Firuz Shah Tughlaq

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Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Malik Feioz ibn Malik Rajab
Sultan of Delhi
Reign 1351–1388 AD
Predecessor Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Successor Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq II
Dynasty Tughlaq Dynasty
Father Malik Rajab
Mother Bibi Nala
Born 1309
Died September 20, 1388
Burial Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
Religion Islam

Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq (Nastaliq: فیروز شاہ تغلق, Devanagari: फ़िरोज़ शाह तुग़लक़) (1309 – September 20, 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388.[1] He was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur.[2] His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik) who had the title Sipahsalar.[3] Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlaq succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death from a fatal illness, but due to widespread unrest Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlaq's realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces.

Rule[edit]

When ascended to the throne of Delhi, Firoz was a man of 45 years. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. At his succession after the death of Muhammad Tughlaq, he faced many rebellions, including in Bengal, Gujarat and Warangal. Nonetheless he worked to improve the infrastructure of the empire building canals, rest-houses and hospitals, creating and refurbishing reservoirs and digging wells. He founded several cities, including Jaunpur, Firozpur and Hissar-Firoza. In the mid 1350s he developed the city near Delhi, calling it Firozabad. Most of that city was destroyed as subsequent rulers dismantled its buildings and reused the spolia as building materials,[4] and the rest was subsumed as New Delhi grew.


   Establishment of Diwan-i-Khairat(department for poor and needy people) and Diwan-i-Bundagan(department of slaves).
   Making Iqtadari system hereditary.
   Construction of canals for irrigation from
       Yamuna to the city of Hissar
       From the Sutlej to the Ghaggar
       From the Ghaggar to Firuzabad
       From Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
   Establishment of four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
   Imposition of Jaziya on the Brahmans for the first time
   Establishment in Delhi a hospital described variously as Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan or Shifa Khana

[5]

Administration[edit]

[6] General administration

Since he was half Muslim, got a religious temperament, probably to prove himself equal to the Pure Muslims. He started seeking advice of the Ulemas and ruled as per the Shariat. All the taxes which were unlawful as per Shariat were abandoned by him.

   Chungi (Octroi) was one of these taxes which was abolished by Firoz.
   The Brahmins were NOT exempted from the Jaziya tax levied on their pilgrimages but abolished Jaziya for those who accepted Islam.
   He ordered that the Muslim women should not come out of their houses and visit the tombs.
   He publically burnt a Brahmin for preaching the Muslims.
   A lot of Hindu temples were destroyed and mosques were erected.
   He imposed water tax on the agriculture land which was irrigated by the waters of the canals dug by the state.
   He acquired numerous slaves and employed them in the royal workshops.

Canal System

   To support the newly founded city of Hissar-i-Firoza, in 1355 he constructed a Double System of Canals from Yamuna to Sutlej.
   They are referred to as rajwahas in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
   This Yamuna canal was repaired for irrigation purposes during the time of Akbar.

Public Works

According to Farishta, a later historian, not less than 845 public works were done during the times of Firoz Shah Tughlaq which included canals, dams, reservoirs, bridges, baths, forts, mosques, schools, monasteries, and inns for pilgrims and travelers.

He also repaired the Qutub Minar (1368) which had got damaged previously in an earthquake and many of the tombs of Delhi. Passion of founding cities

Firoz Shah was also a remarkable builder. He had a passion of founding and naming the towns. When his son Fatah Khan was born on his march to Delhi, he founded a town at the site of the happy event as Fatahabad (now in Haryana). During his Bengal campaign he renamed two towns and founded Jaunapur, in honor of his late cousin. He established second Firozabad on the banks of Yamuna River near Delhi. Here he established one of the Asokan Pillars which he had removed from its original places.

Moderation[edit]

Feroz Tughlak had not contributed much to expansion of the territories in the empire, which he inherited. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagannath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion to Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not tolerant towards people with different religions. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation and also constructed buildings with architectural skill. He reformed the currency system. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. The last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Mongol ruler Timur in1398 A.D. sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty.

