Fishing in Israel
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Fishing in Israel is a secondary branch of Israel's economy, but historically had greater significance in Jewish life in Israel.
- 1 Fishing zones
- 2 Fish Farming
- 3 Fishing techniques
- 4 History of Jewish fishing in the Land of Israel
- 4.1 Fishing in biblical and Second Temple periods
- 4.2 Fishing during the Old Yishuv prior to establishment of the state of Israel
- 4.3 Fishing from establishment of the state of Israel to this day
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- 7 Footnotes
In Israel, there are three main natural fishing areas: the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Kinneret. A fourth area that used to be historically significant, Lake Hula, no longer exists, as it was drained in the 1950s. In addition, there is a growing field of aquaculture that grows fish in ponds or in cages.
The Mediterranean is divided at its centre into eastern and western basins by an underwater mountain range which extends between Sicily and Tunisia. There are some differences between the eastern and western basins.
- In the eastern basin there are warmer climates than in the western basin. For example, the average temperature during summer over the western basin of water is 24 °C and in winter is 8 °C, while temperatures along the Israeli coastline in the eastern basin are 29 °C and 13 °C respectively.
- Western Basin salinity is 3.5% while the salinity along the shores of Israel is 3.9%.
- There are separate current systems in each basin.
The Western Basin current flows from the Strait of Gibraltar along the North Africa coast, around Corsica and the Balearic Islands and back to Gibraltar. Although the waters of the western basin current come in from the Atlantic, the shallowness of the Strait of Gibraltar which is only about 800 meters enables transfer only of the nutrient poor upper water layers.
Currents in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean are much slower, and move anti-clockwise along the coasts of Libya, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey and Greece. The eastern basin has almost no vertical currents and thus has no mixing between the upper and lower layers of the water. Organic materials derived from dead marine animals and silt from the few rivers in the area sink to the bottom, and in their absence development of microscopic algae (Nanoplankton) that constitute the base of the food chain is prevented.
Ryan (Ryan W.B.), in his article on the Mediterranean in the Encyclopedia of Oceanography, writes: "The Mediterranean is the largest poor water body on the planet earth." The low quantity of algae is the cause of the low number of fish in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean, although there are regional differences.
The South-eastern area, from Tel Aviv to Port Said, contains clay and minerals deposited by the Nile waters. This is the reason that from Tel Aviv southwards there stretches an area of water that is not deep that expands towards the south. For example, 8 km off the shore of Nahariya the depth, is 55 metres, off Tel Aviv 45 meters and 31 meters off Gaza. The situation changed starting in 1971 when the Aswan Dam was completed. Since then, most sediment sinks in Lake Nasser, and never reaches the Eastern Mediterranean.
The North - Eastern Mediterranean enjoys strong river flows originating from snow thaw in the Taurus Mountains in Anatolia, Turkey. The waters of these rivers bring alluvial deposits rich in nutrients and therefore the amount of fish in this area is relatively large.
The sea off the coast of Israel is especially poor in fish because the rainfall that falls on Israel is a small amount and concentrated in a short season, and so the amount of nutrient rich water flowing into the sea is low. Winter storms are another key factor in the amount of algal growth. Storms cause raising of nutrients from the bottom of the sea and continental shelf area into the water, and so after the storm subsides, a significant bloom of seaweed appears and gives the water a green tint.
The primary edible fish in the Mediterranean
In the Mediterranean there are about 600 known fish species, but due to the fact that the origin of most species of fish is a northern climate - temperate and the fact that as one approaches the shores of rising salinity temperature rises, there is a gradual decrease in the number of species and country are only about half the fish species in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, digging the Suez Canal in 1869 had a significant impact on the kinds of fish in the sea and today are in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean some 55 fish species originating from the Red Sea.
It is customary to divide the types of commercially valuable fish found in the eastern Mediterranean, according to their habitat.
The following lists the fish name appears in Hebrew, followed, in brackets: the common name for the fishermen (usually west) - English name - the name of science.
Beach fish - spend most of their lives in shallow water.
- The Ahakiponeime (Mugilidae) known among them a large mullet - Head (mullet - Mugil cephalus - Flathead grey mullet)
- Dakar rocks (grouper, Daor - Epinephelus marginatus - Dusky grouper)
- Sleeping sketches (Vermeer - Lithognathus mormyrus - Striped seabream)
- Memorized string (Farida - Dentex gibbosus - Pink dentex).
