section of the Charter of Berkeley Hundred specifying the thanksgiving service: "We ordaine that the day of our ships arrival at the place assigned for plantacon in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God."[13] After the Indian massacre of 1622, the Berkeley Hundred site and other outlying locations were abandoned as the colonists withdrew to Jamestown and other more secure points. According to Baker, "the American holiday's true origin was the New England Calvinist Thanksgiving. Never coupled with a Sabbath meeting, the Puritan observances were special days set aside during the week for thanksgiving and praise in response to God's providence."[7]

Thanksgiving observed by the Pilgrims at Plymouth[edit]

The First Thanksgiving 1621, oil on canvas by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1899). The painting shows common misconceptions about the event that persist to modern times: Pilgrims did not wear such outfits, and the Wampanoag are dressed in the style of Native Americans from the Great Plains.[14]

Americans commonly trace the Thanksgiving holiday to a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast after a successful growing season. Autumn or early winter feasts continued sporadically in later years, first as an impromptu religious observance, and later as a civil tradition.

Squanto, a Patuxent Native American who resided with the Wampanoag tribe, taught the Pilgrims how to catch eel and grow corn and served as an interpreter for them (Squanto had learned English during travels in England). Additionally the Wampanoag leader Massasoit had donated food stores to the fledgling colony during the first winter when supplies brought from England were insufficient.

The Pilgrims celebrated at Plymouth for three days after their first harvest, in 1621. Seventeenth-century accounts do not identify this as a Thanksgiving observance, rather it followed the harvest. Two colonists gave personal accounts of the 1621 feast in Plymouth, Massachusetts. The Pilgrims, most of whom were Separatists (English Dissenters), are not to be confused with Puritans who established their own Massachusetts Bay Colony nearby (current day Boston) in 1628 and had very different religious beliefs.[15]

William Bradford, in Of Plymouth Plantation:

They began now to gather in the small harvest they had, and to fit up their houses and dwellings against winter, being all well recovered in health and strength and had all things in good plenty. For as some were thus employed in affairs abroad, others were exercised in fishing, about cod and bass and other fish, of which they took good store, of which every family had their portion. All the summer there was no want; and now began to come in store of fowl, as winter approached, of which this place did abound when they came first (but afterward decreased by degrees). And besides waterfowl there was great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many, besides venison, etc. Besides, they had about a peck a meal a week to a person, or now since harvest, Indian corn to the proportion. Which made many afterwards write so largely of their plenty here to their friends in England, which were not feigned but true reports.

Edward Winslow, in Mourt's Relation:

Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruits of our labor. They four in one day killed as much fowl as, with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which we brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty.

The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, oil on canvas by Jennie Augusta Brownscombe (1914). Another historically inaccurate depiction.

The Pilgrims held another Thanksgiving celebration in 1623, after a switch from communal farming to privatized farming,[16][17] a fast,[18] and a refreshing 14-day rain[18][19] resulted in a larger harvest. William DeLoss Love calculates that this thanksgiving was made on Wednesday, July 30, 1623, a day before the arrival of a supply ship with more colonists,[18] but before the fall harvest. In Love's opinion this 1623 thanksgiving was significant because the order to recognize the event was from civil authority[20] (Governor Bradford), and not from the church, making it likely the first civil recognition of Thanksgiving in New England.[18]

Referring to the 1623 harvest after the nearly catastrophic drought, Bradford wrote:

And afterwards the Lord sent them such seasonable showers, with interchange of fair warm weather as, through His blessing, caused a fruitful and liberal harvest, to their no small comfort and rejoicing. For which mercy, in time convenient, they also set apart a day of thanksgiving…

By this time harvest was come, and instead of famine now God gave them plenty … for which they blessed God. And the effect of their particular planting was well seen, for all had … pretty well … so as any general want or famine had not been amongst them since to this day.[21]

These first hand accounts do not appear to have contributed to the early development of the holiday. Bradford's "Of Plymouth Plantation" was not published until the 1850s. While the booklet "Mourt's Relation" was summarized by other publications without the now familiar thanksgiving story, by the eighteenth century the original booklet appeared to be lost or forgotten. A copy was rediscovered in Philadelphia in 1820, with the first full reprinting in 1841. In a footnote the editor, Alexander Young, was the first person to identify the 1621 feast as "the first Thanksgiving."[22]

Other colonies[edit]

The Massachusetts Bay Colony (consisting mainly of Puritan Christians) celebrated Thanksgiving for the first time in 1630, and frequently thereafter until about 1680, when it became an annual festival in that colony; and Connecticut as early as 1639 and annually after 1647, except in 1675. The Dutch in New Netherland appointed a day for giving thanks in 1644 and occasionally thereafter.

Later in the 18th century, individual colonies would periodically designate a day of thanksgiving in honor of a military victory, an adoption of a state constitution or an exceptionally bountiful crop. Such a Thanksgiving Day celebration was held in December 1777 by each of the states, commemorating the surrender of British General Burgoyne at Saratoga.

During the 18th century, individual colonies commonly observed days of thanksgiving at different times of the year.

