Flag of Azerbaijan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Azerbaijan
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg
Name Üçrəngli bayraq (The Tricolour Flag)
Use National flag and ensign
Proportion 1:2
Adopted November 9, 1918
Design A horizontal tricolor of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star centered on a red band
Designed by Ali bey Huseynzade

The flag of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan bayrağı) is a tricolour featuring three equally sized fesses of blue, red, and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star centered in the red. The blue symbolises Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, the red stands for progress, and the green represents Islam. The official colors and size were adopted on February 5, 1991.[1] This flag was used from November 9, 1918 to 1920, when Azerbaijan was independent, and it was revived on February 5, 1991.[2]

The flag is referred to in the Constitution and mentioned two times in the national anthem. On land, the flag is used as the civil, state and war flag; at sea, it is used as the civil, state, and naval ensign, as well as the naval jack.[3] The flag also has official status in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

The tricolour replaced an earlier design used by the Azerbaijan SSR. A presidential decree declared November 9, the date when in 1918 this flag was adopted as the national flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, as the national Flag Day.[4]

The nickname for the flag is Üçrəngli Bayraq, which means The Tricolour Flag.

Design[edit]

Construction sheet of the Azerbaijani flag

The national flag of Azerbaijan consists of three horizontal equal strips. The upper strip is of blue color, the middle-of red, the lower is green. In the center of the flag, on the red strip, there is an eight-pointed star and crescent; both are white. The basic description of the flag, along with the ratio, can be found in the Constitution of Azerbaijan that was adopted on November 12, 1995:

State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three horizontal stripes of same width. Upper stripe is blue, middle stripe is red, and the lower one is green; in the middle of red stripe on both sides of the flag white crescent with eight-pointed star are depicted. Width of the flag constitutes half of its length.

—Article 23.II of the Constitution[5]

Further specifications of the national flag was set out in the Presidential Decree "On the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan" issued on February 5, 1991.[6] The ratio was kept at 1:2, which was used in the Soviet era.[7] Each stripe is 1/3rd of the total height of the flag and extends to the full length of the flag. The star and crescent was placed in a box that has a ratio of 3:4; the crescent is shifted 1/60th from the center of the flag. At the outside diameter of both the crescent and the red inside circle, it will intersect with the diameter of the white eight-pointed star. The diameter of the star is 1/6th of the height of the flag; the inscribed circle in this star is 1/12th of the height of the flag.[8] The flag is also described in the technical specification "AZS 001-2006. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Bayrağı. Texniki şərtlər." published by the State Committee on Standardization, Metrology and Patents of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2006.[9]

The colors of the national flag are green, red, blue and white. Exact specifications for its colors were issued in the 2004 decree "On the Rules of the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan". The colors, specified in Pantone, are as follows:[10]

Color model Blue Red Green
Pantone[10] 313 C 185 C 3405 C
RGB[11] 0-151-195 (#0097c3) 224-0-52 (#e00034) 0-174-101 (#00ae65)

Symbolism[edit]

The state flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic made by the first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade and his wife. Museum of History of Azerbaijan

The blue pale symbolizes Turkic heritage,[12] the red color is for the progress to establish a modern state and the development of democracy,[13] the green strip shows the nation's relation to the Islamic civilization.[6] In the middle of the red strip on both sides of the flag there is a white-color crescent and an eight-point star.[14] The first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade also noted in his speech, at the parliament's session of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, that the meaning of the colors relate to Turkic freedom, modernity and Islamic culture. The composer of the anthem of Azerbaijan Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote on the flag meaning: blue color – the color of Turkism, red – the color of progress and culture, and green – the color of Islam.[15]

The views of historians and researchers differ on the meaning of the crescent and star on the flag. According to historian Nasib Nasibli, Alibay Huseynzadeh, one of the ideologues of Azerbaijan's independence, developed the combination based on colors used in 1895.[16] The crescent on the flag symbolizes Islam, and the eight-pointed star on the flag symbolizes Fatali Khan Khoyski points to the eight letters in the name "Azerbaijan" (written in Arabic script).[17] Some researchers have noted that under Kipchaks at the time it referred to the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz. Also the classification of Turkic peoples in the early 20th century was different from the current.[18]

History[edit]

Pre-Soviet[edit]

In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War, several Khanates of the Caucasus were annexed to the Russian Empire . When the Russian Empire collapsed, Russian Azerbaijan declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia and Armenia. This unified state hardly lasted a year and was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any flags or symbols. Nevertheless, some historians consider a horizontal gold, black, and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag but arranged differently, to have been flag of Transcaucasia.[19] The federation was dissolved on May 26, 1918, when Georgia declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence two days later, on May 28, 1918, as the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, respectively.

Flag of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in 1918 (till November 9)
The first meeting of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which raised the national flag for the first time on December 7, 1918.