[7] He gave a number of important concessions to the theologians. He tried to ban practices with the orthodox theologians considered un-Islamic. Thus, he prohibited the practice of Muslim women going out to worship at the graves of saints. He perecuted a number of Muslim sects which were considered heretical by the theologians. [8] Firoz extended the principal of heredity to the army. Soldiers were allowed to rest in peace and to send in their place their sons. The soldiers were not paid in cash but by assignments on land revenue of villages. This novel technique of payment led to many abuses. He tried to win over the theologians proclaiming that he was a true Muslim king and the state under him was truly Islamic. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq took to heart the mistakes made during his cousin Muhammad's rule. He decided not to reconquer areas that had broken away, nor to keep further areas from taking their independence. He was indiscriminately benevolent and lenient as a sultan.[9] He decided to keep nobles and the Ulema happy so that they would allow him to rule his kingdom peacefully. In fact, almost all the rebellions during his rule were inherited from Muhammad bin Tughlaq. We come to know about him from a 32-page brochure he wrote.[10] Rather than awarding position based on merit, Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq allowed a noble's son to succeed to his father's position and jagir after his death.[11] The same was done in the army, where an old soldier could send his son, son-in-law or even his slave in his place. He increased the salary of the nobles. He stopped all kinds of harsh punishments such as cutting off hands. Firoz also lowered the land taxes that Muhammad had raised. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq's reign has been described as the greatest age of corruption in medieval India. It can be imagined from the fact that Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlaq once gave a golden tanka to a distraught soldier so that he could bribe the clerk to pass his sub standard horse.[12] The case of Imadulmulk Bashir,[13] the minister of war who began his career as an inherited slave of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, in the course of his service is said to have accumulated wealth to the tune of thirteen crores, when the state's yearly income was six crores and seventy-five lakh.[citation needed] In one area was Sultan Firoz intolerant, and that was over religious issues. He was a fervent Muslim, and had Hindu temples destroyed, as well as their books, idols and ceremonial vessels.[14] However, he still drank alcohol, even to excess.[14]

Infrastructure and education[edit]

Firuzshah Kotla (in Delhi) is the city established by him. It was destroyed by the later rulers. [15] When the top two stories of the Qutb Minar were damaged by lightning, Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq restored them in 1368 AD. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq instituted economic policies to increase material welfare of his people. Many rest houses (sarai), gardens and tombs were built. A number of Madrasas were opened to encourage literacy. He set up hospitals for the free treatment of the poor and encouraged physicians in the development of Unani medicine.[16] He provided money for the marriage of girls belonging to poor families. He commissioned many public buildings in Delhi. He built over 300 villages and dug 5 major canals for irrigation bringing more land under cultivation for growing grain and fruit. For day-to-day administration, Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq heavily depended on Malik Maqbul, previously commander of Warangal fort, who was captured and had accepted Islam.[17] When Firoz Shah was away on a Campaign to Sind and Gujarat for six months and no news was available about his whereabouts Maqbul ably protected Delhi.[18] He was the most highly favoured among the significant number of the nobles in Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq's court and retained the trust of the sultan.[19] Sultan Feroze Shah Tughlaq used to call Maqbul as 'brother'. The sultan even remarked that Khan-i-Jahan (Malik Maqbul) was the real ruler of Delhi.[20] he wrote his autobiography by the name Futuhat-e-firozshahi.

Hindu religious works were translated from Sanskrit to Persian. He had a large personal library of manuscripts in Persian, Arabic and other languages. He brought 2 Ashokan Pillars from Topara in Ambala district, and Meerut, carefully wrapped in silk, to Delhi. He re-erected one of them in his palace at Feroz Shah Kotla.

Remains of buildings at Firoz Shah Kotla, Delhi, 1795.

