Fisker Karma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Fisker Karma
Fisker at speed in the fog trimmed.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Fisker Automotive
Production 2011-2012
Assembly Uusikaupunki, Finland by Valmet Automotive
Designer Henrik Fisker
Body and chassis
Class Full-size luxury car
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout front engine, rear wheel drive
Related VL Destino
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 litres (120 cu in) Turbocharged Ecotec VVT DI LNF I4
Electric motor two 120 kW (161 hp) motors, and 479 N·m torque[1] each
Transmission 1-speed Prundletronic
Hybrid drivetrain Series hybrid. The two electric motors drive the rear wheels through a limited slip differential, with a final drive ratio of 4:1.[2]
Battery 20.1 kWh (72.4 MJ) lithium-ion battery[2]
Range 230 mi (370 km)[3]
Electric range 32 mi (51 km)[3] (EPA)
83 km (52 mi)[4] (TÜV)
Plug-in charging 3.3 kW (220 V 15 A as for UK) on-board charger on IEC Type 1 inlet (SAE-J1772-2009)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 124.4 in (3,160 mm)
Length 195.67 in (4,970 mm)
Width 78.11 in (1,984 mm)
Height 51.57 in (1,310 mm)
Curb weight 5,300 lb (2,400 kg)

The Fisker Karma is an electric vehicle, with on-board range extender, luxury sports sedan that was produced by Fisker Automotive between 2011 and 2012. The vehicle is a series hybrid since the internal combustion engine, ICE, does not provide propulsion power to the drive wheels. The cars were manufactured at Valmet Automotive in Finland.[5] The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the Karma's combined city/highway fuel economy at 52 mpg-US (4.5 L/100 km; 62 mpg-imp) equivalent (MPG-e) in all-electric mode, and at 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp) in gasoline-only mode. EPA's official all-electric range is 32 mi (51 km).[3][6] Due to the very small cabin interior volume, the EPA rated the Fisker Karma as a subcompact.[7]

After missing its initial late 2009 launch, and after the launch was rescheduled several times, the first deliveries took place in the U.S. in late July 2011,[8][9][10] and deliveries to retail customers began in November 2011.[6] Pricing in the U.S. started at US$102,000 for the basic model, and US$116,000 for the top model.[11] Around 1,800 units were delivered in North America and Europe through December 2012.[12]

Production was suspended in November 2012 due to financial difficulties,[13] with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011.[12] After furloughing its US workers in late March 2013,[14] Fisker Automotive filed for bankruptcy in November 2013, after the U.S. Department of Energy auctioned its debt and sold it to Hybrid Technology LLC for US$25 million.[15]

History[edit]

The Fisker Karma was revealed at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit.[16] It is the first car from Fisker Automotive, a new auto maker based in Anaheim, California, founded on 5 September 2007.[17]

Production began in July 2011,[5] and the first two deliveries took place in the United States on July 26, 2011.[8][18] In October 2011 the first Karma delivered in the UK was auctioned to benefit Pratham UK and raised a bid of GB£140,000 (around US$220,000).[19]

Specifications[edit]

2012 Fisker Karma- Rear

The Karma is a pure series hybrid, driven by a pair of 120 kW (161 hp) electric motors that receive power from a 20.1 kWh lithium ion battery supplied by A123 Systems and/or an engine powered generator. The battery pack runs down the center of the car, between the pairs of left-hand and right-hand seats, preventing a rear bench and seating four rather than five passengers. Once the battery is depleted, or when the driver presses the "Sport" mode button, the front-mounted 260-hp, 2.0-liter Ecotec four-cylinder direct-injection turbocharged gasoline engine powers a generator that sends electricity directly to the drive motors. The engine is sourced from General Motors.[1][20]

The Karma's engine is mated with a generator to provide an electrical connection to the motors and also recharge the batteries, and as such the electric motors are the only mechanical driving force connected to the wheels.[1] However, in all-electric mode, the Karma is around half as efficient as the Volt.[20] The proprietary Q-Drive hybrid drive train is supplied by Quantum Technologies, which operates in a joint venture with Fisker Coachbuild known as Fisker Automotive.[21] The Karma's curb weight is 5,300 lb (2,400 kg).[1]

