Flag of Ohio

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Ohio
Flag of Ohio.svg
Name The Ohio burgee
Use Civil and state flag
Proportion 8:13
Adopted May 9, 1902
Design Guidon consisting of 5 horizontal stripes alternating between red and white. The chevron is azure containing a white and red "O" and 17 white stars.
Designed by John Eisenmann

The Ohio Burgee is the official flag of the U.S. state of Ohio. It was designed in 1901 by John Eisenmann for the Pan-American Exposition and adopted in 1902. It is the only non-rectangular U.S. state flag. The state has adopted an official salute to the flag and a method of folding it, as well as a gubernatorial flag.

Design[edit]

An Ohio flag flies above Sawyer Point in Cincinnati.

The Ohio state flag's design is defined in the Ohio Revised Code, section 5.01:

The flag of the state shall be burgee-shaped. It shall have three red and two white horizontal stripes that represent the roads and waterways of the state. The union of the flag shall be seventeen five-pointed stars, white in a blue triangular field that represents the state's hills and valleys, the base of which shall be the staff end or vertical edge of the flag, and the apex of which shall be the center of the middle red stripe. The stars shall be grouped around a red disc superimposed upon a white circular "O." The thirteen stars grouped around the "O" represent the original states of the United States and the four stars added to the peak of the triangle symbolize that Ohio was the seventeenth state admitted to the union. The "O" represents the "O" in "Ohio" and suggests the state's nickname, the buckeye state. The proportional dimensions of the flag and of its various parts shall be according to the official design on file in the office of the secretary of state. ...

—ORC §5.01
A typical 34-star Union guidon, carried by many Ohio cavalry units during the Civil War

Ohio's flag is the only non-rectangular U.S. state flag. It is a rare example of a non-quadrilateral civil flag, another well-known example being the flag of Nepal. According to vexillologist Whitney Smith, it may be loosely based upon cavalry flags of the Civil War and Spanish-American War.[1] The flag has been officially defined as a "burgee" since 2002,[2][3] even though burgees are typically used as maritime flags. Its shape, lack of text, and mirror symmetry allow it to be flown or hung in various orientations without affecting legibility.[4]

In addition to resembling the letter O and a buckeye nut, the flag's annulus also represents "the original territory of Ohio" in the Northwest Territory.[5]

On account of the flag's uncommon shape, foreign manufacturers have occasionally set the entire design against a white, rectangular field.[1]

History[edit]

For nearly a century after statehood, Ohio had no legally authorized state flag. The state militia carried regimental colors based on the Stars and Stripes, with the addition of "a large eagle, with the number of the regiment and the prescribed number of stars above".[6]

Arsenal flag[edit]

A representation of the state seal c. 1861–65

By the early 1850s, Ohioans expressed interest in adopting a state flag, as several other states had already done. In late 1860, Qtr. Mr. Gen. David L. Wood and Adj. Gen. Henry B. Carrington devised a flag consisting of the state seal upon a white field. They had it flown above the Ohio State Arsenal in Columbus, in hopes that it might someday become the state flag. On January 17, 1861, at a banquet organized by the Columbus Typographical Union Local #5, James A. Garfield, then a lawyer, gave a speech defending the national flag as the only flag Ohio's soldiers would march to battle under. The generals, in attendance, were moved to set aside their proposal and hoist the Stars and Stripes in its place.[7] Later that year, Wood and Carrington joined fellow Ohioans in battle under the 34-star Union flag, which would serve as the inspiration for a state banner decades later.[8]

Eisenmann's guidon[edit]

Eisenmann's original specification[5]

In 1901, Cleveland architect John Eisenmann was commissioned to design an exhibition hall for his state at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. He developed a distinctive flag to fly over each corner of the Ohio Building.[2] The wool flags officially represented the commission rather than the state. On July 18, Governor George K. Nash visited the exposition, where he was presented with one of the flags,[1] which is now held in the Ohio History Connection collections.[9] Eisenmann secured a U.S. design patent for his design, which he described as "a triangular forked or swallow-tailed flag corresponding to the shape generally known as a 'cavalry-guidon' or 'broad pennant.'"[10]