- Aknatar pesos (sea bass - Spondyliosoma cantharus - Black sea bream)
- Evelan ripple (exertion - Umbrina cirrosa - Shi drum)
Ground fish (fish Dmaersleime) - fish that find their food on the sea floor or close to it.
- Red mullet (Sultan Ibrahim - Mullus barbatus - mullet Red)
- Striped mullet (sovereign - Mullus surmuletus - mullet Striped red)
- Sea cod - secondary (cod - Merluccius merluccius - Hake)
- Royal morality (Sea Eagle, morality rocks - Argyrosomus regius - Meagre
Top-water fish (fish Plageime) - are usually in groups and find their food upper water layer.
- Thin sardine (Sardine - Sardinella aurita - Round sardinella)
- Skomberne agile (Plimda white - Scomberomorous commerson - Spanish Mackerel)
- Sting Atlantic (Trolus, Atrahon - Carnax Crysos - Blue runner)
- Sariol Atlantic (Intiasse - Seriola dumerili - Greater amberjack)
- Aramtan blue (Pota - Coryphaena hippurus - Common dolphin-fish)
- Albacore tuna (tuna - Thunnus alalunga - Albacore tuna)
Israeli fishermen margin approximately 3,500 tons of fish every year along the Mediterranean coast.
Sea of Galilee
The Kinneret is the largest natural freshwater lake in the Middle East south of Turkey. Length 21 km area 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi), average depth 26 m maximum depth of 43 m. The average water level is 210.4-m (low fresh water lake in the world).
Lake fish dish
27 live in lake fish species, belonging to ten families. Of these 19 species and 8 species originating brought by the person or escaped fish pools. Important species:
- Galil Amnon (Musht Aviad - Sarotherodon galilaeus - Galilee St. Peter's Fish).
- Jordan Amnon (Musht Lubad - Oreochromis aureus-Blue tilapia or Jordan St. Peter's Fish)
- Longhead Barbel (Karsin - Barbus longiceps - Longhead barbel)
- Large scale Barbel (Binit Kishri - Barbus canis-Large scale barbel)
- Hafaf Israeli (Hafafi - Capoeta damascina - Damascus barbel)
- Kinneret Lavnun (Tiberias sardine - Mirogrex terraesanctea terraesanctae - Kinneret bleak)
- Low Eye Kassif (Kasif - Hypophthalmichthys molitrix - Silver carp)
- Kifon Burri (Mullet - Mugil cephalus - Grey mullet - Burri).
- Common Catfish (Barbout - Clarias gariepinus - Catfish) species of catfish - fish edible, but is not kosher.
Each year about 2,000 tons of lake fish are caught, half of them Lebanese Galilee Galilee and the rest mainly Amnon Amnon Jordan. Other fish such as Realize, coincided with Israel, carp (sort of escaped fish pools) Vahshmpnon constitute a small percentage of the loot.
"Fishing and farming Marine Division" Ministry of Agriculture each year adds the Sea of Galilee Amnon minnow, minnow Kassif mullet minnow. The annual catch amounts to tons of Akipunim -60-100 and -70-150 Kassif low eye.
Gulf of Aqaba is an extension of a narrow and deep (up to 1830 meters) of the Red Sea. He left the main part of the Red Sea by the Straits of Tiran are beyond the relatively narrow and shallow depth threshold creates about 250 meters. This is similar to the Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea itself, connected to the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Bab el Mandeb, which is a narrow and shallow, and depth of 120 meters. Several reasons led to the formation of the Gulf of Aqaba Special conditions: separation between the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean and separation between the Red Sea Gulf of Eilat, the high temperature precipitation minority area. Due to these factors relatively high water temperature (26 °C - 20 °C) salinity Gulf of Eilat is the highest in the world (4.1%). These conditions have created a special habitat where many endemic species have evolved. With the digging of the Suez Canal were many species from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, a few species (mainly Akbernunim) from the Mediterranean Sea.
Most of the fish families that have economic value found in the Gulf of Eilat are: Ahcolaiseime (Scombridae), Ahcneinitiym (Carangidae) Vahakiponeime (Mugilidae).
