Fistulae are a feature of many diseases, but commonly fistulectomy refers to an operation for an anal fistula (fistula-in-ano). Fistulectomy removes secondary fistulous tracts compared to fistulotomy, but fistulotomy has shorter healing times and less chance of damage to the sphincters. Although these both surgical techniques have high recurrence rates, this is why new techniques like LIFT, fibrin glue, fistula plug etc were introduced with variable results. Kshar Sutra Therapy being considered the safest technique with minimum recurrence rates but it takes almost 2-3 months to heal a medium sized Anal Fistula. 
- Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Vaibhaw, Kumar; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Mohanty, Debajyoti (1 January 2012). "Comparison of a Fistulectomy and a Fistulotomy with Marsupialization in the Management of a Simple Anal Fistula: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial". Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology 28 (2): 78. doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.2.78.
- Belmonte Montes, C; Ruiz Galindo, GH; Montes Villalobos, JL; Decanini Terán, C (Oct–Dec 1999). "[Fistulotomy vs fistulectomy. Ultrasonographic evaluation of lesion of the anal sphincter function].". Revista de gastroenterologia de Mexico 64 (4): 167–70. PMID 10851578.
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