After gaining independence, the blue-red-green tricolour was adopted by the government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan on November 9, 1918.[20]

Azerbaijan was the first modern democratic state in the Muslim world.[21] The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it, establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on April 28, 1920. Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh, Azeris did not surrender their brief independence of 1918–20 quickly or easily. As many as 20,000 Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest.[22]

Transcaucasian SFSR[edit]

On March 12, 1922, the Azerbaijani SSR united with the Georgian SSR and the Armenian SSR under the Transcaucasian SFSR. On December 30, 1922 the Transcaucasian SFSR became one of the four Soviet republics that united to form the USSR. The flag of the republic had a hammer and sickle inserted into a star with initials ЗСФСР written in Russian sans-serif script. These letters stand for Закавказская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика. In 1936, the TSFSR was broken up into its three constituent regions, which were named the Azerbaijani SSR, the Georgian SSR, and the Armenian SSR.

Azerbaijan SSR[edit]

FIAV historical.svg Flag of Soviet Azerbaijan 1952–1990. Ratio: 1:2

During the Soviet rule, Azerbaijan SSR had eight different flags. Most of the flags only had slight differences. The adaptations were the result of the disastrous early years of the Soviet Union in the Caucasus. The first unofficial Soviet Azerbaijani flag was used when Russians conquered Baku on April 28, 1920.[22]

The first official flag was adopted in the first constitution, under Article 104, of the Azerbaijan SSR on May 19, 1921. During the time the state language of Azerbaijan SSR was the Azerbaijani Turkic, the alphabet was based on the Arabic script. Therefore the words A.S.R. were written in Arabic.[23] The eighth and final flag of Soviet Azerbaijan was issued on October 7, 1952. The design was similar to that of the Soviet national flag with a horizontal blue band added on the bottom taking up 1/4th of the height of the flag.

"The national flag of Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic is a panel consisting of two horizontal bands of color: the upper red part of three quarters of the width and the bottom is blue, nearly one-quarter the width of the flag with the image on the top left corner of the red band, at the flagpole and gold hammer and sickle, and above them a red five-pointed star framed by gold fringe. The ratio of width to length is 1:2."[7]

Nakhchivan ASSR[edit]

Regaining independence[edit]

During the Soviet period, Jahid Hilaloglu raised the tricolor over Baku's Maiden Tower in 1956 showing his defiance towards the system. Hilaloglu was ultimately sentenced to four years of imprisonment and his supporter Chingiz Abdullayev was institutionalized. On May 28, 1952 during the Republic Day celebrations in Germany, Mammed Amin Rasulzade raised the tricolor and asked for anyone who can be entrusted to take the flag back to Azerbaijan. Gulmirza Bagirov ultimately brought it to Azerbaijan in secret in the 1970s; this flag was hung over his house in Maştağa on January 20, 1990.[16]

During the late 1980s, unrest in Soviet Azerbaijan, the tricolor Azerbaijan Democratic Republic flag was used in demonstrations calling for independence.[17] On November 17, 1990 on the first session of the Supreme Assembly of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, the 1918 Azerbaijani flag was adopted as the national flag of the autonomous state.[6] This flag was later adopted when the decree, "On change the name and national flag of Azerbaijan SSR", was issued on November 29, 1990. The decree was ratified on February 5, 1991 by the National Assembly of the Republic. The first constitution since independence was adopted on November 12, 1995 after a national vote; one of the articles which described the three-color flag of the republic.[6]

On November 17, 2007, the Azerbaijani President issued a decree "On creation of the National Flag Square" in Baku.[4] The square has a flag pole with a mass of 220 tons and a height of 162 meters. The flag that is flown on this pole has an area of 2,450 square meters; the size of the flag itself is 35 meters wide and 70 meters long and weighs 350 kilograms.[24] A museum dedicated to the national flag was also built at this flagpole. On September 1, 2010 the flag was officially raised to open the museum; subsequently this flag pole became the world's tallest unsupported flagpole, until being overtaken by the 165 meter Dushanbe Flagpole, Tajikistan.[25] In 2009, November 9 was officially declared the National Flag Day. This day is set aside to respect the flag, its history (the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic first adopted the current tricolour on November 9, 1918) and its symbolism.[4]

Use and customs[edit]

National flag of Azerbaijan

According to Law no. 683 of the Republic of Azerbaijan, dated June 8, 2004 (as amended on September 1, 2005), the national flag must be raised by the following:[3][5]

Office Buildings Vehicles
President of Azerbaijan YesY YesY
Prime Minister of Azerbaijan YesY YesY
Speaker of the National Assembly YesY YesY
Cabinet of Ministers YesY  
Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan YesY  
Supreme Court of Azerbaijan YesY  
Judicial-Legal Council of Azerbaijan YesY  
Central Executive Authorities YesY YesY
Prosecutor of the Central Bank of Azerbaijan YesY YesY
Central Election Commission of Azerbaijan YesY  
Chamber of the Azerbaijan YesY  
Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan YesY  
Cabinet of Ministers of Nakhichevan YesY  
Supreme Court of Nakhchivan YesY  
Local executive authorities of Nakhchivan YesY YesY
Commissioner for Human Rights YesY  
Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly YesY  
Embassies in Azerbaijan YesY  
Consulates in Azerbaijan YesY  
Vessels registered in the Commercial Maritime Code   YesY
Foreign vessels within Azerbaijani waters   YesY
Border crossings of Azerbaijan YesY  