The Revolutionary War to nationhood[edit]

During the American Revolutionary War the Continental Congress appointed one or more thanksgiving days each year, each time recommending to the executives of the various states the observance of these days in their states.

The First National Proclamation of Thanksgiving was given by the Continental Congress in 1777 from its temporary location in York, Pennsylvania, while the British occupied the national capital at Philadelphia. Delegate Samuel Adams created the first draft. Congress then adapted the final version:

For as much as it is the indispensable Duty of all Men to adore the superintending Providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with Gratitude their Obligation to him for Benefits received, and to implore such farther Blessings as they stand in Need of: And it having pleased him in his abundant Mercy, not only to continue to us the innumerable Bounties of his common Providence; but also to smile upon us in the Prosecution of a just and necessary War, for the Defense and Establishment of our unalienable Rights and Liberties; particularly in that he hath been pleased, in so great a Measure, to prosper the Means used for the Support of our Troops, and to crown our Arms with most signal success:

It is therefore recommended to the legislative or executive Powers of these United States to set apart Thursday, the eighteenth Day of December next, for Solemn Thanksgiving and Praise: That at one Time and with one Voice, the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor; and that, together with their sincere Acknowledgments and Offerings, they may join the penitent Confession of their manifold Sins, whereby they had forfeited every Favor; and their humble and earnest Supplication that it may please God through the Merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to forgive and blot them out of Remembrance; That it may please him graciously to afford his Blessing on the Governments of these States respectively, and prosper the public Council of the whole: To inspire our Commanders, both by Land and Sea, and all under them, with that Wisdom and Fortitude which may render them fit Instruments, under the Providence of Almighty God, to secure for these United States, the greatest of all human Blessings, Independence and Peace: That it may please him, to prosper the Trade and Manufactures of the People, and the Labor of the Husbandman, that our Land may yield its Increase: To take Schools and Seminaries of Education, so necessary for cultivating the Principles of true Liberty, Virtue and Piety, under his nurturing Hand; and to prosper the Means of Religion, for the promotion and enlargement of that Kingdom, which consisteth "in Righteousness, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghost.

And it is further recommended, That servile Labor, and such Recreation, as, though at other Times innocent, may be unbecoming the Purpose of this Appointment, be omitted on so solemn an Occasion.

George Washington, leader of the revolutionary forces in the American Revolutionary War, proclaimed a Thanksgiving in December 1777 as a victory celebration honoring the defeat of the British at Saratoga.

Thanksgiving proclamations in the first thirty years of nationhood[edit]

The Continental-Confederation Congress, the legislative body that governed the United States from 1774 to 1789, issued several "national days of prayer, humiliation, and thanksgiving",[23] a practice that was continued by Presidents Washington and Adams under the Constitution, and has manifested itself in the established American observances of Thanksgiving and the National Day of Prayer today.[24] This proclamation was published in The Independent Gazetteer; or, the Chronicle of Freedom on November 5, 1782, the first being observed on November 28, 1782:

By the United States in Congress assembled, PROCLAMATION.

It being the indispensable duty of all nations, not only to offer up their supplications to Almighty God, the giver of all good, for His gracious assistance in a time of distress, but also in a solemn and public manner, to give Him praise for His goodness in general, and especially for great and signal interpositions of His Providence in their behalf; therefore, the United States in Congress assembled, taking into their consideration the many instances of Divine goodness to these States in the course of the important conflict, in which they have been so long engaged, – the present happy and promising state of public affairs, and the events of the war in the course of the year now drawing to a close; particularly the harmony of the public Councils which is so necessary to the success of the public cause, – the perfect union and good understanding which has hitherto subsisted between them and their allies, notwithstanding the artful and unwearied attempts of the common enemy to divide them, – the success of the arms of the United States and those of their allies, – and the acknowledgment of their Independence by another European power, whose friendship and commerce must be of great and lasting advantage to these States; Do hereby recommend it to the inhabitants of these States in general, to observe and request the several states to interpose their authority, in appointing and commanding the observation of THURSDAY the TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY OF NOVEMBER next as a day of SOLEMN THANKSGIVING to GOD for all His mercies; and they do further recommend to all ranks to testify their gratitude to God for His goodness by a cheerful obedience to His laws and by promoting, each in his station, and by his influence, the practice of true and undefiled religion, which is the great foundation of public prosperity and national happiness.

Done in Congress at Philadelphia, the eleventh day of October, in the year of our LORD, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, and of our Sovereignty and Independence, the seventh.

JOHN HANSON, President.

CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.[23]

On Thursday, September 24, 1789, the first House of Representatives voted to recommend the First Amendment of the newly drafted Constitution to the states for ratification. The next day, Congressman Elias Boudinot from New Jersey proposed that the House and Senate jointly request of President Washington to proclaim a day of thanksgiving for "the many signal favors of Almighty God". Boudinot said that he "could not think of letting the session pass over without offering an opportunity to all the citizens of the United States of joining, with one voice, in returning to Almighty God their sincere thanks for the many blessings he had poured down upon them."[25]

As President, on October 3, 1789, George Washington made the following proclamation and created the first Thanksgiving Day designated by the national government of the United States of America:

Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and favor, and whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me "to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness."