The Karma includes as standard[22] a solar paneled roof manufactured by Asola Advanced and Automotive Solar Systems GmbH, a Quantum Technologies affiliate,[23] to aid the cabin climate control system. The solar roof is capable of generating a half kilowatt-hour a day[24] and was estimated to provide up to 4 to 5 miles (6.4–8.0 km) of additional range a week assuming continuously sunny days;[25] however, the solar panels as delivered only recharge the 12-volt lead-acid accessory battery.[26]

The base model features an 'eco-friendly interior', including salvaged/reclaimed lumber. The interior space is rated as subcompact by the EPA.[27] Optional leather seating is available, but it will use much more of the cow hide than would customarily be found on luxury models; hides with scratches and other marks (which should not affect functionality) will be used.[28]

The Karma has a warning sound system designed to both alert pedestrians of its presence and enhance the driver experience. The sound is emitted through a pair of external speakers embedded in the bumper, and the sound-generator was developed by Fisker Automotive.[29][30] The warning sound is emitted automatically and activated only when the car is traveling in all-electric mode at less than 25 mph (40 km/h).[29][31]

Performance[edit]

The Karma's two 201 brake horsepower (204 PS) motors produce 1,300 newton metres (960 lbf·ft) of torque.[32][33] The Karma features a 125 mph (201 km/h) top speed and is capable of reaching 60 mph (97 km/h) from a standstill in 6.3 seconds.[34]

Fuel economy and range[edit]

Monroney label showing EPA's fuel economy and environmental comparison label for the 2012 Fisker Karma

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) official all-electric range for the Fisker Karma is 32 mi (51 km) under the agency's five-cycle tests using varying driving conditions and climate controls. EPA's estimated energy consumption is 65 kWh per 100 miles (1462 kJ/km). The total range with a full tank of gasoline and a fully charged battery is 230 miles (370 km). EPA's official rating for combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode is 52 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (4.5 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 62 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp).[35] Regarding EPA's rating Henrik Fisker, CEO and co-founder of Fisker Automotive commented that "...as with all electric vehicles, range varies greatly on the conditions of the road and how you drive the car. We firmly believe that most owners will get up to 50 miles of driving range on a single charge."[3][35]

The German Technical Inspection Association (TÜV) found through independent tests that the Fisker Karma has an all-electric range of 83 km (52 mi) in stealth mode. TÜV found that in charge-sustaining sport mode the Karma achieves a fuel economy of 26 mpg (9.2 l/100 km). The combined fuel economy was rated at 112 MPG-e (2.1 l/100 km equivalent) and the emissions level is 51 g/km CO2.[4][36]

Production and delivery[edit]

The Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat reported[37] that Fisker Automotive and Valmet Automotive reached an early agreement to manufacture the cars in Uusikaupunki, Finland. The Valmet factory currently produces the Mercedes Benz A-Class and previously produced the Porsche Boxster and Cayman models until 2011. Valmet has previously produced various Saab models as well as Opel, Talbot and Lada cars. On November 13, 2008, the final assembly contract was signed by both parties.[38]

Fisker Karma production model exhibited at the 2010 Paris Motor Show

In 2008 Fisker Automotive began accepting pre-orders in the US, and Europe and initially scheduled sales of its Karma PHEV by the fourth quarter of 2009 in the US, and starting in 2010 in Europe.[39] In 2009 Henrik Fisker reported 1,300 orders for the Karma.[40] Henrik Fisker showed the first production model Karma at the 2010 Paris Motor Show.[41] In July 2011, Fisker stated that it had received 3,000 pre-orders and that the plug-in hybrid was sold out until early 2012.[5]

After re-scheduling the Karma market launch to September 2010, and missing its target to build 70 to 100 test cars in 2010,[42] production began in July 2011,[5] and the two first deliveries took place in the United States during the same month.[8] The Valmet plant in Finland began production with five cars a week. By December 2011 the production rate was 25 units a day.[43] Production was suspended in November 2012 due to financial difficulties,[13] with about 2,450 Karmas built since 2011.[12] As a result of flash floods caused by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, 16 Karmas caught fire and another 330 units were lost when an entire shipment from Europe was flooded while being parked at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal.[44][45]

Deliveries to retail customers in the U.S. began in November 2011.[6] In the United States the first vehicles were sold for US$95,900 for the basic model, and US$109,850 for the top model.[46] In December 2011 prices were raised to US$102,000 for the basic model, and US$116,000 for the top model.[11]

