Fitzwilliam Sonatas

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Fitzwilliam Sonatas is the name first given by Thurston Dart to an arrangement he made, based on two recorder sonatas by George Frideric Handel, which he recast as a group of three sonatas. The term was applied by later editors to the original two sonatas as Handel wrote them, and was also expanded to encompass several other sonatas for various instruments included in the Handel autograph manuscripts held by the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.

History[edit]

The two sonatas used by Dart for his edition were probably written between 1724 and 1726,[1] but were not likely intended to be associated, either as a pair or together with the other four recorder sonatas by Handel. They were first associated in 1948, when Thurston Dart named them after the Fitzwilliam Museum at the University of Cambridge, where the autograph sources are kept.[2][3] Said autographs were part of the bequest that founded the museum, made in 1816 by Richard FitzWilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam[4] (not related to the Earls Fitzwilliam), who had bought them at auction following the death of J.C. Smith the Younger (1712–95), from the portion of his collection remaining after a major gift to King George III.[2]

In 1974 a new edition of three recorder sonatas under the same name was made by the German musicologist Klaus Hofmann.[5] This edition restored the D minor sonata to its original seven-movement form, and added as no. 3 the Sonata in G Major, HWV 358, probably composed much earlier than the other two Fitzwilliam recorder sonatas, at some time between 1707 and 1710.[6] Even with correction of an evidently defective, very high passage at the end of the third movement, Hofmann admits that "Handel must have been counting on a superlative instrumental soloist", and suggests that "perhaps an instrument in g' ought also to be kept in mind" (as opposed to the usual alto recorder in f').[7] The attribution of this sonata to the recorder is contested, however. Both David Lasocki and Terence Best assign it to the violin,[8] whereas Jean-Claude Veilhan endorses Hofmann's view,[9] and Winfried Michel acknowledges the possibility.[10]

Two further Handel sonatas found in the Fitzwilliam manuscripts have been published under the "Fitzwilliam" rubric: the Sonata for Violin and Continuo in G Minor, HWV 364a,[11] and the Sonata for Oboe and Continuo in B-flat major, HWV 357.[12] In the autograph of the G minor violin sonata, Handel copied out the first bar a second time at the foot of the first page, with the solo part written an octave lower, in the alto clef and with the words "Per la Viola da Gamba".[13] A realization of this version was first published in an edition by Thurston Dart in 1950.[14]

Movements[edit]

The three sonatas in Dart's arrangement (the one illustrated in the accompanying sound files) are:

  • The Sonata in B-flat major (HWV 377, c. 1724–25)[2][15]
  1. Corrente
  2. Adagio
  3. Allegro
  • Movements 7 & 6, reversed from their order in the Sonata in D minor (HWV 367a, Op. 1, No. 9a, c. 1725–26),[16] (using an earlier version of movement 6, the Andante in D minor, HWV 409, c. 1725–26),[17] and the Menuet in D minor (HWV 462, c. 1724–26, originally for solo keyboard),[2][18] with the note values doubled and time signature changed from 6/8 to 3/4, to which is added a double (variation) composed by Dart.
  1. A tempo di Menuet
  2. Andante
  3. Menuet
  • Movements 1–5 from the Sonata in D minor (HWV 367a, c. 1725–26).[2][19]
  1. Largo
  2. Vivace
  3. Furioso
  4. Adagio
  5. Alla breve

The movements of Handel's two original sonatas, as given in both Klaus Hofmann's[5] and David Lasocki and Walter Bergmann's[20] editions, are:

  • Sonata in B-flat major (HWV 377)
  1. [Allegro]
  2. Adagio
  3. Allegro
  1. Largo
  2. Vivace
  3. Furioso [Hofmann]; Presto [Lasocki/Bergmann]
  4. Adagio
  5. Alla breve
  6. Andante
  7. A tempo di menuet

The Sonata in G major (HWV 358) does not even carry the title "Sonata" in the manuscript, let alone any specification of instrumentation, nor are there any tempo markings for its three movements.[21] The editions by Hofmann[5] and Best,[22] though disagreeing about the intended solo instrument (recorder or violin, respectively), do supply the same tempo markings:

  1. [Allegro]
  2. [Adagio]
  3. [Allegro]

