Flag of Afghanistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Afghanistan
Flag of Afghanistan.svg
Name Afghanistan
Proportion 2:3
Adopted January 4, 2004
Design A vertical tricolor of black, red, and green charged in the center with the national emblem

The flag of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان بيرغ; Persian: پرچم افغانستان) was adopted by the Afghan Interim Administration on December 22, 2001. This flag is similar to the one flown in Afghanistan during the monarchy between 1930 and 1973. The difference is the addition of the shahadah at the top of the coat of arms (seen in yellow) in the center. This flag consists of three stripes of the colors black, red, and green. This has been present on most flags of Afghanistan in the last twenty years. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan with a mosque with its mihrab facing Makah.

Afghanistan has had more changes of its national flag during the 20th century than any other country in the world.[1] It has had 20 different flags since the first flag when the Hotaki dynasty was established in 1709 that made Afghanistan independent.

Historical flags[edit]

Years of Use Flag Ratio Government Notes'
1709–1738 Black flag.svg 2:3 Hotaki dynasty
1747–1842 Flag of Herat until 1842.svg 2:3 Durrani Empire Flag flown under the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his dynasty.
1826–1880 No official flag during this period. Emirate of Afghanistan Prior to 1880, the Barakzai dynasty did not use the flag associated with the Durranis, or an official alternative.
1880–1901 Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg 2:3 Emirate of Afghanistan Flag flown under the rule of Abdur Rahman Khan.
1901–1919 Flag of Afghanistan (1901–1919).svg 3:5 Emirate of Afghanistan State and war flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Khan. Habibullah added to his father's flag a seal that is the precursor of the modern-day seal.
1919–1926/29 Flag of Afghanistan (1919–1921).svg 2:3 Emirate of Afghanistan First flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He expanded upon his father's flag by adding rays emanating from the seal in the form of an octagram. This new style of seal was common in the Ottoman Empire. Afghanistan became a kingdom in 1926.
1926–1928 Flag of Afghanistan (1926–1928).svg 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. He replaced the octagram with a wreath and slightly modified the national seal.
1928 Flag of Afghanistan (1928).svg 3:5 Kingdom of Afghanistan Third flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. The black, red, and green tricolor, respectively representing the past (previous flags), the bloodshed for independence (Third Anglo-Afghan War), and hope for the future, was probably influenced by Khan’s visit abroad to Europe in 1927.
1928–1929 Flag of Afghanistan (1928–1929).svg 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Fourth flag flown under the rule of King Amanullah. The new seal shows the sun rising over two snow-capped mountains, representing a new beginning for the kingdom.
1929 Flag of Afghanistan (1929).svg 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Flag flown under the rule of Habibullah Kalakani or Bacha-i-Saqao. The red, black, and white tricolor was the same flag that was used when modern-day Afghanistan was under Mongol occupation in the 13th century.
1929–1930 Flag of Afghanistan (1929–1931).svg 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan First flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor was re-established; the octogram seal borrowed from the first flag of King Amanullah replaced the sun and mountains seal.
1930–1973 Flag of Afghanistan (1931–1973).svg 2:3 Kingdom of Afghanistan Second flag flown under the rule of Nader Shah, it was also used by his son, Zahir Shah. The black, red, and green tricolor were retained. The octagram rays were removed, and the seal enlarged. In between the mosque and the seal is the year ١٣٤٨ (1348 of the lunar Islamic calendar, or 1929 AD of the Gregorian calendar) the year Mohammed Nadir Shah’s dynasty began.
1973–1974 Flag of Afghanistan (1973–1974).svg 2:3 Republic of Afghanistan First flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. It is identical to the previous flag, except that the year ١٣٤٨ was removed.
1974–1978 Flag of Afghanistan (1974–1978).svg 2:3 Republic of Afghanistan Second flag flown for the Republic of Afghanistan. The same colors were used, but the meanings reinterpreted: black for the obscure past, red for blood shed for independence, and green for prosperity from agriculture. In the canton is a new seal, with an eagle with spread wings, a pulpit (minbar) on the eagle’s chest (for a mosque), wheat surrounding the eagle, and the sun’s rays above the eagle (for the new republic).