Retail sales

About 1,800 Karmas were delivered to customers in North America and Europe through December 2012, of which, around 200 were delivered in 2011 and 1,600 in 2012.[12] A total of 247 units were sold in Europe through December 2012.[47] More than 1,600 units have been delivered in the United States through June 2013.[48][49] The Netherlands is the top selling European market for the Karma, with 166 units sold through June 2013.[50][51] A total of 55 Karmas were sold in Switzerland through June 2013,[52] 52 in Belgium through November 2012,[53] and 31 in France through June 2013.[54][55]

Reception and controversies[edit]

Government investment[edit]

In 2010, the Department of Energy awarded Fisker a US$529 million green-energy loan, primarily to assist the company in transitioning the Karma, which is assembled in Finland, into the American markets. Fisker collected nearly US$200 million until February 2012, when the government froze the loan because the company was failing to meet the government's milestones. Three months later, in May, Fisker spokesman Robert Ormisher told ABC News that negotiations with the DOE were ongoing, and "We're hoping for a conclusion fairly soon." [56]

Recalls[edit]

In December 2011, Fisker recalled the first 239 Karmas built from July through November 3, 2011, and delivered to the USA, due to a risk of battery fire caused by coolant leak. Of the 239 cars, fewer than fifty had been delivered to customers, the rest were in dealerships, and at that time no car had been involved in a fire. In the report filed by Fisker Automotive with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the carmaker said some hose clamps were not properly positioned, which could allow a coolant leak. "If coolant enters the battery compartment an electrical short could possibly occur, causing a thermal event within the battery, including a possible fire in the [worst] case." The problem was discovered on December 16 at the Valmet Automotive assembly plant in Finland when workers noticed coolant dripping.[57][58][59][60]

On January 2, 2012, Fisker announced that most customer cars and cars stocked in dealerships affected by the recall involving A123 Systems-supplied battery packs are back in service. The vehicles have either had brand new battery packs installed or the confirmed repair to the hose clamp assembly undertaken. The remaining customers have been contacted and appointments were made for their replacement battery installation.[61]

On August 18, 2012, Fisker announced it is recalling about 2,400 Karma plug-in hybrids to repair a faulty cooling fan unit.[62]

Consumer Reports test drive[edit]

On March 7, 2012, a Fisker Karma purchased for US$107,850 by Consumer Reports magazine was taken out for a test drive at the 327-acre (1.32 km2) CR test track facility in Connecticut. The Karma had fewer than 200 miles (320 km) on its odometer. While performing a routine speedometer calibration check prior to actual road testing, the car broke down and could not be restarted. "We buy about 80 cars a year and this is the first time in memory that we have had a car that is undriveable before it has finished our check-in process."[63] The fault was traced to a defective battery caused by a misaligned welding robot at the A123 factory. The battery was replaced in a week. A123 is replacing affected batteries in the Karma and four other customers to a cost of $55 million. Warranty for the Karma will be extended to 60 months and 60,000 miles in North America.[64][65][66][67]

Fire incidents[edit]

A Fisker Karma was involved in a home fire that also burned two other cars in Fort Bend County, Texas in May 2012. The chief fire investigator said the Karma was the origin of the fire that spread to the house, but the exact cause is still unknown. The plug-in electric car was not plugged in at the time the fire started and it was reported that the Karma's battery was intact. The carmaker released a public statement saying that there was uncertainty and conflicting reports surrounding the event. Fisker Automotive also stated that the battery pack "does not appear to have been a contributing factor in this incident."[68] The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is conducting a field inquiry of the incident, and is working with insurance adjusters and Fisker to determine the fire’s cause.[69]

A second fire incident took place in August 2012 when a Karma caught fire while stopped at a parking lot in Woodside, California.[70][71] According to Fisker engineers, the area of origin for the fire was determined to be outside the engine compartment, as the fire was located at the driver’s side front corner of the car. The evidence suggested that the ignition source was not the lithium-ion battery pack, new technology components or unique exhaust routing.[72] The investigation conducted by Fisker engineers and an independent fire expert concluded that the cause of the fire was a low temperature cooling fan located at the left front of the Karma, forward of the wheel. An internal fault caused the fan to fail, overheat and started a slow-burning fire. Fisker announced a recall to repair the faulty cooling fan unit.[62][73]

