Flag of Moravia

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One version of the flag of Moravia in the form of red-white-blue tricolor. Used for example by the deputies of Czech speaking Moravians on Slavonic Congress in Prague in 1848.[1]
Yellow-red bicolour used since the half of 19th century,[2] currently considered by some organizations for Flag of Moravia [3] This option is criticized by some experts.[4][5][6][7]

Official appearance of Flag of Moravia, unlike provincial Moravian coat of arms does not exist, because the flag Moravia has never been granted. However, there are several documented variant of Moravian flags, that were used in history. The first recorded version dates from the mid-13th century.[8]

Historically, there were several versions of the widely used and documented Moravian flags, which were mainly used during the 19th century in parallel to double or triple color derived from tinctures of provincial coat of arms.[9][10] According to some authors therefore Moravian flag red-white-blue, respectively horizontally striped.[11] This color combination was the flag of the Moravian patriots in the 19th century. Delegation of the Moravians on Slavonic Congress in Prague in 1848 marched under the tri-color red-white-and-blue flag with a white horizontal stripe at the top, middle red and blue bottom.[1] White, red and blue colors are referred to as Moravia in the Nový prostonárodní popis Čech, Moravy a Slezska from 1854 and in some textbooks from the 19th century.[12] According to the I. Štarha the Moravian colours were in 1915 white, red and blue, and between the years 1915 and 1918 yellow, red and blue.[13][14] Czechoslovak Republic returned to the white / silver color at the Moravian coat of arms, but the color and provincial status flags / banners Act No. 252/1920 does not define. Country flag do not know the later legal regulations (Act no. 269/1936, Law no. 222/1939, no. 163/1960, and now valid Acts no. 3/1993 Coll., No. 352/2001 Coll.).[15][16][17]

Today, it is for the Flag of Moravia sometimes - especially some Moravian parties, associations and other organizations - is considered a yellow-red bicolour.[3][18] Using the yellow-red flag, according to more authors (L. E. Havlík, M. Hlinomaz), however, documented in the 19th century.[2] Hereinafter referred to as Morava: k státoprávnímu postavení země v průběhu věků.[9][19] As stated by M. Hlinomaz: Zdá se, že žlutočervený prapor, logicky odvozený od sněmem v roce 1848 přijaté formy šachování moravské orlice, nesl oficiální posvěcení úřady a pro svou podobnost s říšskou vlajkou, i sympatie moravského obyvatelstva německé národnosti .[9] Historian I. Štarha argues that Moravia was never awarded the flag.[12] Today's yellow-red bicolour is sometimes added the provincial coat of arms (red-gold checked eagle).

Both of these versions, however, are criticized by experts who were approached by the media (specifically historian M. Řepa, vexillologist K. Müller, heraldist J. Louda).[4][5][6][7]

Flag of Moravia[20][21]

The oldest history[edit]

The history of moravian flag, actually banner (unlike the flag it is tightly connected with flagpole) is very varied and begins in 13th century on the background with organizing of relations between Bohemia and Moravia within the building of centralized monarchy of the last kings of Přemyslid dynasty. The colouring of the flag (or banner) was according to vexillologic rules derived from the colours of heraldic coat of arms since the Middle Ages.[8]

From the reign of Ottokar II of Bohemia Moravia features the coat of arms in silver-red checkered eagle with a golden crown and claws, which looks to the right and is placed on a blue shield. Checkered eagle is the first documented on depiction from 1286 and later more clearly in the late 13th and early 14th century.[22] Colours of checkered eagle were derived from the colours of the Czech lion (silver lion on a red shield) and express connection with the Czech king of Moravia and Czech monarchy, as, for example, recalls historian V. Růžek.[23] One of the first documented illustrations of banner of Moravia is the view in 1407 Gelnhausen Codex, which is the figure of the Moravian Margrave Jobst of Moravia with blue banner on which is placed Moravian white-red eagle with a yellow crown and yellow armor without a shield.[8]

The present[edit]

The shape of the Flag of Moravia is a subject of discussion for more than 100 years.[24] A variant consists of two bars, an yellow bar on the upper half, and a red bar at the bottom half.

