Fish protein powder

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Fish protein powder (FPP) describes a food grade powder product designated primarily for human consumption applications. It differs significantly from fish meal products which are designated for animal feed applications. Fish protein powders have various sanitary processing, purity and functional characteristics which establish them as human food ingredients.[1] Production plants registered for the USA market are located in Peru[2] and France.

History[edit]

Historically, the fish processing methods used for human consumption have been: fresh, canned, frozen, smoked or dehydrated - all of which would be used as a whole food rather than as an ingredient in other foods. Additionally, an industrial fish industry exists where whole fish and by products from fish processing have been cooked and dehydrated to form a product termed fish meal, which is used for animal feed, pet food and fish feed.[3]

With the evolution of refining and processing technology and expanded research on the nutrition of fish proteins and peptides, a new industry has developed for the specific purpose of producing a fish protein powder for human consumption with the intent of reaching new ingredient uses and markets.[4] The FPP end product is now used in a variety of food ingredient applications including sports nutrition, food additives and supplements,[5] all of which depend on the finished fish protein powder produced such that it is hygienically safe and also meets sensory requirements of taste, odor and function in prepared foods.

Process[edit]

The process of producing fish protein powder starts with the decision of how to prepare, separate and refine the proteins. The raw material can be whole fish, fillets or skins or any combination pending the desired finished product. In order to reach a final powder, an initial step of hydrolyzing the proteins chains to break them down into smaller particles is used. Methods may include one or more of the following: acid or alkaline hydrolysis, thermal hydrolysis or enzymatic hydrolysis.[6] Enzymatic hydrolysis similar to the body's natural digestive process provides the most efficient breakdown of the proteins into smaller fractions termed peptides which can then be separated from the oil and non-digested proteins during liquid phase processing. Subsequent steps of solids and oil removal through various mechanical separation techniques are required to create a final fish protein fraction with acceptable organoleptic properties for use in human food.[7] Minimization of odor through the elimination of fat and oil from the protein fraction, as well as separating out the lowest molecular weight protein fractions from the larger fractions all serve to create a refined fish protein. Some processes utilize solvents to extract the fat but these can result in dangerous handling and potential residual issues. The final step in producing the product is typically spray drying, which involves atomizing the liquid protein in a hot air chamber resulting in rapid evaporation of the water and a fine powder falling to the bottom of the chamber for removal. Spray drying is different from typical oven dehydration used in animal grade fish meal production in that spray drying will not denature the protein fraction resulting in a higher quality protein product for human consumption.[citation needed]

Categories[edit]

The two basic categories used to classify fish protein powders are dependent on the levels of protein, fat, mineral and carbohydrate contained in the powder. The minerals are mostly naturally occurring, organic complexes of magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. The spray drying process may utilize other minerals and carbohydrates to improve flow characteristics of the final product thus altering the natural balance. Powders will all have a residual moisture content in the 4-8% range.

  • Fish protein concentrate (FPC) - is a powder product with medium level of protein (50-70%) and will contain some level of fat/oil (1-20%) in the powder form as well.[8]
  • Fish protein isolate (FPi) - where the product contains less than 1% fat/oil and more than 90% protein.
    • New manufacturing techniques are also producing hybrid FPi products where the fat/oil content is very low, (<0.3%) with the protein levels in the 80% range. The hybrid FPi does not reach 90% protein (often a definition point for an isolate) as the natural minerals are not removed and thus represent up to 15% of the final mass balance.[9]

Peptides vs proteins and amino acids in the digestive tract[edit]

Any animal that consumes a whole protein must break down and digest the protein order to absorb the nutrients.[10] For humans this begins with chewing and the addition of saliva enzymes, followed by acid and protease enzyme digestion in the stomach, whereby the end result is a peptide or amino acid fraction ready for uptake into the blood stream via the small intestine. Research has confirmed that most animals have more Peptide receptors in the gut and lower intestine than they do free amino acid receptors - as such the peptide form of fish protein powder is most conducive for optimal nutritional benefits.[11]

Hygienic production of fish protein powder mimics these natural digestion steps, and pending the degree of hydrolysis, the protein powder will actually be a partial or complete peptide powder, ready for immediate absorption in the intestine.