In separate incidents during the storm and flooding caused by Hurricane Sandy on the night of October 29, 2012, 16 Karmas and one Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid caught fire while parked at Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal. The vehicles were partially submerged by flash floods caused by the hurricane. Initially, a Fisker Automotive spokesman said the company "can’t be certain exactly what happened at the port” but “we think being submerged in 13 feet of saltwater had something to do with it.” The carmaker clarified that the Karmas were not charging at the time of the fire and there were no injuries. In the case of the Toyota's incident, a Prius PHV burned and two other Prius, a conventional hybrid and a plug-in, just smoldered. A Toyota spokeswoman said the fire “likely started because saltwater got into the electrical system.” She also clarified that the incident affected only three cars out of the 4,000 Toyotas that were at the terminal during the storm, including more than 2,128 plug-in or hybrid models.[44][74] After an investigation by Fisker engineers, witnessed by NHTSA representatives, the company said that the origin of the fire was "residual salt damage inside a Vehicle Control Unit submerged in seawater for several hours. Corrosion from the salt caused a short circuit in the unit, which led to a fire when the Karma's 12-Volt battery fed power into the circuit." The company explained that Sandy's heavy winds spread that fire to other Karmas parked nearby, and also ruled out the vehicles' lithium-ion battery packs as a cause of, or even a contributing factor to, the blaze.[75] Fisker reported a loss of around 330 additional Karmas when an entire shipment from Europe was flooded in the port terminal, with an estimated value of the flood loss is in excess of US$30 million.[45]

Celebrity crashes[edit]

Guitarist Carlos Santana made the news September 20, 2013 when he totaled his Fisker Karma in Las Vegas after falling asleep at the wheel and hitting two parked cars. No one was injured.[76]

Tesla lawsuit[edit]

On 14 April 2008, Tesla Motors filed a lawsuit against Fisker Automotive, alleging that Henrik Fisker stole Tesla's Model S hybrid technology and is using it to develop the Karma. Tesla's suit claimed that the design work done for the Model S sedan by Fisker Coachbuild was substandard, and that Fisker Automotive diverted its best ideas to the Karma.[77] On 4 November 2008 CNET News reported that Tesla Motors would discontinue its suit after an interim ruling in favor of Fisker et al.[78] A news release on the Fisker Automotive website stated that Tesla was ordered to pay US$1,144,285 in costs.[79]

Related models[edit]

Sunset[edit]

Fisker Sunset

In January 2009, Fisker previewed the Karma S "Sunset", which is based on the regular Karma, at the 2012 North American International Auto Show, Fisker has said that the Sunset only has minimum weight increases, when compared with the Karma. It is expected to be produced after the Surf, which is expected to be sometime after late 2013. The Fisker S Sunset is the world's first plug-in hybrid convertible, with a folding hardtop, as well as the first convertible/roadster by Fisker.[80]

Fisker Surf[edit]

The Fisker Surf was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show

The Fisker Surf was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show — described by Automobile as a shooting-brake or a hatchback.[81] Sales of the four-door plug-in hybrid, which has the same range as the Karma, were scheduled to begin in 2013.[82] The production version is scheduled to be unveiled at the 2012 Paris Auto Show.[83]

The Surf's entire powertrain, chassis, and interior are identical to the Karma sedan, with the only major cabin change being the additional room in back for a couple of adults, and expandable room in the back is up from 7.1 cu ft (0.20 m3) to anywhere from 12.7 cu ft (0.36 m3) to 29.0 cu ft (0.82 m3). Overall weight on the Surf versus the Karma increases by just 77 pounds (35 kg).[84]

Awards and recognition[edit]

2009 marked the first time that an electric vehicle was named a North American Production Preview Vehicle of the Year by the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards. The award went to Fisker Automotive for the Fisker Karma Sunset.[85][86]

The Fisker Karma was listed among the "Green Design 100" of 2009 by Time magazine.[87] Also, Time listed the Karma among the "The 50 Best Inventions" of 2011.[88] In November 2011 the Fisker Karma won Automobile Magazine's 2012 Design of the Year Award.[89]

In December 2011, Karma was chosen as "Luxury Car of The Year" by Top Gear Magazine, and "Car of The Year" by James May of TopGear.[90][91]

Producers of the film 2012 "Atlas Shrugged II" chose the Karma as a futuristic car for lead character Dagny Taggart.