He had about 70,000 slaves, who had been brought from all over the country, trained in various arts and crafts. They however turned out to be undependable.[citation needed] Transfer of capital was the highlight of his reign. When the Qutb Minar struck by lightning in 1368 AD, knocking off its top storey, he replaced them with the existing two floors, faced with red sandstone and white marble. One of his hunting lodges, Shikargah, also known as Kushak Mahal, is situated within the Teen Murti Bhavan complex, Delhi. The nearby Kushak Road is named after it, as is the Tughlaq Road further on.[21][22]

Establishment of Islamic Law[edit]

He won over the Ulemas by giving them grants of revenue, which gave him political power, but also ensured their participation in politics. Under his rule, Hindu Brahmins were not exempted from paying mandatory tax Jizya levied on Hindus on the ground that it was not mentioned in Sharia.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]

Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq's death led to a war of succession coupled with nobles rebelling to set up independent states. His lenient attitude had strengthened the nobles, thus weakening the Sultan's position. His successor Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq II could not control the slaves or the nobles. The army had become weak. Slowly the empire shrank in size. Ten years after his death, Timur's invasion devastated Delhi.

Preceded by
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Sultan of Delhi
1351–1388
Succeeded by
Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq II

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  2. ^ Douie, James McCrone, Sir (1916). The Panjab North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 171. 
  3. ^ Elliot, Henry Miers, Sir; Dowson, John (1871). "Chapter XVI, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Shams-i Siráj 'Afíf". The history of India, as told by its own historians: The Muhammadan period. London: Trübner and Company. p. 273. 
  4. ^ "West Gate of Firoz Shah Kotla". British Library. 
  5. ^ http://www.facts-about-india.com/firoz-shah-tughlaq
  6. ^ http://www.gktoday.in/firoz-shah-tughlaq
  7. ^ http://www.indianmirror.com/dynasty/tughlaqdynasty.html
  8. ^ http://www.facts-about-india.com/firoz-shah-tughlaq
  9. ^ Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). "Chapter 6: Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388 A.D.)". History of Medieval India: From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 67–76. ISBN 978-81-269-0123-4. 
  10. ^ Tughlaq, Firoz Shah. Futūḥāt-i Fīrūz Shāhī.  1949 reprint by Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, OCLC 45078860 See Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad (1974). "The Futuhat-i-Firuz Shahi as a medieval inscription". Proceedings of the Seminar on Medieval Inscriptions (6–8th Feb. 1970). Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh: Centre of Advanced Study, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University. pp. 28–33. OCLC 3870911.  and Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad (1983). On History and Historians of Medieval India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal,. pp. 205–210. OCLC 10349790. 
  11. ^ Jackson, Peter (1999). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-521-40477-8. 
  12. ^ Chaurasia 2002, p. 75
  13. ^ Not to be confused with the "king-makers": the earlier Imad-al-Mulk, grandfather of Amir Khusraw (Jackson 1999, p. 77), or the later Imad-ul-Mulk who was the wazir and later assassin of Alamgir II (Chaurasia 2002, p. 316).
  14. ^ a b Chaurasia 2002, p. 74
  15. ^ http://www.gktoday.in/firoz-shah-tughlaq
  16. ^ Tibb Firoz Shahi (1990) by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Department of History of Medicine and Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 79pp
  17. ^ Ahmend, Manazir (1978). Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, 1351–1388 A.D. Allahabad: Chugh Publications. pp. 46 and 95. OCLC 5220076. 
  18. ^ A History of India, H. Kulke and D. Rothermund, 1998, Routledge, p.167, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  19. ^ The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, P. Jackson, 1999, Cambridge University Press, p. 186, ISBN 0-521-54329-0
  20. ^ Medieval India; From Sultanat to the Mughals, S. Chandra, 2007, Har Anand Publications, p.122, ISBN 81-241-1064-6
  21. ^ "Indian cavalry’s victorious trysts with India’s history". Asian Age. Dec 6, 2011. 
  22. ^ "King’s resort in the wild". Hindustan Times, New Delhi,. August 4, 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]