Lake Hula Lake was about 60 km2 area created 200,000 years ago, lava from the Golan Heights Achsspach crystallized these volcanic rocks, and hung up the river flow, the Sea of Galilee. Lake was rich in fish tilapia, catfish and other species, and served as a significant source for fish, to dry in the middle of the '50s 20th century, agricultural areas in order to use dried.
Growth in fish ponds from the late 1930s. Pioneer in the industry was Kibbutz Nir David in 1939 ASI stream water use a 220 acre pond carp growth. Mothers were first carp from Yugoslavia. Growth was faster in Ahmadgiah and 5 years were 31 fish ponds kibbutzim, three seats for private farms and ten competing successfully with fish from Lake Kinneret and the Mediterranean. Today is the main source of locally produced fish.
The main fish:
- Carp is (carp - Cyprinus carpio - Commn carp)
- Eye trout - rainbow (trout, your name - Oncorhynchus mykiss - Rainbow trout)
- Golden Spruce (Dennis, Charles Bird - Sparus aurata - Gilt-head sea bream)
- Some of the specified fish lake fish.
The main fish in fish ponds is a carp with some 8,000 tons of annual crop. Other fish are Hamanunim about 4,500 tons per year, Kasif mullet. Pools based on the cold waters of the river Dan towers about 600 tons of trout En - Rainbow trout (salmon). Mediterranean Sea and Eilat began to grow from the middle of the 70 Golden Spruce (Dennis) cages crop now exceeds 700 tons per year.
Israel driven some of the methods mentioned about the main fishing fishing.
Professional fishermen use a variety of networks: the coffee chains, trawl, gill nets Rai networks. Also used an array of fishing rods. Professional fishing is done by individuals in boats or by a fishing boat.
Anglers tend to fish along the coast, rivers and sometimes out of boats. Amateur users to wait and hooks which attach to various types of dough baits for fishing such as fish-eating plants such as mullet (Bury) from live bait such as Ahasevida (squid Pharmacists - Sepia Officinalis-Common cuttlefish) Vahgmabri (three shrimp - thorns - Penaeus semisulcatus) predatory fish such as fishing Dakar (Locus).
History of Jewish fishing in the Land of Israel
Fishing in biblical and Second Temple periods
Fishing was an important economic factor in Israel in ancient times. Fishing and fishermen are mentioned in the Bible several times, as in "we, Ahdygym, abalone, all - throws annotation Wait; differences Mchmarat on - the - water, unhappy" (Isaiah nineteenth h). It is believed that Jerusalem was a fish market on the basis of mention of "Gate of fish" Zephaniah "and that day, saith - Thursday, expect an outcry fish" (Chapter I, J), Nehemiah and the fish gate, the son of Ahssanah (JJ) Chronicles: "The fish come to the gate (into the hand). It also has an explicit reference to the residents of Jerusalem Us traded fish:" Egypt sat there, bringing Doug and - sold "(Nehemiah M., P).
However, most fish are references to the Old Testament metaphor for the relationship between man and God:
"Do man, fish of the sea - moving thing, not - own it. Bride, waiting for her husband - provoke boycotts, Viasphu Abmachmartho; on - yes, happy Yagil."- Habakkuk A Hand - Tu
"Saith, Lord God, and spread for you to - Network, crowd many peoples; Vahaֱloch, Abaharim"- Ezekiel to "C =
"That did not - the human knowledge - Ito, fish Sanaֱahzim evil castle, birds, settling into the trap"- Ecclesiastes IX XII
"Filled chambers of his skin; rang fish head"- Job m not
These verses are used in professional terms: "Boycott," "Dragnet," "Wait," "fortress", "network" and "shadow" that was probably widely known.
Zebulon son of Jacob, who is under the blessing of Jacob "located beach days", was associated with the first fishing tradition as expressed in the outer "will Zebulon" probate book chapters tribes Thu and Fri.