Producers of the TV show Two and a Half Men chose the Karma as the vehicle for Walden Schmidt.[92]

For the 2013 season of Bravo's Million Dollar Listing, realtor Josh Altman frequently drives a bright white model Fisker Karma.

In his song, "Sweatpants," rapper Childish Gambino cited the vehicle.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Damon Lavrinc (2012-02-28). "2012 Fisker Karma (w/video) - A Genuinely Good Idea That's Compromised By Design". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  2. ^ a b "datasheet". fiskerautomotive.com. Retrieved 2011-10-25. 
  3. ^ a b c d Colum Wood (2011-10-19). "Fisker Karma Gets 52 MPGe Fuel Economy Rating". Auto Guide. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  4. ^ a b Scott Doggett (2011-11-07). "Fisker Karma Claims 51.6-Mile Electric Range". Edmunds Auto Observer. Retrieved 2011-11-10.  See details in Press Release.
  5. ^ a b c d Jim Holder (2011-07-12). "Fisker Karma gets 3000 orders". Autocar. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 
  6. ^ a b c Fisker Automotive (press release) (2011-10-19). "Fisker Karma gets EPA certified: 52 mpge, 32-mile electric range then 20 mpg". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2011-10-19.  See details in Press Release.
  7. ^ Tiffany Kaiser (2011-10-28). "Fisker Karma EPA Rated Subcompact Despite Large Size". Daily Tech. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 
  8. ^ a b c David R. Baker (2011-07-26). "Meet the Karma". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-07-27. 
  9. ^ Reuters (2010-05-27). "Fisker Karma full production delayed to February 2011". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
  10. ^ "Fisker Karma Has Been Delayed Yet Again For July 2011". Top Speed. 2001-06-05. Retrieved 2011-06-10. 
  11. ^ a b Fox News (2011-12-15). "Fisker hikes Karma price... again... now above $100k". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2011-13-15. 
  12. ^ a b c d Deepa Seetharaman and Paul Lienert (2013-06-17). "Special Report: Bad Karma: How Fisker burned through $1.4 billion on a 'green' car". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  13. ^ a b Bradley Berman (2013-03-13). "Henrik Fisker Resigns From Fisker Automotive". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  14. ^ Blanco, Sebastian (2013-03-31). "Fisker furloughs workers for one week, says it is 'common practice' in industry". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2013-04-02. 
  15. ^ Angela Greiling Keane (2013-11-23). "Fisker Selling Assets to Li Group at $139 Million Loss to U.S.". Bloomberg (The Washington Post). Retrieved 2013-11-23. 
  16. ^ Ricker, Thomas (14 January 2008). "The "eco-chic" Fisker Karma and 150mpg XH-150 hybrids revealed". Engadget. Weblogs, Inc. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  17. ^ "Drive the Future with Fisker Automotive, A New Green American Premium Car Company" (PDF). Fisker Automotive. 5 September 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  18. ^ Katie Fehrenbacher (2011-07-26). "PHOTOS: Kleiner’s Ray Lane receives his Fisker Karma". earth2tech. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  19. ^ "First Fisker Karma in the UK auctioned for £140k". Cars UK. 2010-10-13. Retrieved 2010-10-17. 
  20. ^ a b John Voelcker (2012-03-13). "2012 Fisker Karma -Review". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  21. ^ "Quantum and the Fisker Karma". Quantum Technologies. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  22. ^ Ireson, Nelson (23 December 2010). "Fisker Hikes Price On Karma, Sales Launch Summer 2011". MotorAuthority.com. Retrieved 2011-01-11. 
  23. ^ "Products/Services: ENERGY - Asola GmbH". Asola GmbH. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  24. ^ de Paula, Matthew (27 February 2009). "Fisker Karma". AutoTrader.com. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  25. ^ "2010 Fisker Karma". cars.com. 12 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  26. ^ Csere, Csaba (2012-10-31). Car and Driver: Tested : 2012 Fisker Karma - Review - CAR and DRIVER. Beverly Hills, CA: Car and Driver magazine. Event occurs at 13m30s. 
  27. ^ Evarts, Eric (2012-04-06). "Fisker shows smaller Atlantic plug-in hybrid sedan in NY". Consumer News - web. Consumer Reports. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  28. ^ Bengt Halvorson (2009-01-19). "2010 Fisker Karma: Vegan On Board". The Car Connection. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  29. ^ a b Jim Motavalli (2009-10-13). "Hybrid Cars May Include Fake Vroom for Safety". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  30. ^ "Electric cars and noise: The sound of silence". The Economist. 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  31. ^ David Undercoffler (2013-01-08). "Noise requirements proposed for hybrid and electric vehicles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  32. ^ Will (2009-01-16). "Detroit 2009: Production Fisker Karma is revealed, jaws begin dropping". AutomoBlog. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  33. ^ Eric Baxter. "Fisker Karma: Plenty of Torque and Voltage, Too". howstuffworks. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  34. ^ "Fisker Karma Technical Specifications". 21 February 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "Fisker Karma EPA-rated at 65 kWh/100 miles on electricity, with 32-mile electric range and 20 mpg US on gasoline". Green Car Congress. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-20. 