Flag of Moravia as bicolor with gold-red checked eagle (from 2007), by Moravian National Community
Flag of Prague

The flag of Moravia with gold-red checked eagle (from 2007) was introduced, advised and used by some members and supporters of Moravian National Community due to the possible mismatch with other flags, for example with that of capital city Prague

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Havlík (1990). "Symboly moravské identity". Moravskoslezská orlice (in Czech) (14): 12. 
  2. ^ a b Havlík, Lubomír Emil (1990). Symboly moravské identity. Moravskoslezská orlice (in Czech) (14). p. 12. 
  3. ^ a b Štarha, Ivan (2002). "I. Správa, právo, politická moc...". Moravské barvy a moravská zemská vlajka. Pocta Janu Janákovi (in Czech). pp. 165–170. ISBN 80-86488-07-1. 
  4. ^ a b Motýl, Ivan (June 2011). "Morava s ilegální vlajkou". Týden (in Czech): 14. ISSN 1210-9940. 
  5. ^ a b Motýl, Ivan (July 2011). "Jak jsem urazil Moravany". Týden (in Czech): 12–13. 
  6. ^ a b Štěpán, Petr (July 2012). "Moravskou vlajku vyvěsí téměř 400 obcí. Kvůli sporům není jasné, zda je to ta pravá". iHNed.cz (iHNed.cz). ISSN 1213-7693. 
  7. ^ a b "Škromach: Že se vyvěšování moravských vlajek čecháčkům nelíbí? Jejich věc". Parlamentní listy (in Czech) (Parlamentní listy). July 2012. ISSN 1214-3154. 
  8. ^ a b c Růžek, Vladimír (2013). "Cesty k definici (nejen) moravského znaku a praporu" (PDF). Veřejná správa (10). pp. 20–22: 22. ISSN 1213-6581. 
  9. ^ a b c Hlinomaz, Milan (1995). "Ke státní a zemské symbolice českého státu v období 1526–1918" (PDF). Paginae historiae. Sborník Národního archivu (in Czech) (3): 152–194. ISSN 1211-9768. 
  10. ^ Ke státní a zemské symbolice českého státu v období 1526–1918, p. 167th
  11. ^ Brožek, Aleš (2003). Lexikon vlajek a znaků zemí světa (2). Praha: Kartografie. 50. ISBN 8070117761. 
  12. ^ a b Štarha, Ivan (2002). Bronislav Chocholáč; Jiří Malíř, eds. Pocta Janu Janákovi. Předsedovi Matice Moravské, profesoru Masarykovy univerzity věnují k sedmdesátinám jeho přátelé a žáci. Brno: Matice Moravská. pp. 165–170: 168. ISBN 80-86488-07-1. 
  13. ^ Štarha, Ivan (2013). Historie, moravské barvy a moravská vlajka (PDF). Veřejná správa (in Czech). pp. 165–170. ISSN 1213-6581. 
  14. ^ Moravské barvy a moravská zemská vlajka, p. 170.
  15. ^ "Legislativa" (in Czech). ZREČR. 
  16. ^ "Sbírka zákonů a mezinárodních smluv České republiky. Zákon České národní rady o státních symbolech České republiky" (in Czech). Wolters Kluwer ČR. 
  17. ^ "Sbírka zákonů a mezinárodních smluv České republiky. Zákon o užívání státních symbolů České republiky a o změně některých zákonů" (in Czech). Wolters Kluwer CR. 
  18. ^ Moravské barvy a moravská zemská vlajka, p. 165.
  19. ^ Ke státní a zemské symbolice českého státu v období 1526–1918, p. 168
  20. ^ Svoboda, Zbyšek; Fojtík, Pavel; Exner, Petr; Martykán, Jaroslav (2013). "Odborné vexilologické stanovisko k moravské vlajce" (PDF). Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3319, 3320. 
  21. ^ Pícha, František (2013). "Znaky a prapory v kronice Ottokara Štýrského" (PDF). Brno: Česká vexilologická společnost. pp. 3320–3324. 
  22. ^ Vojtíšek, Václav (1921). Naše státní znaky (staré a nynější) (in Czech). Praha: Vesmír. p. 21. 
  23. ^ Růžek, Vladimír (2013). "Cesty k definici (nejen) moravského znaku a praporu" (PDF). Veřejná správa (in Czech) (10). pp. 20–22: 21. ISSN 1213-6581. 
  24. ^ Štěpán, Petr (5 July 2012). "Moravskou vlajku vyvěsí téměř 400 obcí. Kvůli sporům není jasné, zda je to ta pravá". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). iHned.cz.