The activities of fishermen of Galilee during the Jewish Second Temple can be learned from several sources. First found in the Babylonian Talmud walk-ins: " no person retires and puts his ship in boycotts of all his friends but the side of us waiting Ubmchmaurim Nenaen everywhere and rather than retire the projectile and put the ship. Tribes do not hydrate the fish side of us because he's Tiberias Naftali and moreover Snutanen filled rope of a boycott south of the Sea said (things to) s and South let the words of Rabbi Yossi the Galilean Rabbi Akiva says this sea westward of this southern agents of Taberiyya inherited Jima This great Sea. Cquote1.svg - Tosefta Bava Kamma H, and
Jerusalem Talmud we learn that the fishermen of Tiberias would not work on Chol Hamoed networks, but in order not to miss at were fish and fish with rod Michmoret. Rav Ami, Rosh Yeshiva of Tiberias at the end of the third century, condemned the fishermen on the impact of holiday joy pilgrims. "Even if they were custom Gross Cipurine Aharim vetiver. Groats maker Acco. Not to do work in the sands of time. Well Grossi Cipurine groats maker Acco. Aharim vetiver and do not Mmatin joy of habit. Side is hooked Michmoret party is not Mmatin yes even joy leg. Rabbi mother Miquel Lon they Mmatin joy leg "(Tractate Pesachim Chapter IV A)
Another important source of Galilee fishermen to describe the life of a New Testament. First action of Jesus was in Galilee. There, according to the New Testament, also made the loaves and fishes miracle. " Told him that " And walk on - near the sea - the Galilee and saw two men brothers Simon called Peter and Andrew his brother casting a castle in the sea that Dygym are. And to go after Washimchma Lesdiguieres people: leave the Machmarut soon went after him: and there passed away, and saw two people, other brothers - Jacob Ben - Zebedee and - on the ship with his brother John - Zebedee their father, they shall fix the - Mchmarotam called them: and leave quickly - ship and - their father went after him. Cquote1.svg - Matthew D. 18-22
Even the imagery of Jesus related to fishing. Jesus likens the kingdom of heaven to "a projection into the sea trawler that different species will be collected into it: when filled Ahaֱlev you to - the beach and sat they gathered to - sex and good into bad throwing tools:" ("Matthew" XIII 47,48 ). The fish was also one of the main symbols of the early Christian church.
According to Josephus in his Jewish War describes the period of the Great Rebellion, the fighters were from a tower, is Terichye, the fishing boats that have the "fruits of war." But most of them perished in the battle against the Roman army installed rafts.
Fishing during the Old Yishuv prior to establishment of the state of Israel
Period before the establishment of a state was the expression military tone "conquest of labor" motto of the Zionist movement which aims to "conquer" all subjects of applause. Fishing also was a target "occupation." Subsequently made from the end of the second decade of the 20th century attempts by community officials, groups and private fishing experienced, kibbutzim and tried to purchase this difficult subject compete Arab fishermen, who had been a long tradition of fishing in different ways.
The first attempts were made after the First World War and early 1919 has been the twenties by a group of labor battalion veterans who settled and died of fever Athlit Yarkon River in Tel Aviv and Jaffa port pike immigrant groups, first fishermen living along the coast were settled as a group living in Astrakhan who sits on the '200 acres including the buildings, waves Tantura Franchisee is passed James de Rothschild Water Committee Chairman Dr. Meir Gurevich in 1923 in Acre. In addition, community organizations were basically the water committee in 1918 under the supervision has been representative of the commission Ahakfa"a Ussishkin private organizations, to acquire and operate ships and fishing boats. Remember fishing groups "Pinsk fishermen" who arrived in 1922 as a group of organized fishing town of Brest in Belarus, Pinsk district and Mltim "came from the island of Malta in the Mediterranean. There were more and some other seamen call sounding private entrepreneurs, which are famous Shalom Ashkenazi family from Salonika in Greece constituted an independent and successful fishing group and the first fishing boat with the" Arrow "and owner of" Herbert Samuel "as Mr. Sachs from States and others as owners Ahsilkot third fishing boat fishing must like the company more crossings of the Society of Sea Lion captain Majewski pioneer and Hebrew ship - Arrow (II) Scandinavian fishing vessels not suited for fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and the group failed financially.
Half of the thirties under the auspices of the Histadrut has a fishing legend them one Association. At the end of the decade it became clear that all attempts failed. Groups fell apart and ships used in the Jewish fishermen sold or have been disabled.