  36. ^ Fisker Automotive (2011-11-21). "Fisker Karma gets rated at 112 mpg from Europe's TUV". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2011-11-25.  See details in Press Release.
  37. ^ "Hybridit korvaamassa Porschen". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). 15 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  38. ^ "Fisker Automotive and Valmet Automotive Have Signed Final Assembly Contract for the...". 13 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  39. ^ "Fisker Automotive announces first European importer". Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  40. ^ Michael Graham Richard (2009-03-11). "Detroit Auto Show 2009: Fisker Unveils Karma S Convertible Plug-In Hybrid". TreeHugger. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  41. ^ John O'Dell (2010-09-30). "2010 Paris Motor Show: Fisker Karma Production Model Hews to Concept's Promise". Green Car Adviser. Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  42. ^ Poornima Gupta (2010-05-27). "Fisker to build 100 test Karma cars in 2010". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  43. ^ Alan Ohnsman (2011-12-22). "Fisker Automotive Seeks to Lift Karma Sales to Move on From Loan Scrutiny". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  44. ^ a b Josie Garthwaite (2012-11-02). "Mystery at Port Newark: Why Did 17 Plug-In Cars Burn?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-03. 
  45. ^ a b Pete Brissette (2012-11-07). "Hurricane-Induced Fires; Reports 330 More Destroyed". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  46. ^ Godske, Bjørn (3 January 2011). "Fisker's hybrid for sale in two months" (in Danish). Ing.dk. Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  47. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-02-03). "Europe Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-06-05. 
  48. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-01-06). "USA Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  49. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-07-19). "USA June 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  50. ^ RAI. "Verkoopstatistieken -nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2013-07-20.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112"), 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212") and 2013 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201304").
  51. ^ RAI (July 2013). "Verkoopcijfers juni 2013 -Modellenoverzicht" [Sales June 2013-Models overview] (in Dutch). Auto Week Netherlands. Retrieved 2013-07-04.  Table shows May and June 2013 sales.
  52. ^ Vereinigung Scheweizer Automobil-Importeure (2013-07-08). "Personenwagen nach Modellen - Modellstatistik Personenwagen 2013/2012/2011" [Passenger cars by model - Statistic by model cars in 2013/2012/211] (in German). Auto Schweiz. Retrieved 2013-07-20. Download the files ModellePW2013.xls, ModellePW2012.xls and ModellePWQuartal2011.xls.
  53. ^ "Belgium November 2012: Discover the Top 338 All-models ranking". Best Selling Car Blog. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  54. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-01-22). "France Full Year 2012". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  55. ^ Jose Pontes (2013-07-16). "France June 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  56. ^ Randy Kreider (2012-08-12). "Fisker Issues Second Recall of Electric Car". Retrieved 2012-11-01. 
  57. ^ David Shepardson (2011-12-30). "Fisker recalls plug-in hybrids; EV safety concerns revived". The Detroit News. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  58. ^ Allan Graubæk (2011-12-30). "Fisker's luxury car recalled in USA". Politiken (in Danish). Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  59. ^ Christopher Jensen (2011-12-30). "Fisker Recalling 239 Karma Plug-In Hybrids for Fire Hazard". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  60. ^ "2012 Fisker Karma Recall". 28 December 2011. 
  61. ^ Fisker Press Release (2012-01-03). "Fisker says majority of Karma units affected by recall involving battery pack back in service". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  62. ^ a b Seetharaman, Deepa (2012-08-18). "Automaker Fisker recalls some 2,400 Karmas for cooling fan issue". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  63. ^ James R. Healey (2012-03-08). "Consumer Reports' $100K Fisker Karma dies on arrival". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-05-12. 
