Flag of Hawaii
|Name||Ka Hae Hawaii|
|Use||Civil and state flag|
|Adopted||December 29, 1845|
|Design||8 alternating equal-width horizontal stripes of white, red, and blue, with a Union Flag in the canton.|
The flag of the state of Hawaii (Hawaiian: Ka Hae Hawaii) is the official standard symbolizing Hawaii as a U.S. state. The same flag had also previously been used by the kingdom, protectorate, republic, and territory of Hawaii. It is the only U.S. state flag to feature the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, a remnant of the period in Hawaiian history when it was associated with the British Empire.
The canton of the flag of Hawaii contains the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, prominent over the top quarter closest to the flag mast. The field of the flag is composed of eight horizontal stripes symbolizing the eight major islands (Hawaii, Oahu, Kauai, Kahoolawe, Lānai, Maui, Molokai and Niihau). A ninth stripe was once included, representing the island of Nihoa. Other versions of the flag have only seven stripes, probably representing the islands with the exception of Kahoolawe or Niihau. The color of the stripes, from the top down, follows the sequence: white, red, blue, white, red, blue, white, red. The colors were standardized in 1843, although other combinations have been seen and are occasionally still used.
There are various accounts of the earliest history of the flag of Hawaii. One relates how King Kamehameha I flew a British flag, probably a Red Ensign, given to him by British explorer Captain George Vancouver as a token of friendship with King George III. Subsequent visitors reported seeing the flag flying from places of honor. An adviser to Kamehameha noted that the Union Flag could draw Hawaii into international conflict, as his kingdom could be seen as an ally of the United Kingdom, and he subsequently lowered the Union Flag over his home at Kamakahonu. While disputed as historically accurate, one account stated that in order to placate American interests during the War of 1812, a flag of the United States was raised over Kamehameha's home, only to be removed when British officers in the court of Kamehameha vehemently objected to it. This explains why the resulting flag of Hawaii was a deliberate hybrid of the two nations' flags.
In 1816, Kamehameha commissioned his own flag to avoid this conflict, which has evolved into the current flag. It was probably designed by one of the commanders of the Royal Hawaiian Navy, former officers of the British Royal Navy, who advised Kamehameha, based on a form of the British naval flag. There is debate as to the actual designer: some credit Alexander Adams, others George Beckley. It was very similar to the flag of the British East India Company in use about this time which had only red and white stripes. Captain Adams used this flag for the first time on a Hawaiian trade mission to China in 1817.
The original flag was designed to feature stripes alternating in the order red-white-blue, also attributed to various historical flags of the United Kingdom. The flag used at the first official flying of the flag of Hawaii erroneously placed the stripes in the order white-red-blue, although it seems explorers to the island disagree about the exact order of colors and the number of stripes up to the late 1840s. There may have been possibly different versions of the flag with different numbers of stripes and colors. The number of stripes also changed: originally, the flag was designed with either seven or nine horizontal stripes, and in 1845 it was officially changed to eight stripes. The latter arrangement was adopted and is used today.
Ka Hae Hawaii day
Flag of the Governor
The flag used by the governor of Hawaii is a red and blue bi-color. In the middle of the eight white stars appears the name of the state in all capital letters. During the time Hawaii was a United States territory, the letters in the middle of the flag were "TH", which stood for "Territory of Hawaii".
Kanaka Maoli flag
The Kanaka Maoli ("true people" in the Hawaiian language) flag is sometimes claimed to be the original flag of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. To some, this flag symbolizes the Native Hawaiians, because the present Hawaiian flag, a hybrid of British and American symbolism, evokes images of colonialism. The colors are red-green-yellow, said to have been Kamehameha’s personal flag, and reintroduced by Kamehameha III. The central design is also present in the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Gene Simeona of Honolulu claims he has recreated the "original" Hawaiian green, red, and yellow striped flag, destroyed by British navy Captain, Lord George Paulet, when he seized Hawaii for five months in 1843. Simeona says a descendant of Paulet, whom he met on the grounds of Iolani Palace in 1999, told him the present Hawaiian flag is not the original. Simeona said he found the design in the Hawaii State Archives. However, no evidence to date has supported this claim either in Hawaiian newspapers, historical sketches, nor any government documentation of that era. Critics[who?] often reference popular Jamaican reggae music with its dominance of Ethiopian flag colors as the obvious influence.
At the center of the flag is a green shield bearing a coat of arms of the kanaka maoli, made up of the royal kahili, the original Hawaiian royal standard. Crossing this kahili are two paddles, representing both voyaging traditions of Hawaiians, and Kamehameha's Kānāwai Māmalahoe. There are nine stripes, unlike the eight striped flag of the present state of Hawaii. Each stripe represents a Hawaiian island. They include: Hawaii Island, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, and Nihoa. The last of these was officially part of the kingdom of Hawaii during the reign of Kamehameha IV even though it was not inhabited. According to this flag's promoters, the green in the flag represents the maka 'ainana (commoners), the land and goodness; the red represents the landed konohiki (middle class), genealogy and strength; and the yellow represents the alii, spirituality and alertness to danger. Other flags have been proposed, and interpretations of colors, but even leaders of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement often use the current state flag, since it was in effect after 1843.
Date Flag Image 1793–1794 British Red Ensign 1794–1816 Flag of Great Britain (probably not updated in 1801) 1816–1843 Early version of the present flag Feb 1843 – July 1843 Union Flag (during the Paulet Affair) July 1843 - May 1845 Early version of the present flag May 1845 – Feb 1893 The current Hawaiian flag introduced in 1845 Feb 1893 – Apr 1893 U.S. Flag (after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii) 1894–1898 Hawaiian flag re-adopted by the Republic of Hawaii 1898–1959 Hawaiian flag used by the U.S. territory of Hawaii 1959–present Hawaiian flag used by the state of Hawaii
Flag of the City of Honolulu
- "Name and Insignia of Hawaii - State Flag". Hawaii State Library. 2006-03-01. Archived from the original on May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
- BBC History, Jan 2008
- Quaife, Milo; M. J. Weig; R. E. Appleman (1961). The History of the United States Flag. New York: Harper. p. 154.
- Henry Whalley Nicholson (1889). From sword to share: or a fortune in five years at Hawaii. W.H. Allen & Co. pp. 83–85.
- "Hawaii: historical flags". Fotw.net. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- Howard M. Ballou (1906). The Reversal of the Hawaiian Flag. pp. 5–11. ISBN 0-8028-5088-X.
- "Hawaiian Flag Day Proclamation". Retrieved 2007-10-26.[dead link]
- "Name and Insignia of Hawaii - Governor's Flag". Hawaii State Library. 2006-03-01. Archived from the original on May 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
- "'Original' flag raises debate". The Honolulu Advertiser. February 12, 2001. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- "Hawaiian Sovereignty: One of the Original Hawaiian Flags: The Red Yellow and Green Hawaiian Flag".
- "Hawaii Ko Aloha Flag (U.S.)". CRW flag store web site. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- "Hawaiian National Flag". Hawaiian Kingdom web site. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
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