In 1902, State Representative William S. McKinnon, a member of the Ohio Pan-American Exposition Commission, introduced House Bill 213 designating Eisenmann's design as the official flag. It became law on May 9,[11] making it the 20th U.S. state flag or banner.[1] (Eisenmann had assigned his patent, which had a term of three and a half years, to the State of Ohio on April 24.[12])

The Ohio Building at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition

Because Eisenmann's design deviated from the "seal on a bedsheet" design then nearly universal among state flags, the press looked overseas for precedents: the layout was likened to either the flag of Cuba[13] or of the Philippines,[14] while the red and white annulus was derided for its similarity to the sun on the Japanese flag.[11]

The flag initially saw little use, in part due to the prevailing opinion that the Stars and Stripes should hold a monopoly on patriotic displays. Similar sentiment hindered the adoption of municipal flags in Cleveland and Cincinnati, to the extent that Cleveland's flag was designated a "banner" and Cincinnati's downplayed as a mere logo.[1][15] In 1903, it was reported that, among state politicians, only Governor Nash displayed the guidon.[14]

In the century following its adoption, the guidon gained significant popularity, being flown not only by the state but frequently also by its residents and businesses.[1] In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U.S. state, U.S. territorial, and Canadian provincial flags. The flag of Ohio ranked 15th.[16]

Usage[edit]

Salute[edit]

In 2002, the Ohio General Assembly commemorated the 100th anniversary of the state flag's adoption by adopting a salute to the flag, to be recited after the Pledge of Allegiance:

I salute the flag of the state of Ohio and pledge to the Buckeye State respect and loyalty.

ORC §5.013[17]

Folding the flag[edit]

The flag of Ohio is officially folded in 17 steps.

A method of folding the flag of Ohio was created by Alex Weinstock, an Ohio Boy Scout, for his Eagle Scout service project, which was passed by the 125th Ohio General Assembly as House Bill 552, and signed into law by Governor Bob Taft on February 15, 2005:[18]

The general assembly hereby establishes a recommended procedure for the folding of the state flag by two people. The procedure is as follows:

With the flag unfolded, fold the flag in half lengthwise so that the points of the flag are aligned. Fold the flag in half lengthwise a second time to form a long strip with the red disc facing the ground. Next, fold the pointed end back onto itself to form a rectangle. These steps entail three folds.

Starting on the end formed by the fold of the pointed end back onto itself, fold two inches of the flag onto itself for a flag with a three-foot hoist and a five-foot fly, or another appropriate width of fold for a flag of a different size. Repeat the folds a total of fourteen times, alternating the folds in a fan-like manner.

The result is a total of seventeen folds symbolizing that Ohio was the seventeenth state admitted to the Union. Finally, neatly and snugly wrap the remaining length of flag around the fan-folds to form a compact rectangle.
ORC §5.014[19]

Derivations[edit]

Ohio's flag is regularly flown by The Ohio State University Marching Band during football games. Specifically, it is flown by the percussion section of the band (JI-Row), which has embraced the flag as its row mascot. The Columbus Blue Jackets logo[20] and Cincinnati Bengals fan flag[21] are both based on the state flag.