Now therefore I do recommend and assign Thursday the 26th day of November next to be devoted by the People of these States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be. That we may then all unite in rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks, for his kind care and protection of the People of this Country previous to their becoming a Nation, for the signal and manifold mercies, and the favorable interpositions of his providence, which we experienced in the course and conclusion of the late war, for the great degree of tranquility, union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed, for the peaceable and rational manner, in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government for our safety and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed; and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us.

And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler of Nations and beseech him to pardon our national and other transgressions, to enable us all, whether in public or private stations, to perform our several and relative duties properly and punctually, to render our national government a blessing to all the people, by constantly being a Government of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and faithfully executed and obeyed, to protect and guide all Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shown kindness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, and concord. To promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue, and the encrease of science among them and Us, and generally to grant unto all Mankind such a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best.

Given under my hand at the City of New York the third day of October in the year of our Lord 1789.[26]

George Washington again proclaimed a Thanksgiving in 1795.

President John Adams declared Thanksgivings in 1798 and 1799. No Thanksgiving proclamations were issued by Thomas Jefferson but James Madison renewed the tradition in 1814, in response to resolutions of Congress, at the close of the War of 1812. Madison also declared the holiday twice in 1815; however, none of these was celebrated in autumn. In 1816, Governor Plumer of New Hampshire appointed Thursday, November 14 to be observed as a day of Public Thanksgiving and Governor Brooks of Massachusetts appointed Thursday, November 28 to be "observed throughout that State as a day of Thanksgiving".[27]

A thanksgiving day was annually appointed by the governor of New York from 1817. In some of the Southern states, there was opposition to the observance of such a day on the ground that it was a relic of Puritanic bigotry, but by 1858 proclamations appointing a day of thanksgiving were issued by the governors of 25 states and two territories.

Lincoln and the Civil War[edit]

Sketch by Alfred Waud of Thanksgiving in camp (of General Louis Blenker) during the U.S. Civil War in 1861
Home to Thanksgiving, lithograph by Currier and Ives (1867).

In the middle of the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln, prompted by a series of editorials written by Sarah Josepha Hale,[1] proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day, to be celebrated on the final Thursday in November 1863. The document, written by Secretary of State William Seward, reads as follows:

The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union. Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle, or the ship; the axe had enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years, with large increase of freedom.

No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy.

It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and voice by the whole American people. I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens. And I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to his tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquility and Union.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the city of Washington, this third day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the independence of the United States the eighty-eighth."

Proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln, October 3, 1863.[1]

Since 1863, Thanksgiving has been observed annually in the United States.

Post-Civil War era[edit]

Servicemen eating a Thanksgiving dinner after the end of World War I (1918)

During the second half of the 19th century, Thanksgiving traditions in America varied from region to region. A traditional New England Thanksgiving, for example, consisted of a raffle held on Thanksgiving Eve (in which the prizes were mainly geese or turkeys), a shooting match on Thanksgiving morning (in which turkeys and chickens were used as targets), church services, and then the traditional feast which consisted of some familiar Thanksgiving staples such as turkey and pumpkin pie, and some not-so-familiar dishes such as pigeon pie. The earliest high school football rivalries took root in the late 19th century in Massachusetts, stemming from games played on Thanksgiving; professional football took root as a Thanksgiving staple during the sport's genesis in the 1890s, and the tradition of Thanksgiving football both at the high school and professional level continues to this day. In New York City, people would dress up in fanciful masks and costumes and roam the streets in merry-making mobs. By the beginning of the 20th century, these mobs had morphed into "ragamuffin parades" consisting mostly of children dressed as "ragamuffins" in costumes of old and mismatched adult clothes and with deliberately smudged faces, but by the late 1950s the tradition had vanished entirely.[28]

1939 to 1941[edit]

Freedom from Want, oil on canvas by Norman Rockwell (1943).

Abraham Lincoln's successors as president followed his example of annually declaring the final Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving. But in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt broke with this tradition.[29] November had five Thursdays that year (instead of the more-common four), and Roosevelt declared the fourth Thursday as Thanksgiving rather than the fifth one. Although many popular histories state otherwise, he made clear that his plan was to establish the holiday on the next-to-last Thursday in the month instead of the last one. With the country still in the midst of The Great Depression, Roosevelt thought an earlier Thanksgiving would give merchants a longer period to sell goods before Christmas. Increasing profits and spending during this period, Roosevelt hoped, would help bring the country out of the Depression. At the time, advertising goods for Christmas before Thanksgiving was considered inappropriate. Fred Lazarus, Jr., founder of the Federated Department Stores (later Macy's), is credited with convincing Roosevelt to push Thanksgiving to a week earlier to expand the shopping season, and within two years the change passed through Congress into law.[30][31]

Republicans decried the change, calling it an affront to the memory of Lincoln. People began referring to November 30 as the "Republican Thanksgiving" and November 23 as the "Democratic Thanksgiving" or "Franksgiving".[32] Regardless of the politics, many localities had made a tradition of celebrating on the last Thursday, and many football teams had a tradition of playing their final games of the season on Thanksgiving; with their schedules set well in advance, they could not change. Since a presidential declaration of Thanksgiving Day was not legally binding, Roosevelt's change was widely disregarded. Twenty-three states went along with Roosevelt's recommendation, 22 did not, and some, like Texas, could not decide and took both days as government holidays.