1978 Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg 2:3 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan When the leader of the republic was killed in a coup, the new regime, with the assistance of the Soviet Union, established a secular socialist state. For a brief period of time, during the transition, the same flag design was kept, but no seal.
1978–1980 Flag of Afghanistan (1978-1980).svg 1:2 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan This flag used a red field with a yellow seal in the canton, a common design for socialist states in the 20th century. The wreath of wheat remained, but a star was added at top (representing the five ethnic groups of the nation) and the word 'Khalq' in Arabic script (meaning people) in the center. The flag was also the flag of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan's Khalq faction under President Nur Muhammad Taraki until his murder in September 1979.
1980–1987 Flag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg 1:2 Democratic Republic of Afghanistan After the overthrow of the Khalq faction by the Parcham faction, the flag was changed again. The overthrow occurred in December 1979. The new leadership re-established the black, red, and green tricolor, representing the past, blood shed for independence, and the Islamic faith, respectively. A new seal was designed, with a rising sun (a reference to the former name, Khorasan, meaning "Land of the Rising Sun"), a pulpit and a book (considered to be the Communist Manifesto or Capital by Karl Marx), ribbons with the national colors, a cogwheel for industry, and a red star for communism.
1987–1992 Flag of Afghanistan (1987–1992).svg 1:2 Republic of Afghanistan Same as the previous flag, except that in the national seal, the cogwheel is moved from the top to the bottom, the red star and the book are removed, and the green field curved to resemble the horizon.
1992 Flag of Afghanistan (1992).svg 1:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan This flag was used as a provisional flag after the fall of the pro-Soviet regime. It appeared in many variants of which one is shown here. In the upper stripe is Arabic Allahu Akbar, ("God is great"); the center stripe contains the Shahadah.
1992–2001 Flag of Afghanistan (1992-1996; 2001).svg 1:2 Islamic State of Afghanistan / Northern Alliance The black and green stripes are switched from the previous flag. Also, the Shahadah is written within a logo. This flag, for the first time since 1928, replaced the red color of nationalism and tribalism with the three colors of green, white and black, which were raised by Muslims in the past. The three colors of green white and black can be seen on several Muslim nations' flags. On the bottom part of the logo was written "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت", Islamic State of Afghanistan.
1996–1997 Flag of Taliban (original).svg 2:3 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan A plain white flag was flown by the Taliban.
1997–2001 Flag of Taliban.svg 2:3 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan In 1997 the Taliban added the Shahadah on the flag.
2001–2002 Flag of Afghanistan (2001-2002).svg 1:2 Interim Administration
2002–2004 Flag of Afghanistan (2002-2004).svg 1:2 Transitional Administration This flag consists of three vertical stripes of the colors black, red, and green. These colours were present on most of the flags of Afghanistan between the 1920s and 1990s. The center emblem is the classical emblem of Afghanistan with a mosque with its mihrab facing Mecca. This flag is similar to the one flown in Afghanistan during the monarchy between 1930 and 1973. The difference is the addition of the shahadah at the top of the coat-of-arms (seen in white) in the center. It now shows the year ١۲۹٨ (1298), the solar Islamic calendar equivalent of 1919 AD of the Gregorian Calendar, the year of independence from Great Britain. There was an unofficial variation with a gold emblem.
2004–present Flag of Afghanistan.svg 2:3 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Similar to the previous flag, but a different ratio. "دا افغانستان اسلامی دولت" Islamic State of Afghanistan has been replaced with simply "افغانستان" Afghanistan.

Heads of State flags[edit]

Years of Use Flag Ratio Use Notes
1931–1973 Royal Standard of the King of Afghanistan (1931–1973).svg 2:3 King of Afghanistan Royal Standard of the King of Afghanistan.
2004–present Standard of the President of Afghanistan.svg 2:3 President of Afghanistan Standard of the President of Afghanistan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]