The Violin sonata in G minor (HWV 364a) is marked simply "Violino Solo" in the Fitzwilliam autograph.[23] The movements as given in Terence Best's edition[24] are:

  1. Larghetto[25]
  2. Allegro
  3. Adagio
  4. Allegro

Discussion[edit]

Handel re-used the first movement of Sonata 1, a courante, in the opera, Scipione (HWV 20, 1704).[15][26] The second movement was re-used in his Organ Concerto in F major, Op. 4, No. 4 (HWV 292).[15][27] The third movement was used in the Violin Sonata, Op. 1, No. 3 (HWV 361).[15][28]

Modern scholars agree that the B major sonata must have been written for the recorder, despite there being no mention of this on the autograph.[29] One of the reasons for this is that, "when Handel used the third movement again in his A major violin sonata, he changed the key to A major, which would seem to eliminate the possibility that the B major version is for the violin."[30] In addition, the key and range were unsuitable for the oboe, according to one source,[29] though another writer claims that, although "the key would be suitable for the oboe, but less so for the flute," nevertheless "The range is too high for the oboe, and all of Handel's genuine flute and oboe sonatas go significantly below f' (flute sonatas to d', oboe sonatas to c' or d')".[31]

The second and third of Dart's sonatas were originally a single sonata (HWV 367a), and was broken into two parts by Thurston Dart in his edition of 1948. The sonata designated by Dart as No. 2 consists of movement 7 of this D minor sonata followed by an earlier version of movement 6 of the same work, concluding with an unrelated minuet by Handel, together with a double (variation) composed by Dart.[32] It has since been published in its original form.[33] This D-minor Sonata was later arranged by an unknown hand as a flute Sonata in B minor (HWV 367b), published by Walsh in about 1730 as op. 1, no. 9.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Terence Best, "Handel's Chamber Music", Early Music 13, no. 4 (November 1985): 476–99. The citations are on p. 479 and in the table on p. 485.
  2. ^ a b c d e Brad Leissa and David Vickers (3 February 2007). "Handelian FAQs". gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  3. ^ George Buelow, A History of Baroque Music, sixth edition (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004): 622 "Notes to pages 489-498" (accessdate = 21 February 2009). ISBN 0-253-34365-8.
  4. ^ Ian Chilvers, "Fitzwilliam Museum", in The Oxford Dictionary of Art, 3rd edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), ISBN 0-19-860476-9.
  5. ^ a b c Georg Friedrich Händel, Fitzwilliam-Sonaten für Altblockflöte und Generalbaß, edited by Klaus Hofmann, 3 vols. (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hänssler-Verag, 1974).
  6. ^ Terence Best, "Handel's Chamber Music", Early Music 13, no. 4 (November 1985): 476–99. The citation is in the table on p. 485.
  7. ^ Georg Friedrich Händel, Fitzwilliam-Sonaten für Altblockflöte und Generalbaß, edited by Klaus Hofmann, vol. 3: Sonate G-dur (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hänssler-Verag, 1974), p. 2.
  8. ^ David Lasocki, "New Light on Handel 's Woodwind Sonatas", American Recorder 21, no. 4 (February 1981): 169; Terence Best, "Critical Commentary", in G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983), 50, although Best concedes that the extremely high notes at the end of the last movement which, in his opinion, rule out the recorder, "are difficult even for a modern player" of the violin, and "do not fit the bass comfortably: it is possible that Handel made a mistake in notation", as Hofmann contended.
  9. ^ George Frideric Handel, Sonate en sol majeur pour flûte à bec alto et basse continue (Fitzwilliam MS 261), transcription Jean-Claude Veilhan, réalisation de la basse, Danièle Salzer (Paris: Alphonse Leduc, 1990).
  10. ^ George Frideric Handel, Die Sonaten für Altblockflöte und B.c. , edited by Winfried Michel, 2nd edition (Münster: Mieroprint, 1992) is a facsimile edition including HWV 358, though in his transcribed edition, George Frideric Handel, Sonaten für Altblockflöte und Basso Continuo / Sonatas for Treble Recorder and Basso Continuo, edited by Winfried Michel, Camera Flauto Amadeus 122 (Winterthur: Amadeus Verlag/B. Päuler, 1994) Michel includes only the six sonatas in G minor, F Major, A Minor, C Major, B-flat Major, and D Minor.