In 1940 and 1941, years in which November had four Thursdays, Roosevelt declared the third one as Thanksgiving. As in 1939, some states went along with the change while others retained the traditional last-Thursday date.

1942 to present[edit]

John F. Kennedy unofficially spares a turkey on November 19, 1963. The practice of "pardoning" turkeys in this manner becomes a permanent tradition in 1989.

On October 6, 1941, both houses of the U.S. Congress passed a joint resolution fixing the traditional last-Thursday date for the holiday beginning in 1942. However, in December of that year the Senate passed an amendment to the resolution that split the difference by requiring that Thanksgiving be observed annually on the fourth Thursday of November, which was sometimes the last Thursday and sometimes (less frequently) the next to last.[33] The amendment also passed the House, and on December 26, 1941, President Roosevelt signed this bill, for the first time making the date of Thanksgiving a matter of federal law and fixing the day as the fourth Thursday of November.[34] However, for several years some states continued to observe the last-Thursday date in years with five November Thursdays (the next such year being 1944), with Texas doing so as late as 1956.

Since 1947, the National Turkey Federation has presented the President of the United States with one live turkey and two dressed turkeys, in a ceremony known as the National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation. John F. Kennedy was the first president reported to spare the turkey given to him (he announced he didn't plan to eat the bird), and Ronald Reagan was the first to grant the turkey a presidential pardon, which he jokingly presented to his 1987 turkey (a turkey that would indeed be spared and sent to a petting zoo) in order to deflect questions regarding the Iran–Contra affair. George H. W. Bush, who served as vice president under Reagan, made the turkey pardon a permanent annual tradition upon assuming the presidency in 1989, a tradition that has been carried on by every president each year since.[35] The pardoned turkeys are typically sent to a farm to be pampered for the remainder of their lives (a time scale typically on the order of months, since most domestic turkeys have been bred to grow so much that they die within two years of birth).

There are legends that state that the "pardoning" tradition dates to the Harry Truman administration or even to an anecdote of Abraham Lincoln pardoning his son's pet turkey; both stories have been quoted in more recent presidential speeches, but neither has any evidence in the Presidential record.[36] In more recent years, two turkeys have been pardoned, in case the original turkey becomes unavailable for presidential pardoning.[37][38]

Traditional celebrations[edit]

Foods of the season[edit]

Traditional Thanksgiving dinner

U.S. tradition compares the holiday with a meal held in 1621 by the Wampanoag and the Pilgrims who settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. It is continued in modern times with the Thanksgiving dinner, traditionally featuring turkey, playing a central role in the celebration of Thanksgiving.

In the United States, certain kinds of food are traditionally served at Thanksgiving meals. Firstly, baked or roasted turkey is usually the featured item on any Thanksgiving feast table (so much so that Thanksgiving is sometimes referred to as "Turkey Day"). Stuffing, mashed potatoes with gravy, sweet potatoes, cranberry sauce, sweet corn, various fall vegetables (mainly various kinds of squashes), and pumpkin pie are commonly associated with Thanksgiving dinner. All of these are actually native to the Americas or were introduced as a new food source to the Europeans when they arrived. Turkey may be an exception. In his book Mayflower, Nathaniel Philbrick suggests that the Pilgrims might already have been familiar with turkey in England, even though the bird is native to the Americas. The Spaniards had brought domesticated turkeys back from Central America in the early 17th century, and the birds soon became popular fare all over Europe, including England, where turkey (as an alternative to the traditional goose) became a "fixture at English Christmases".[39]

Charity[edit]

Hungry diners line up outside a church for a free Thanksgiving meal

The poor are often provided with food at Thanksgiving time. Most communities have annual food drives that collect non-perishable packaged and canned foods, and corporations sponsor charitable distributions of staple foods and Thanksgiving dinners.[40]

Giving thanks[edit]

Thanksgiving was founded as a religious observance for all the members of the community to give thanks to God for a common purpose. Historic reasons for community thanksgivings are: the 1541 thanksgiving mass after the expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado safely crossing the high plains of Texas and finding game,[9][41] and the 1777 thanksgiving after the victory in the Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga.[9] In his 1789 National Thanksgiving Proclamation, President Washington gave many noble reasons for a national Thanksgiving, including "for the civil and religious liberty", for "useful knowledge", and for God’s "kind care" and "His Providence".[42] After President Washington delivered this message, the "Episcopal Church, of which President Washington was a member, announced that the first Thursday in November would become its regular day for giving thanks".[43] After Washington, the only presidents to express a specifically Christian perspective in their proclamation have been Grover Cleveland in 1896,[42] and William McKinley in 1900.[42] Several other presidents have cited the Judeo-Christian tradition.