Nutritional aspects[edit]

Significant elements of the nutritional science of fish protein powders centers around the bioactive and antioxidant properties of the peptide fractions produced during hydrolysis and their ability to have a positive impact on many conditions including gastrointestinal issues associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Crohn's disease[12][13] - as well reduction affects on hypertension[14] and fast absorption functionality promotes the addition of lean muscle mass to humans consuming the products. Further studies showed that peptides in fish protein powders can minimize injurious affect of anti-inflammatory pain drugs.[15] The University of Maryland School of Medicine concluded that certain peptide fractions from fish may inhibit prostate cancer and possibly other cancers from spreading.[16]

Additional benefits of fish protein powders are centered around diet needs of various subsets of the human population. Individuals who have lactose intolerance, milk allergy, gluten intolerance or coeliac disease (aka Celiac's) require alternate protein sources. The low molecular weight profile of hydrolyzed fish protein powders (peptides) also mean they can be used in hypoallergenic applications since they are no longer full length proteins,[17] but are peptide fractions so the immune response to the original full length protein will not be triggered in many individuals.

The minerals [Mg, Ca] are naturally complexed with amino acids making them more absorbent in the body than inorganic mineral complexes found in many supplements.[18] Additionally, the Mg to Ca ratio is typically greater than 1:1 which is nutritionally significant since Mg is critical in the body's absorption of calcium, and Mg deficiency is now understood as a significant issue in western diets.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ GMP[full citation needed]
  2. ^ AminoMarine[full citation needed]
  3. ^ "The International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation". [not in citation given]
  4. ^ Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K.; Matak, Kristen E.; Jaczynski, Jacek (2012). "Functional food products made from fish protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation". LWT - Food Science and Technology 48 (1): 89–95. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2012.02.018. 
  5. ^ "Bluewave targets 5-10% market penetration for ‘purist’ protein consumers with new fish powder products". Nutraingredients-usa.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  6. ^ Himonides, Aristotelis T.; Morris, Anthony K. D. (2011). "A Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Frames Using Model Systems". Food and Nutrition Sciences 2 (6): 575–85. doi:10.4236/fns.2011.26081.  |first3= missing |last3= in Authors list (help)
  7. ^ "The production of fish meal and oil - 3. The process". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  8. ^ "Fish Protein Concentrate". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  9. ^ "Quality Assessment Of Fish Protein Isolates Using Surimi Standard Methods". 
  10. ^ Zimmerman, Maureen; Snow, Beth. "Protein Digestion and Absorption". An Introduction to Nutrition. ISBN 978-1-4533-5247-2. 
  11. ^ http://topbodybuildingsupplement.blogspot.com/2014/11/amino-acid-powder-for-workout-recovery.html[full citation needed][dead link]
  12. ^ Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine (2011). "Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish". Nutrients 3 (12): 765–91. doi:10.3390/nu3090765. PMC 3257737. PMID 22254123. 
  13. ^ Slonim, Alfred E.; Grovit, Melvyn; Bulone, Linda (2009). "Effect of Exclusion Diet with Nutraceutical Therapy in Juvenile Crohn's Disease". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28 (3): 277–85. doi:10.1080/07315724.2009.10719782. PMID 20150601. 
  14. ^ Ruvini, Liyanage; Jayawardana, Barana C.; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P. (2013). "Potential Novel Therapeutics: Some Biological Aspects of Marine-derived Bioactive Peptides". In Kim, Se-Kwon. Marine Proteins and Peptides: Biological Activities and Applications. pp. 323–49. doi:10.1002/9781118375082.ch15. ISBN 978-1-118-37510-5. 
  15. ^ Marchbank, T.; Limdi, J. K.; Mahmood, A.; Elia, G.; Playford, R. J. (2008). "Clinical trial: Protective effect of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate against indomethacin (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 28 (6): 799–804. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03783.x. PMID 19145735. 
  16. ^ Guha, P.; Kaptan, E.; Bandyopadhyaya, G.; Kaczanowska, S.; Davila, E.; Thompson, K.; Martin, S. S.; Kalvakolanu, D. V.; Vasta, G. R.; Ahmed, H. (2013). "Cod glycopeptide with picomolar affinity to galectin-3 suppresses T-cell apoptosis and prostate cancer metastasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (13): 5052–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1202653110. PMC 3612646. PMID 23479624. Lay summaryUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine (March 19, 2013). 
  17. ^ Osborn, DA; Sinn, J (2003). Sinn, John, ed. "Formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (4): CD003664. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003664. PMID 14583987. 
  18. ^ "What Is Calcium??". [unreliable source?]
  19. ^ "Understanding Calcium Magnesium Ratio". [dead link]

Bibliography[edit]