The change occurs after the book was published in 1930 White Passefild conditioned the amount of immigrants to Israel economic options to absorb them. Was already clear Sailing is one way to increase the economic possibilities as well as the means of bringing immigrants. This expression also gave David Ben - Gurion 1932 speech delegation fiction Workers Score:
" way to the sea is a way to expand the area of our country, strengthen the economic Sysnet ... space port, to control the forces of nature ... Pioneering our movement in exile and in Israel, student worker and youth climbing, the sea will be scope for bold action, Maui heroism, a new illegal immigration. Cquote1.svg
This call of Ben - Gurion responded details kibbutz and moshav movements and early 30s began a series of new attempts to establish associations in localities that are based primarily on the fishing sector but also in the marine transportation vessel. From late 1932 when established maritime service company and the Israeli Land coast in August 1933, through the establishment of the Hebrew cruise shipping companies in 1934-5 as Lloyd shipping company and the days of Israeli land - a service days after the shipping company will land - to Israeli authorities began to enforce the mandate Mandatory Navy flag policy that was implemented since installed on December 16, 1927.
At the same time, engaged in maritime training groups. As of movement, Zebulon, the Kingfisher group led by a lion Majewski fishing also taught her seamanship in 1932-1933 until wrecked in Jaffa, a way of Betar organized by fishing and diving Sailing courses (diving) as Rudy wave Latvia and maritime school in the Czech Iowetookia headed Italy Captain Jeremiah Halperin Majewski took the deputy to study fishing ship "Sarah A." until it was wrecked in the island of Corsica, and groups from Poland and the Gordonia youth movement trained in Gdynia.
At the same time establishing a fishing-based communities that helped the industry were developing institutions like the line of Israel. In 1936 established a "company - the employees" of the World named Nachshon subsidiary dealing in purchasing ships Vahscartan kibbutzim. That same year the Jewish Agency established the Department of Fisheries and put his head in the bar - Kochba Meirovitch.
Among members of the German ballet training Gdynia Captain Gustav Fitch was not a Jew join the group for being a socialist who had to flee because of this from Danzig (Ganedsk). Fitch joined the training in 1937 was sent on behalf of "Gordonia" to Israel to survey beaches. The survey was based on Nahariya first group then Athlit where she established the Kibbutz Neve Yam. Kibbutz members were engaged in coastal fishing from boats built for themselves. At the same time walls and towers was built using the sea near Kibbutz Mishmar Krayot near Haifa Bay, whose members were engaged in trawl fishing ship leased as "fin." Also on the ground were more kibbutzim fishing was the main industry in which: Sea fields near Caesarea Ein sea near Haifa and "View of the sea" (later Yad Mordechai) who was sitting near Netanya. Other communities where the fishing industry was experimental was Evron, returned to Zion hands.
If the 30s began the momentum of community based on fishing, in their 40s closed the fishing sector in most kibbutzim. Recorded at the Sea Farm members preferred the hard work fishing. Ship "fin" Hudmama kibbutz moved to permanent and changed its name minded.
The only ship Kibbutz Galil Yam was established from company sitting in Tel Aviv first, sank off the coast of Ashkelon. Eye Sea kibbutz members discovered that the costs of maintaining the ship "victory" came on the income from it and had to stall. Kibbutz members were working in agriculture and the War of Independence had a new place and changed the name of the Kibbutz Ein Caramel.
Similar difficulties arose old kibbutz everyone - "Neve Yam" in 1939. Fishing detached family life and social activities were very hard idealists who founded the kibbutz members and gradually abandoned the fishing industry or the grouping and two fishing boats operated by the kibbutz Hudmmu. Final short chapter on fishing was in 1955 that "union Kibbutz Movement" in Germany purchased a ship for Neve Yam. The ship was called "Neve Yam" but her journey first fishing fields of Turkey was also the last. The fishermen were arrested sat in Turkish jail for three months and the ship itself was confiscated and sold for a year Ochshuhazra private fishermen.
The only grouping that was established in 1936 and managed to keep the fishing industry was "Sea fields" though the difficulties they stopped the other kibbutzim fishing activity does not overlooked as well. Grouping active at one time three ships, but for the War of Independence, the kibbutz could run only one fishing boat named "Alice."