A number of municipalities and counties in Ohio have adopted pennants and swallowtails based on the state burgee. The city of Mentor and Adams County have flags that essentially replace the annulus with a seal and modify the pattern of stars in the triangular union.[1][22]

Flag of the Governor[edit]

Standard of the Governor of Ohio

The flag of the Governor of Ohio consists of the Great Seal of Ohio encompassed with white stars on a field of red. Like most U.S. Governors' flags, there are four five-point stars at the corners of the field. The flag was adopted on September 30, 1963, as prescribed in the Ohio Revised Code:

The flag of the governor of this state will be of scarlet wool bunting, six feet eight inches hoist by ten feet six inches fly. In each of the four corners will be a white five-pointed star with one point upward. The centers of these stars will be twelve inches from the long edges and seventeen inches from the short edges of the flag. In the center of the flag will be a reproduction of the great seal of Ohio in proper colors, three feet in diameter, surrounded by thirteen white stars equally spaced with their centers on an imaginary circle four feet three inches in diameter. All stars shall be of such size that their points would lie on the circumference of an imaginary circle ten inches in diameter.

ORC §5.011[23]

The code also specifies smaller versions of the flag to be used as the governor's naval flag and automobile flag.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Purcell, John M. (July 23, 2001). "The Centennial of Ohio's Flag: From Obscurity to Esteem" (PDF). International Congress of Vexillology. York: International Federation of Vexillological Associations. pp. 181–184. 
  2. ^ a b "State Flag of Ohio: The Ohio Burgee". Profile Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Secretary of State. 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 
  3. ^ 124 SB 240
  4. ^ "Ohio Day at Pan-American Exposition". Ohio Archæological and Historical Quarterly (Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society) 10 (9): 144. October 21, 1901. 
  5. ^ a b Eisenmann, John (1901). "The Ohio State Flag" – via Ohio Memory. 
  6. ^ Preble, George Henry (1880). History of the Flag of the United States of America (2nd revised ed.). Boston: A. Williams & Co. p. 639. 
  7. ^ Hodge, Orlando John (April 19, 1904). Speech by State Regent O. J. Hodge (Speech). Thirteenth Continental Congress of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Washington, D.C. – via Google Books. 
  8. ^ Hodge, Orlando John (1902). Reminiscences 1. The Imperial Press. pp. 117–120. 
  9. ^ Eisenmann, John (1901). "Flag Burgee". OCLC 70657823 – via Ohio Memory. 
  10. ^ US patent D34810S, John Eisenmann, "Design for a flag", issued 1901-07-23  (US D34810 S via Google Patents)
  11. ^ a b Huntington, Webster Perit, ed. (July 1906). "The Flag of Ohio (editorial)". The Ohio Illustrated Magazine 1 (1): 96–97 – via Google Books. 
  12. ^ Eisenmann, John (April 24, 1902). "Assignment for patent of design for Ohio flag". (Letter to the Ohio Secretary of State). 
  13. ^ Galbreath, Charles Burleigh (1902). "Seals and Ohio flag". Monthly Bulletins of the Ohio State Library (Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Board of Library Commissioners) 2 (4): 1–5 – via Google Books. 
  14. ^ a b Smites (April 19, 1903). "Himself on the Jawbone Every Time He Looks at the Bundle of Ohio Flag For Which There Is No Call.". The Cincinnati Enquirer 60 (109). "Most of the people who saw it were under the impression that it was a Filipino trophy sent home by some daring Ohio soldier who had captured it in Balignan from the Society of the Katipunan." 
  15. ^ "Against It Are Citizens Generally". The Cincinnati Enquirer 53 (28). January 28, 1896. p. 8. (subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ Kaye, Ted (June 10, 2001). "New Mexico tops state/provincial flags survey, Georgia loses by wide margin" (Press release). North American Vexillological Association. 
  17. ^ 5.013 Pledge to the state flag, Ohio Revised Code
  18. ^ 125 HB 552
  19. ^ 5.014 Procedure for folding state flag, Ohio Revised Code
  20. ^ "Jackets unveil new uniforms". The Columbus Dispatch. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2013. 
  21. ^ "NFL Fan Flag Winners - PHOTOS". KSDK (St. Louis). September 5, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  22. ^ "County Flags". Ohio Statehouse. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  23. ^ 5.011 Ohio governor's flag, Ohio Revised Code

External links[edit]