The tradition of giving thanks to God is continued today in many forms, most notably the attendance of religious services, as well as the saying of a mealtime prayer before Thanksgiving dinner. Many houses of worship offer worship services and events on Thanksgiving themes the weekend before, the day of, or the weekend after Thanksgiving.[44] At home, it is a holiday tradition in many families to begin the Thanksgiving dinner by saying grace (a prayer before or after a meal).[45] The custom is portrayed in the photograph "Family Holding Hands and Praying Before a Thanksgiving Meal". Before praying, it is a common practice at the dining table for "each person [to] tell one specific reason they’re thankful to God that year."[46] While grace is said, many families hold hands until the prayer concludes, often indicated with an "Amen".[47][48] Traditionally, grace was led by the hostess or host, though in later times it is usual for others to contribute.[49]

Joy Fisher, a Baptist Christian writer, states that "this holiday takes on a spiritual emphasis and includes recognition of the source of the blessings they enjoy year round — a loving God."[50] In the same vein, Hesham A. Hassaballa, an American Muslim scholar and physician, has written that Thanksgiving "is wholly consistent with Islamic principles" and that "few things are more Islamic than thanking God for His blessings".[51] Similarly many Sikh Americans also celebrate the holiday by "giving thanks to Almighty".[52]

Vacation and travel[edit]

U.S. President George W. Bush visits Iraq to have Thanksgiving dinner with soldiers in November 2003.

On Thanksgiving Day, families and friends usually gather for a large meal or dinner. Consequently, the Thanksgiving holiday weekend is one of the busiest travel periods of the year.[53] Thanksgiving is a four-day or five-day weekend vacation for schools and colleges. Most business and government workers (78% in 2007) are given Thanksgiving and the day after as paid holidays.[54] Thanksgiving Eve, the night before Thanksgiving, is one of the busiest nights of the year for bars and clubs (where it is often identified by the derogatory name Blackout Wednesday), as many college students and others return to their hometowns to reunite with friends and family.[55]

Parades[edit]

Since 1924, in New York City, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is held annually every Thanksgiving Day from the Upper West Side of Manhattan to Macy's flagship store in Herald Square, and televised nationally by NBC. The parade features parade floats with specific themes, scenes from Broadway plays, large balloons of cartoon characters, TV personalities, and high school marching bands. The float that traditionally ends the Macy's Parade is the Santa Claus float, the arrival of which is an unofficial sign of the beginning of the Christmas season.

Also founded in 1924, America's Thanksgiving Parade in Detroit is one of the largest parades in the country. The parade runs from Midtown to Downtown Detroit and precedes the annual Detroit Lions Thanksgiving football game. The parade includes large balloons, marching bands, and various celebrity guests much like the Macy's parade and is nationally televised on various affiliate stations. The Mayor of Detroit closes the parade by giving Santa Claus a key to the city.

There are Thanksgiving parades in many other cities, including:

Most of these parades are televised on a local station, and some have small, usually regional, syndication networks; most also carry the parades via Internet television on the TV stations' websites.

Several other parades have a loose association with Thanksgiving, thanks to CBS's now-discontinued All-American Thanksgiving Day Parade coverage. Parades that were covered during this era were the Aloha Floral Parade held in Honolulu, Hawaii every September, the Toronto Santa Claus Parade in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the Opryland Aqua Parade (held from 1996 to 2001 by the Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center in Nashville); the Opryland parade was discontinued and replaced by a taped parade in Miami Beach, Florida in 2002. A Disneyland parade was also featured on CBS until Disney purchased rival ABC.

For many years the Santa Claus Lane Parade (now Hollywood Christmas Parade) in Los Angeles was held on the Wednesday evening before Thanksgiving. In 1978 this was switched to the Sunday following the holiday.

Football[edit]

American football is an important part of many Thanksgiving celebrations in the United States. Professional football games are often held on Thanksgiving Day; until recently, these were the only games played during the week apart from Sunday or Monday night. The National Football League has played games on Thanksgiving every year since its creation. The Detroit Lions have hosted a game every Thanksgiving Day since 1934, with the exception of 1939–1944 (due to World War II). In 1966, the Dallas Cowboys, who had been founded six years earlier, adopted the practice of hosting Thanksgiving games. It is widely rumored that the Cowboys sought a guarantee that they would regularly host Thanksgiving games as a condition of their very first one (since games on days other than Sunday were uncommon at the time and thus high attendance was not a certainty). A third game was added in primetime by the league in 2006 which aired on the NFL Network, then moved to NBC in 2012. The third game and has no set site or team, allowing the opportunity for all the teams in the league to possibly host a Thanksgiving game in the future.

For many college football teams, the regular season ends on Thanksgiving weekend, and a team's final game is often against a regional or historic rival, such as the Iron Bowl between Alabama and Auburn, the Apple Cup between Washington and Washington State, and Michigan and Ohio State playing in their rivalry game. Most of these college games are played on the Friday or Saturday after Thanksgiving, but usually a single college game is played on Thanksgiving itself.

Some high school football games (which include some state championship games), and informal "Turkey Bowl" contests played by amateur groups and organizations, are frequently held on Thanksgiving weekend. Games of football preceding or following the meal in the backyard or a nearby field are also common during many family gatherings. These often are flag football games.