Late 40s were fishing in the Mediterranean, while considerable difficulties, the old grouping "Sea fields, seek new kibbutzim, Anchorage, Michael, shared seat Dragnet.
With the establishment of Israel was the Jewish fishing fleet Mediterranean only four ships, all of the labor settlements. Fishing lake
December 1938 was established at Mount Hippos East Lake Kinneret Kibbutz "in line", later Ein Gev. His friends were new immigrants belonging to "kibbutz consolidated." Early days of the kibbutz business-related jobs lake, boats gravel transport, passenger transport and of course fishing and fishing methods learned from the Arabs - use of a "strawberry standing", "mirror network" traps.
Hanukkah 1939 occurred on the ground Kibbutz Ginosar. Dating back to the kibbutz youth movement "Youth" was established in northern Galilee. Had originally dealt with fishing kibbutz members as they learn the traditional fishing methods of the Arab fisherman. Addition to the three boats purchased kibbutz members they got a boat equipped with engine Agency's fisheries department.
The rich fishing lake areas were promised Murcia, and a struggle between all the fishing groups, Jews and Arabs of Tiberias, Syria ensures kibbutz members on fishing rights in these areas. Mandatory fishing authority intervened and determined for each group the days of the week which allowed her to fish. Authority intervened again when the members of the kibbutzim began fishing with the "fishing lights - Lux lamps used to attract the fish. This method allowed the fishermen fishing all year round and not just the traditional fishing areas. Arab fishermen raised an outcry method of fishing that is destroying the population of fish in the lake and the fishing authority orders stopped fishing method.
1942 was a profitable fishing industry fishing department in two kibbutzim agency stopped supporting him. With the establishment of Kibbutz dock also request to engage in fishing, decided to establish a collective cooperative fishing lake. Thus was established the Organization of fishermen of Galilee, "which later also joined Haun Tel Katzir. The organization set the fishing quota for grouping.
For the establishment of the state was the fishing sector in the three kibbutzim success story, very unlike the story of the kibbutz on the shore of the Mediterranean sea.
Fishing in Lake Hula
By the mid-30s of the 20th century, Arab fishermen fished only patient. Although the patient was near Yesod colony founded in 1882, but residents did not engage in fishing. The situation changed in 1936 with the establishment of nuclear Hulata who founded the group, whose members took over the fishing lake and persisted until drying. Fishing method unique to the patient was brought from Germany by one of the kibbutz members Hulata, photographer Peter Merom. This fishing method was based on creating an electric field in water. Fish (mainly catfish carp) continued the positive electrode (the "face") and trapped on the network.
Fishing from establishment of the state of Israel to this day
With the establishment of the state there has been a significant breakthrough in the field of fisheries. Fishing cooperatives were established by the fishermen leaving the kibbutz. Company Nachshon Histadrut it resumes - renovated ships Mudmmut acquired new ships. Established in 1951 near Moshav seine maritime school approached as a school for shipping and fishing. (Over the years changed the naval school approached his destiny and today the school's context is the trend of fishing and aquaculture research laboratories including a controlled growth of fish.) Fisheries Department Ministry of Agriculture established trawler bought in the Netherlands, Denmark and England in 1954 there were already 28 boats on the beaches of land for the kibbutz fields and sea, dock Michael, Neve Yam Saar, and some seats trawl generation cooperatives. In 1955 she ordered form of the fishing industry and most of the cooperatives fell apart.
Difficulties combined collaborative fishing economy that were the lot of the kibbutzim marine 40s, not bypassed the new kibbutzim billows, Saar, Palmahim, as well as the kibbutz fields and sea anchors old Michael Dragnet generation seats. For a time these communities were able to hold some trawler. Hard work, financial losses imprisonment and confiscation of their ships of fishermen due to penetration fish rich waters of Turkey or Egypt resulted in leaving many members of communities. These departures destroyed the fishing industry in these communities and they sold their boats and private fishermen (some of them leaving the group). In 1964 sold the ship Sea fields last "Hannah."
Kinneret different situation, where kibbutz members still continue to work in the private fishermen fishing the same time.