  64. ^ Vieau, David. "Livonia Prismatic Cell Field Campaign" A123 Systems, 26 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  65. ^ Craig Trudell & Alan Ohnsman. "A123 Replacing Batteries That Led to Fisker Karma Shutdown" Bloomberg, 26 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  66. ^ Kaiser, Tiffany. "A123 Systems to Replace Faulty Fisker Karma EV Batteries for $55 Million" DailyTech, 26 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  67. ^ "A123 replacing battery that failed Fisker Karma during testing" Chicago Tribune/Reuters, 26 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  68. ^ David Arnouts (2012-05-08). "Official claims Fisker Karma to blame in Texas house fire". Autoweek. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  69. ^ Angela Greiling Keane (2012-05-18). "Fisker Karma Fire In Texas Garage Being Probed By NHTSA". Bloomberg L.P. News. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  70. ^ Lavrinc, Damon (2012-08-11). "Another Fisker Karma Goes Up in Flames". Wired Autopia. Retrieved 2012-08-12. 
  71. ^ John Voelcker (2012-08-13). "Second Fisker Karma Fire Casts Fresh Doubt On Plug-In Hybrid". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  72. ^ Fisker Automotive Press Release (2012-08-13). "Fisker: recent Karma fire not caused by battery pack, new tech or exhaust routing". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
  73. ^ Fisker Automotive (2012-08-18). "Fisker: Karma fire caused by fault in low-temperature cooling fan; initiates recall". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  74. ^ Viknesh Vijayenthiran (2012-10-31). "Fisker Karmas Catch Fire After Being Submerged By Hurricane Sandy Flood". Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-11-03. 
  75. ^ John Voelcker (2012-11-06). "Sandy Flood Fire Followup: Fisker Karma Battery Not At Fault". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  76. ^ http://www.tmz.com/2013/09/18/carlos-santana-car-crash-accident-las-vegas-fell-asleep-wheel-photo/
  77. ^ Migliore, Greg (16 April 2008). "Tesla sues Fisker, alleges theft of trade secrets". AutoWeek. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  78. ^ LaMonica, Martin (11 April 2008). "Tesla Motors loses trade secrets case against Fisker". CNET News. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  79. ^ "ARBITRATOR FIRM EARLIER FINDING IN FAVOR OF FISKER AND AWARDS FISKER $1,144,385" (PDF). Fisker Automotive. 11 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  80. ^ Wes Siler (2009-01-13). "Fisker Karma S Sunset: World's First Hybrid Convertible". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  81. ^ Donny Nordlicht (2011-09-13). "AUTO SHOWS: First Look: Fisker Surf Concept". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  82. ^ Jerry Garrett (2011-09-13). "With Surf, Fisker Builds a Karma Hauler". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  83. ^ "Fisker to launch production Karma Surf wagon at Paris salon in September". Autoblog Green. 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  84. ^ Matt Davis (2011-09-13). "Fisker Surf shooting brake wows Frankfurt Show". Autoblog. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  85. ^ Scardino, Robert (24 June 2009). "Fisker Karma Sunset Named 2009 North American Production Preview Vehicle of the Year]". AllCarsElectric.com. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  86. ^ "Fisker Plug-In Hybrid Wins North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Award Category". Fisker Automotive. 23 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  87. ^ Mengly Taing (2009-04-24). "The Green Design 100 - Transportation: Fisker Karma". Time (magazine). Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  88. ^ "The 50 Best Inventions - The Fun Electric Car". Time (magazine). 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2011-11-24.  See page 76 of the November 28 print edition.
  89. ^ Robert Cumberford (January 2012). "2012 Design of the Year: Fisker Karma". Automobile Magazine. Retrieved 2011-11-10. 
  90. ^ Rana, Omar. Fisker Karma wins Top Gear’s Luxury Car of the Year award, James May gives it ‘Car of the Year’ EGM CarTech, 1 December 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2011.
  91. ^ Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki. Electric-Car-Hating Top Gear Names Fisker Karma Luxury Car Of The Year Green Car Reports, 2 December 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2011.
  92. ^ 2012 Fisker Karma Hybrid Debuts on CBS Sitcom Two and a Half Men Green Packs, 28 September 2011. Accessed: 1 January 2012.

External links[edit]