Other sports[edit]

In college basketball, several elimination tournaments which precede the conference season occur, including the Anaheim Classic (formerly the 76 Classic) and Old Spice Classic tournaments take place over Thanksgiving weekend, with many of the games being played on Thanksgiving itself. Games are televised on ESPN2 and ESPNU in marathon format. This is a relatively new "tradition", as these tournaments were founded in 2007 and 2006 respectively. Competitor Versus (now NBC Sports Network) responded by acquiring the rights to the Battle 4 Atlantis tournament, previously aired the week before Thanksgiving, and moving it to Thanksgiving weekend in 2011. The National Basketball Association also briefly played on Thanksgiving, albeit in the evening, with a doubleheader airing Thanksgiving night on TNT, a practice that ran from 2009 to 2011; the Atlanta Hawks hosted the early game each year, while the Los Angeles Clippers hosted the late game in both 2010 and 2011 (both of the 2011 NBA Thanksgiving games were canceled due to a labor dispute). The NBA did not schedule any Thanksgiving games in 2012 or 2013, mainly due to the move of the NFL's primetime Thanksgiving game to NBC.

Man dressed in a turkey costume takes part in a 10K run on Thanksgiving Day

Though golf and auto racing are in their off-seasons on Thanksgiving, there are events in those sports that take place on Thanksgiving weekend. The Turkey Night Grand Prix is an annual automobile race that takes place at the Perris Auto Speedway on Thanksgiving night; due in part to the fact that this is after the Sprint Cup Series and IZOD IndyCar Series have finished their seasons, it allows some of the top racers in the United States to participate. In golf, Thanksgiving weekend was the traditional time of the Skins Game from 1983 to 2008; the event was canceled in 2009 due to a lack of sponsorship and a difficulty in drawing star talent.[61] A return was, at the time of the cancellation, planned for the next year, but no skins game has been included when the PGA Tour released its schedule in 2010, 2011 or 2012.

The world championship pumpkin chunking contest, held in early November in Sussex County, Delaware, is televised on Thanksgiving on Science Channel.

In ice hockey, the National Hockey League announced, as part of its decade-long extension with NBC, that they would begin airing a game on the Friday afternoon following Thanksgiving beginning the 2011–12 NHL season; the game has since been branded as the Thanksgiving Showdown. (The Boston Bruins have played matinees on Black Friday since at least 1990, but 2011 is the first time the game has been nationally televised.) The NHL has played games on Thanksgiving, usually scheduling games involving Canadian teams. In Canada, Thanksgiving is in October, although no games were scheduled in 2011 and only one was scheduled in 2012 (both the Thanksgiving Showdown and the lone Canadian game on U.S. Thanksgiving were canceled as a result of a labor dispute in 2012); as a result of the effective day off, almost all of the league's teams play the day after Thanksgiving.

The Turkey Trot is a road running event held in numerous cities on Thanksgiving morning. Depending on the organizations involved, these can range from one-mile (1.6 km) fun runs to full marathons (although no races currently use the latter; the Atlanta Marathon stopped running on Thanksgiving beginning in 2010). Most Turkey Trots range from between three and ten miles (16 km).

Television and radio[edit]

While not as prolific as Christmas specials, which usually begin right after Thanksgiving, there are many special television programs transmitted on or around Thanksgiving. In some cases, Christmas films and specials begin to be telecast on Thanksgiving Day, since the day signals the beginning of the Christmas season in the U.S.

Controversy[edit]

Much like Columbus Day, Thanksgiving is seen by some as a celebration of the conquest and genocide of Native Americans by colonists. Professor Dan Brook of the University of California, Berkeley condemns the "cultural and political amnesia" of Americans that celebrate Thanksgiving: "We do not have to feel guilty, but we do need to feel something."[62] Professor Robert Jensen of the University of Texas at Austin is somewhat harsher: "One indication of moral progress in the United States would be the replacement of Thanksgiving Day and its self-indulgent family feasting with a National Day of Atonement accompanied by a self-reflective collective fasting."[63]

Since 1970, the United American Indians of New England, a protest group led by Frank "Wamsutta" James that has accused the United States and European settlers of fabricating the Thanksgiving story and whitewashing a genocide and injustice against Native Americans, has led a National Day of Mourning protest on Thanksgiving at Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts in the name of social equality and in honor of political prisoners.[64]

On November 27, 1969, as another notable example of anti-Thanksgiving sentiment, hundreds of supporters traveled to Alcatraz on Thanksgiving Day to celebrate the Occupation of Alcatraz (which had started a week earlier and lasted until 1971) by Native Americans of All Tribes. The American Indian Movement also holds a negative view of Thanksgiving and has used it as a platform of protest, most notably when they took over a Mayflower float in a Thanksgiving Day parade.[65] Some Native Americans hold "Unthanksgiving Day" celebrations in which they mourn the deaths of their ancestors, fast, dance, and pray.[66] This tradition has been taking place since 1975.[67]