Fishing in Eilat
First past experience to Eilat fishing is done by a man named Rosengart who established fish store chain bought the Dutch Fishing Boat. In 1928 the ship passed the Gulf of Aqaba because of the richness of fish in it. However, the smell of fish often wafted phosphorus problems in transporting the fish were created from Eilat to markets in Tel Aviv and Haifa. To overcome the problems brought Rosengart partner in the Frederick Kisch who bought a new ship but the plant failed and in 1934 the ship was sold in 1935 was transferred to Haifa .
Fishing allowed statehood new area - the Gulf of Aqaba. Eilat fishermen began working groups have been since 1949. Gradually increased the number of groups tuna fishermen fished Plimda also increased gradually seized. The peak was in 1959 in which 540 tons of fish caught, but from 1960 began to decline in the amount of fish caught. In 1963, the fishing pier was built in Eilat by a Turkish fisherman named Mehmet Şevki Alev, but processes such as growth in tourism, shipping and trading bands have gone the fish from the shores of Eilat. Six Day War has expanded the area while fishing the Gulf of Eilat and the seats "Dee gold" and "hypocrisy" have achieved a variety of fine fish, but the agreement with Egypt in 1980 reduced the fishing area off again only to Eilat. Today the fishing industry is edging Eilat fish market in the country.
Eilat has developed in recent years "aquaculture - growing fish in cages in the sea bream. This activity is controversial, dealing with environmental Achsagofim argue that this activity causes an ecological disaster area flora and fauna. The cages are expected to leave the final June 2008, following a government decision about it.
Open sea fishing
During the early years of the state made several attempts to extend the fishing area off the coast coming across regions is relatively poor country Degas. These attempts have been made by several companies established specifically for this:
- Ezra - a pioneer in the fishing distance. Company owned by Ezra Danin and other investors and financing of private entities and government was established in 1950. The company acquired four ships operated them for two years (until it closed) the richest fishing zones of Iceland, Morocco and the Canary Islands.
- Sumrafein - a company of Meir Halevi businessman from Geneva. Her main occupation was led by oil, but in 1958 also tried her luck tuna fishing ship in Japanese leased by another ship named "Edgyat" built in France for this purpose. "Edgyat" transaction in tuna fishing in Ghana through an array of fishing rods. Booty collected was transported refrigerated cargo floor, but it turned out that this project is not economic.
- Atlantic - a company established in 1960 by Brenner and Jacob Meridor word. First bought a trawler in Norway called "Azgied a" working waters of the North and in 1964 was sold after the company ordered two innovative distances fishing ships "Azgied 2" and "Azagied 3" engaged in cod fishing in South - West Africa.
- Jonah - Histadrut company initially carried the name "Nachshon", established in the 30s and engaged primarily in purchasing fishing boats Vbahahcartan land settlement movement. After establishment of the state acquired the fish canning factory "dove" in Tirat Caramel and changed the name of the company responsible for the fishing fleet to "Jonah." In 1961, jointly purchased Sumrafein Jonah ship - fishing got the name "Hiram 1. In 1964, Jonah has acquired the shares Sumrafein ship has at her disposal. It also acquired the activities of ships dock Michael Fields Sea fishing distances involved when they are manned by Ethiopia Ethiopian team. To transport the fish Jonah Eilat acquired the ship "s - end." Gradually it became clear that the activity absorbs Red Sea fish losses because prices were low due to dumping by cheap fish from Atlantic. In 1969 sold "Yonah" the Auniutia Atlantic and the company closed.
Fisheries Research pioneer in Israel was a German Jewish zoologist Dr. Walter Steinitz in 1927 published a comprehensive research on the marine fauna in Israel and briefly established a research laboratory in Nahariya. Encouragement mandatory Fishing Authority has developed the infrastructure for research fishing Fishing Research Institute was established, headed by Dr. R. Libman sitting at Acre. 1938 Exploring Expedition was sent on behalf of Gulf of Aqaba.
In 1946 established "the fishing department of the Agency" Fisheries Research Station "in Haifa port headed by Dr. Lsner, a renowned expert who escaped from Germany when the Nazis came to power. With the station expanded state and its people were researching the biology of fish food. It also Check the data Ahhidrogerfeim different seasons of the sea were its people and to that end occasionally out research trips on boats on the Mediterranean coastline and Gulf of Eilat.