  11. ^ Published as three separate items: (1) George Frideric Handel, Fitzwilliam Violin Sonata in G Minor: Fair Copy of Handel's Manuscript , edited by Robert Illing (Adelaide: Robert Illing, 1982), ISBN 0-949302-10-4; (2) George Frideric Handel, Fitzwilliam Violin Sonata in G Minor: Keyboard Realization of Handel's Bass by Robert Illing (Adelaide: Robert Illing, 1982) ISBN 0-949302-11-2; and (3) Robert Illing, Handel, Fitzwilliam Violin Sonata in G Minor: A Critical Account (Adelaide: Robert Illing, 1984), ISBN 0-949302-09-0.
  12. ^ Published as the second of George Frideric Handel, Three Authentic Sonatas for Oboe & Basso Continuo: in F, opus 1 no. 5; B flat, "Fitzwilliam"; c, opus 1 no. 8, edited by David Lasocki ([London]: Nova Music, 1975).
  13. ^ Terence Best, "Handel's Chamber Music", Early Music 13, no. 4 (November 1985): 476–99. The citation is on p. 479. Also Terence Best, "Critical Commentary", in G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983). The citation is on p. 51.
  14. ^ George Frideric Handel, Sonata in G minor, for Viola da Gamba (or Viola) and Harpsichord (or Pianoforte), edited and arranged by Thurston Dart, Edition Schott 10114 (London: Schott, 1950).
  15. ^ a b c d "377". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  16. ^ "367a". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  17. ^ "409". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  18. ^ "462". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  19. ^ "367". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  20. ^ G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Treble (Alto) Recorder and Continuo, edited by David Lasocki an Walter Bergmann (London: Faber Music Limited; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Australia & Canada: Boosey & Hawkes; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Tokyo: Zen-On Music Co. Ltd,. 1979).
  21. ^ Terence Best, "Critical Commentary", in G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983), 50.
  22. ^ G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983).
  23. ^ Terence Best, "Critical Commentary", in G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983), 51.
  24. ^ G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983).
  25. ^ According to Best's Critical Commentary, "The first movement was originally marked 'adagio'. This is crossed out, and 'Andante larghetto' substituted." (Terence Best, "Critical Commentary", in G. F. Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo / Die gesamten Sonaten für Violine und Basso Continuo / Les sonates complètes pour violon et basse continue, edited by Terence Best, basso continuo realized by Peter Holman, 50–54 (London: Faber Music Limited; Kassel: Bärenreiter-Verlag; Sydney: Boosey & Hawkes (Australia) Pty. Ltd.; New York: G. Schirmer Inc.; Auckland: Roderick Biss Music Ltd., 1983), 51).
  26. ^ "20". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  27. ^ "292". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  28. ^ "292". The HWV Catalog. gfhandel.org. Retrieved 21 February 2009. 
  29. ^ a b c Bixler, Martha (November 1998). "A Handel Sonata Roundup: Editions, Then & Now". American recorder (American Recorder Society, Inc.) 39 (5 (November)): 9–16. , citation on p. 12.
  30. ^ David Lasocki, "New Light on Handel 's Woodwind Sonatas", American Recorder 21, no. 4 (February 1981): 163–70; the cited passage is on p. 167.
  31. ^ David Lasocki, "New Light on Handel 's Woodwind Sonatas", American Recorder 21, no. 4 (February 1981): 163–70; the cited passage is on pp. 167–68.
  32. ^ Terence Best, "Handel's Chamber Music", Early Music 13, no. 4 (November 1985): 476–99, citation on 486. Anthony Hicks, "Handel, George Frideric, §17: Instrumental Chamber Music", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrel (New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 2001).
  33. ^ Edited by Terence Best in the Hallische Händel-Ausgabe im Auftrage der Georg Friedrich Händel-Gesellschaft iv/18, 19, 45 (Kassel), and in George Frideric Handel, The Complete Sonatas for Treble (Alto) Recorder and Basso Continuo, edited by David Lasocki, continuo realization by Walter Bergmann (London: Faber Music; New York: G. Schirmer, 1979).

Further reading[edit]