The perception of Thanksgiving among Native Americans is not, however, universally negative. Tim Giago, founder of the Native American Journalists Organization, seeks to reconcile Thanksgiving with Native American traditions. He compares Thanksgiving to "wopila", a thanks-giving celebration practiced by Native Americans of the Great Plains. He wrote in The Huffington Post: "The idea of a day of Thanksgiving has been a part of the Native American landscape for centuries. The fact that it is also a national holiday for all Americans blends in perfectly with Native American traditions." He also shares personal anecdotes of Native American families coming together to celebrate Thanksgiving.[68] Members of the Oneida Indian Nation marched in the 2010 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade with a float called "The True Spirit of Thanksgiving" and have done so in each year since.[69]

Some atheists and separationists have also criticized popular traditions associated with the celebration of Thanksgiving, particularly the annual recitation of Thanksgiving proclamations by the President of the United States, as they often revolve around the theme of giving thanks to God, due to their interpretation of the separation of church and state.[70]

Date[edit]

Since being fixed at the fourth Thursday in November by law in 1941, the holiday in the United States can occur on any date from November 22 to 28. When it falls on November 22 or 23, it is not the last Thursday, but the penultimate Thursday in November. Regardless, it is the Thursday preceding the last Saturday of November.

As it is a Federal holiday, all United States government offices are closed and employees are paid for that day. It is also a holiday for the New York Stock Exchange and most other financial markets and financial services companies.

Thanksgiving dates, 2014–2034[edit]

  • November 27, 2014
  • November 26, 2015
  • November 24, 2016
  • November 23, 2017
  • November 22, 2018
  • November 28, 2019
  • November 26, 2020
  • November 25, 2021
  • November 24, 2022
  • November 23, 2023
  • November 28, 2024
  • November 27, 2025
  • November 26, 2026
  • November 25, 2027
  • November 23, 2028
  • November 22, 2029
  • November 28, 2030
  • November 27, 2031
  • November 25, 2032
  • November 24, 2033
  • November 23, 2034

Day after Thanksgiving[edit]

The day after Thanksgiving is a day off for some companies and most schools and a popular shopping day. It is popularly known as Black Friday, or as Buy Nothing Day to those who object to the commercialization of the holiday.

President George W. Bush signed into law legislation introduced by Congressman Joe Baca (D-Rialto), to designate the Friday after Thanksgiving as Native American Heritage Day. The Native American Heritage Day Bill was supported by the National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA) and 184 federally recognized tribes, and designates Friday, November 28, 2008, as a day to pay tribute to Native Americans for their many contributions to the United States.

The Monday after Thanksgiving is sometimes called Cyber Monday.

The Tuesday after Thanksgiving is sometimes called Giving Tuesday.

Literature[edit]

"A Hymn of Thanksgiving" sheet music cover - November 26, 1899.

Poetry[edit]