Founded in 1967, the Government of Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, headed by Major General (res.) Yochai Ben-Nun, and gradually incorporated most of the departments involved in biological oceanography research of fisheries Research Station. " Departments engaged in fishing technology of the Ministry of Agriculture were in Himte"ed (the unit of fishing technology interface) engaged in fishing gear technology, fisheries surveys.
Fishing and security
Fishermen land of Israel before the establishment of the state shared security-related activities. They smuggled weapons from Haifa Sea fields, led sappers detonated explosive devices which deportation ship "Ocean - launching" Cyprus and smuggled to Israel about 1,000 illegal immigrants were smuggled through a tunnel from the detention camp in Cyprus. This last action was responsible fishing boat "Shark" Dragnet's seat.
The War of Independence were responsible for supplying fishing boats Jewish communities isolated in the Western Galilee. They led the children in towns of Haifa and a squadron of Division "normal" food Nahariya its weapons as part of Operation Ben-Ami. Fishing boats led to the weapons that came to Tel Aviv from the Czech Republic Kiryat Haim Coast to help launch a counterattack on the forces Qawukji Mishmar Haemek. Kibbutz Ein Gev fishermen helped supply besieged unit in downtown Tiberias.
In 1956 the Israeli navy decided who had low budgets and therefore had a considerable disadvantage against Arab sea forces, to establish a unit trawler called Ased"gi "(fishing boats). The unit, consisting of eight fishing boats at the beginning, was Major Yehuda Rotem, Fishing Group member Sea fields (later CEO of Zim.) unit was based on the fishing fleet prospered at that time. every ship was a regular team practice sometimes called. captains of ships have passed military courses such as command, fire control, damage control, etc.. the Ships Orlyakon guns were installed and honest equipped radio. Functions were varied, as the evacuation of naval mines and more. all military installations were disguised the existence of the unit was kept secret, in part to an Israeli commercial fishing could take place as usual without any fishing boat Tiahsed military activity.
Ahased"gi s held operated by the fishermen husbands, routinely engaged in fishing as another trawler. Mbhanm s first Ahased"gi was in the Sinai Campaign. Coast Guard boats patrolled and engaged in transporting troops and weapons. End of the war was the only partner for Aliyah Port Said, Operation crossed Eliav was one of the organizers and saved for years in secret. To this end repainted assault ships of the Kibbutz Neve Yam oil was converted into Italian names. The ships sailed from Port Said was under French control - British, where raised on small ships, 180 people crowded on the deck and dining room. The ships arrived in Haifa in peace after 20 hours of sailing in stormy seas.
Record unit activity was the Six Day War as ships engaged in anti-aircraft positions, keeping the Haifa and Ashdod ports for submarines, transport units and saving the beaches. Need for fishing boats Navy declined after the war, the Israeli sea slipped significantly over procuring missile boats were purchased Bahad ignorant " But the Navy did not give up entirely on the "Ed"gi Sea."
The total consumption of fish of the State of Israel in 2004 was 65,000 tons of sea fish 65% imported, with most local produce indoor fish ponds. All attempts were made to expand the state space marine fishing ceased attempts failed after Michmoret sea fishing - the end, fishing companies The oceans are bankrupt and Mimi Turkey and Egypt have been blocked for fishing. Today the private fishermen prefer to sell their produce in markets where fish dealers Tnuva as in the past.
"Fishing and Agriculture Division of Water Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for granting fishing licenses and fish populations in rehabilitation programs, developing Ahmadgiah attempts to improve fishing technology to reduce the costs of fishing.
There are now several fishing ports;
- Joint Acre yacht marina fishing boats. Not far from the marina is the fish market of Acre.
- Tiberias existing fish market and fishing dock.
- IN is from 1960 at the Kishon fishing dock. Dock fishing including auxiliary services: refrigeration warehouses, warehouse equipment, fish shop and adjacent to a fish market. This anchorage was published as a large group of fishermen sued the authorities in 2003 for negligence that caused the Kishon river pollution, when many of them developed cancer.
- Tel Aviv: Jaffa Port Reading anchorage. At the port of Jaffa is the fish market.
- The fishing port of Ashdod is part of the port.
- Reuven Porat, conquerors of the fisherman KM Press 1996
- Marco Dahan, fishing in the Mediterranean, published by author 1991
- Dani Golani, David South, Israel's Fish Guide' Keter 1997
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