The national flag must also be raised over the buildings, military courts and headquarters of military units and naval vessels of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the following cases:[3][5]

  1. During the public holidays
  2. During the military oath
  3. In the case of awarding of military units or military courts
  4. When a military unit or military vessel located on the territory of another country

Influence and derivatives[edit]

The expression by Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani: "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!"; "The flag once raised will never fall!") was the rallying cry of Azeri independence in early 20th century.[26]

The national flag is also mentioned in the national anthem of Azerbaijan, "March of Azerbaijan" in the fifth and fifteenth sentences.[27] The unofficial English translations of the sentences come out to "With three color banner live happily!" and "To hold high your honored flag."[28]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Article 23. Azerbaijan State Symbols". The Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  2. ^ Whitney Smith. Flag Lore Of All Nations. — Millbrook Press, 2001. — P. 13. — ISBN 9780761317531
  3. ^ a b c "National flag of Azerbaijan". CRW Flags. June 17, 1999. Retrieved June 17, 1999. 
  4. ^ a b c "Azerbaijan marks National Flag Day". Today.az. November 9, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c "The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2002. Retrieved May 28, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Флаг Азербайджана" (in Russian). Geraldika.ru. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Конституция (Основной Закон) Азербайджанской Советской Социалистической Республики, принятая 21 апреля 1978 года внеочередной сессией Верховного Совета Азербайджанской ССР. — Баку, изд-во Верховного Совета Азербайджанской ССР, 1978, С.19
  8. ^ 5 февраля 1991 года Верховный Совет Азербайджанской Республики Законом №14-XII утвердил изменение названия государства и Законом №17-XII утвердил изображение Государственного флага и Положение о Государственном флаге Азербайджанской Республики.
  9. ^ "AZS 001-2006. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Bayrağı. Texniki şərtlər.". Azərbaycan Respublikasının Standartlaşdırma.  (Azerbaijani)
  10. ^ a b "Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət bayrağı haqqında". Azərbaycan Respublikasının Milli Məclisi.  (Azerbaijani)
  11. ^ Find a PANTONE color. Pantone LLC. Pantone Color Picker [Retrieved December 9, 2009].
  12. ^ "Azerbaijan State Symbols". Embassy of Azerbaijan to Canada. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  13. ^ Complete Flags of The World, 1997, page 172, Dorling Kindersley
  14. ^ "Azerbaijan State Symbols". Government of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ Hajibeyov, Y. (1919). "number of May 28,". One Year. Azerbaijan. 
  16. ^ a b "What does the crescent and eight-pointed star on the national flag of Azerbaijan stand for?". Azerbaijan Press Agency. Retrieved November 7, 2008. 
  17. ^ a b Сабухи Ахмедов, Государственный флаг Азербайджанской Республики(Russian), citing Мярданов М., Гулийев Я., Азярбайъан Республикасынын дювлят рямзляри. Б., 2001, pp. 74–75.
  18. ^ Sache, Ivan. "Meaning of the flag of Azerbaijan". Intute. Retrieved June 17, 1999. 
  19. ^ "Закавказская Федерация (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic)" (in Russian). Russian Centre of Vexillology and Heraldry. May 30, 2003. Retrieved December 27, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Article 23. Azerbaijan State Symbols". President of Azerbaijan. Retrieved November 14, 2012. 
  21. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-231-07068-3, ISBN 978-0-231-07068-3 and Reinhard Schulze. A Modern History of the Islamic World. I.B.Tauris, 2000. ISBN 978-1-86064-822-9, ISBN 978-1-86064-822-9. Citations are at Talk:Azerbaijan Democratic Republic#First or second.
  22. ^ a b Hugh Pope, "Sons of the conquerors: the rise of the Turkic world", New York: The Overlook Press, 2006, p. 116, ISBN 978-1-58567-804-4
  23. ^ Джангировичем Салахлы, Чингизом. "Ассамблея уставов и распоряжений рабоче-крестьянское правительство Азербайджанской ССР, № 5, Май 1921". рабоче-крестьянского правительства АзССР, №5,. Retrieved May 1921.  (Russian)
  24. ^ Janmammadova, Aygun (September 7, 2010). "Azerbaijan: Baku welcomes the world's highest flag… and a strong wind". Global Voices. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  25. ^ Abbasov, Rafael (May 29, 2010). "Tallest unsupported flagpole". Guinness World Record. Retrieved May 29, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Dalğalanan bayraqlar". Medeniyyet. Retrieved May 30, 2009.  (Azerbaijani)
  27. ^ "Azərbaycan Respublikası Dövlət Himni". Kütləvi İnformasiya Vasitələrinin İnkişafına Dövlət Dəstəyi Konsepsiyası.  (Azerbaijani)
  28. ^ "National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the People's Republic of China. 

External links[edit]