Music[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Proclamation of Thanksgiving (October 3, 1863)". Abraham Lincoln Online. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  2. ^ Frank, Priscilla (November 28, 2013). "Christie's Is Selling The Proclamation That Established Thanksgiving, Signed By George Washington". Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, pp. 85–92.
  4. ^ Winslow, Edward (1622), Mourt's Relation, p. 133, retrieved 2013-11-20, "many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their greatest king Massasoyt, with some ninetie men, whom for three dayes we entertained and feasted" 
  5. ^ "Primary Sources for "The First Thanksgiving" at Plymouth". Pilgrim Hall Museum. Retrieved 2009-11-26. "The 53 Pilgrims at the First Thanksgiving" 
  6. ^ "Thanksgiving Day". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  7. ^ a b Baker, James W. (2009). Thanksgiving: the biography of an American holiday. UPNE. p. 273. ISBN 9781584658016. 
  8. ^ Jeremy Bangs. "Influences". The Pilgrims' Leiden. Retrieved 2010-09-11. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Thanksgiving". The Teachers Page. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  10. ^ Wilson, Craig (November 21, 2007). "Florida teacher chips away at Plymouth Rock Thanksgiving myth". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  11. ^ Davis, Kenneth C. (November 25, 2008). "A French Connection". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  12. ^ Morill, Ann "Thanksgiving and Other Harvest Festivals" Infobase Publishing, ISBN 1-60413-096-2 p.33
  13. ^ "The First Thanksgiving Proclamation — June 20, 1676". The Covenant News. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  14. ^ "Let's Talk Turkey: 5 myths about the Thanksgiving holiday". The Patriot Ledger. November 26, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  15. ^ Hakim, Joy (2005). Making Thirteen Colonies: 1600–1740. A History of US 2 (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518895-0. 
  16. ^ Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, pp. 120–121.
  17. ^ Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation, pp. 135–136.
  18. ^ a b c d ''The fast and thanksgiving days of New England'' By William DeLoss Love, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Cambridge, 1895. Books.google.com. January 28, 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  19. ^ Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation, p. 142.
  20. ^ Winslow, Edward (1624). "Good Newes from New-England: or, A true relation of things very remarkable at the plantation of Plimoth in New-England … Together with a relation of such religious and civill lawes and customes, as are in practise amongst the Indians". MayflowerHistory.com. Retrieved 2013-11-28. , original at [1]
  21. ^ Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620–1647, p. 132.
  22. ^ Baker, James W. (2009). Thanksgiving: The Biography of an American Holiday. UPNE. p. 273. ISBN 9781584658016. 
  23. ^ a b LIbrary of Congress. "Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774-89". Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  24. ^ Ellis Sandoz. Republicanism, Religion, and the Soul of America. University of Missouri Press. 2013. p40
  25. ^ compiled from authentic materials by Joseph Gales, Senior (1834), The Annals of the Congress, The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States 1, Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, pp. 949–950 
  26. ^ "George Washington's Thanksgiving Proclamation. October 3, 1789". George Washington Papers. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  27. ^ [Zanesville Express, October 31, 1816.]
  28. ^ Nigro, Carmen. "Thanksgiving Ragamuffin Parade". Retrieved 2011-10-25. 
  29. ^ "The Year We Had Two Thanksgivings". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Marist College. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  30. ^ "The Role of Fred Lazarus Jr. in Giving Us Department Stores Like Macy's and Bloomingdale's". ATouchofBusiness.com. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  31. ^ "Macy’s, Inc. History - Macy’s, Inc". Macysinc.com. Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  32. ^ Kirkpatrick, Melanie (November 24, 2009). "Happy Franksgiving". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  33. ^ "Congress Establishes Thanksgiving". The National Archives. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  34. ^ "5 U.S.C. 87b. Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 631, 55 Stat. 862". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  35. ^ "Presidential Turkey Pardon". snopes.com. November 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  36. ^ Edwards, Cynthia (December 5, 2003). "Did Truman pardon a Turkey?". Truman Trivia. Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 2006-09-20. 
  37. ^ "President Bush Pardons "Flyer and Fryer" in National Thanksgiving Turkey Ceremony". Office of the Press Secretary. The White House Archives. November 22, 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  38. ^ Dizikes, Cynthia (November 27, 2008). "Pumpkin and Pecan off the Thanksgiving menu". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  39. ^ Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. New York: Penguin Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-14-311197-9. 
  40. ^ "Thanksgiving Day a Time for Reflection, Gratitude, Sharing". Bureau of International Information Programs. U.S. Department of State. November 23, 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  41. ^ "May 1541". Timeline 1525–1549. Timeslines of History. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  42. ^ a b c "Presidential Thanksgiving Proclamations". Pilgrim Hall Museum. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  43. ^ What is the origin of America’s annual Thanksgiving Day?. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  44. ^ Raise the Banners High!: Making and Using Processional Banners. Liturgy Training Publications. 2002. p. 38. ISBN 1568543689. 
  45. ^ Warth, Gary (November 15, 2007). "Many blessings: Throughout history, we have given thanks in various ways". North County Times. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  46. ^ Put ‘Thanks’ in Thanksgiving. "The Courier". Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  47. ^ Table For One, Please. A Solo Thanksgiving. "WGBH". Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  48. ^ Thanksgiving traditions: A mix of blessings. "The Charleston Gazette". Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  49. ^ Pilato, Donna (2010). "Giving Thanks and Saying Grace". About.com: Entertaining Guide. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  50. ^ Celebrating Thanksgiving with the family. "Baptist Press". Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  51. ^ Hassaballa, Hesham. "A Muslim Gives Thanks: Few things are more Islamic than thanking God for His blessings". Beliefnet. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  52. ^ "Sikhs participate in interfaith celebration of Thanksgiving". The South Asian Insider. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  53. ^ "24 million expected to fly over Thanksgiving holiday period". eTurboNews. November 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-01. 
  54. ^ Cody, Karen James (November 13, 2007). "Thanksgiving Holiday Leave Reaches New High; Turkey Stages a Comeback as Employer Holiday Gift". The Bureau of National Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  55. ^ Ronan, Gayle B. (November 23, 2005). "Bars, restaurants grateful for Thanksgiving Eve". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  56. ^ "About the Parade". Christmas in St. Louis Foundation. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  57. ^ "FirstLight Federal Credit Union Sun Bowl Parade". Sun Bowl Association. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  58. ^ "H-E-B Holiday Parade". Houston Festival Foundation. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  59. ^ "Annual Events". Fountain Hills Chamber of Commerce. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  60. ^ "Event Calendar". Stamford Downtown Special Services District. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  61. ^ "Skins Game to take year off due to economy". Golf.com. AP. May 9, 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  62. ^ "Counterpunch.org". Counterpunch.org. November 26, 2002. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  63. ^ AlterNet / By Robert Jensen (November 23, 2005). "Alternet.org". Alternet.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  64. ^ Carter, Matt (November 28, 2013). "Thanksgiving is National Day of Mourning for people in historic New England town". occupy.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  65. ^ DeShonda (May 9, 1973). "Encyclopedia.jrank.org". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  66. ^ "Americanrivercurrent.com". Americanrivercurrent.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  67. ^ "PBS.org". PBS.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  68. ^ Giago, Tim (November 17, 2011). "A Day to Give Thanks is part of Native American Tradition". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  69. ^ Virginia (November 25, 2010). "Oneidadispatch.com". Oneidadispatch.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  70. ^ "Thanksgiving: A Violation of the Separation of Church and State?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]