Flag of Peru

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Peru
Flag of Peru.svg
Names El Pendón Bicolor (The Bicolor Banner), La Enseña Nacional (The National Ensign)
Use Civil flag and ensign
Proportion 2:3
Adopted February 25, 1825 (current triband version).
Design Vertical triband with red outer bands and a single white middle band.
Flag of Peru (state).svg
Variant flag of Peru
Name National flag of Peru. (Pabellón nacional)
Use State flag, state and naval ensign
Proportion 2:3
Design Vertical triband with red outer bands and a single white middle band with the Coat of arms in the center.
Flag of Peru (war).svg
Variant flag of Peru
Name War flag of Peru (Bandera de guerra)
Use War flag
Proportion 2:3
Design Vertical triband with red outer bands and a single white middle band with the National Coat of Arms in the center.
Naval Jack of Peru.svg
Variant flag of Peru
Name Naval jack of Peru (Bara de proa)
Proportion 1:1
Design A white square with the Coat of arms on a red field.

The flag of Peru was adopted by the government of Peru in 1825. It is a vertical triband with red outer bands and a single white middle band. Depending on its use, it may be defaced with different emblems, and has different names. Flag day in Peru is celebrated on June 7, the anniversary of the Battle of Arica.

Design and symbolism[edit]

Coat of arms[edit]

Main article: Coat of arms of Peru

The Peruvian coat of arms includes the vicuña (a relative of the llama and alpaca), the quina (cinchona) tree, and a cornucopia of gold.

Meaning of the colors[edit]

Red represents the blood that was spilled for the fight for independence, and white represents peace and bravery.

Variants[edit]

National flag (civil flag)[edit]

The national or civil flag (Spanish: bandera nacional) is used by citizens. It has no additions to the common form. It was changed several times; before 1950 it looked like the current national flag and was used as both the civil and state flag, when General Manuel A. Odría removed the coat of arms from the national flag and created the state and war flags.

National ensign (state flag)[edit]

The national ensign or state flag (pabellón nacional), used by state institutions, is marked with the coat of arms of Peru (escudo de armas). It is used during ceremonies in which the flag is hoisted in the presence of spectators (as opposed to a static, permanent flag). A form of this flag, the national standard (estandarte nacional) is used indoors by official and private institutions.

War flag[edit]

The war flag (Bandera de Guerra), similar to the state flag, is marked with the national shield (Escudo Nacional). It is flown by the Peruvian military and national police, and is typically inscribed with the service, name and number of the unit flying it.

Naval jack[edit]

The naval jack (bandera de proa) is not based on the triband; it is a square flag, consisting of a white square with the coat of arms (Escudo de Armas) on a red field. It is used on battleships, usually with the ensign of the highest-rank officer on board above it.

History[edit]

Main article: Flags of Peru

Proposed flag of 1820[edit]

FIAV proposal.svg Flag hoisted by Admiral Miller in October 1820.

During the Viceroyalty of Peru, the colonial-era Spanish flag flew over Peru. In 1820, during the struggle for independence, British-born General William Miller hoisted in Tacna the first flag that represented the emerging country. Though the original flag itself is now lost, it was described as navy blue, defaced with a golden sun (possibly representing Inti).

Flag of 1820[edit]

FIAV historical.svg First republican flag, created by General José de San Martín.

The first flag of the Republic of Peru was created by General José de San Martín, and officially decreed on 21 October 1820. It is diagonally quartered, with white upper and lower fields, and the others red. The flag was defaced with an oval-shaped laurel crown in the center, surrounding a sun rising behind mountains by the sea. The symbolism of the flag's colors is uncertain, but according to Peruvian author Abraham Valdelomar, San Martín, having arrived on the coast of southern Pisco, was inspired by the colors of parihuanas, red-and-white flamingos. Historians of the early Peruvian Republic, such as Leguía y Martínez and Pareja Paz Soldán,[1] give a different explanation, suggesting that San Martín took the red from the flag of Chile and the white from the flag of Argentina, recognizing the provenance of the men of the liberation army. Historian Jorge Fernández Stoll thinks in 1820 San Martin was in favor of a constitutional monarchy, and he chose to use monarchical symbols and colors: Castile used the red and white colors for many years, the old flag of the viceroyalty the cross of Burgundy was red and white and the flag's diagonal lines mimicked the cross shape, the red color was the royal symbol of the mascaipacha of Inca kings and of the ensign of the King of Spain at that time.[2] The flag proved difficult to adopt due to its complex construction; without standardized measurements in place at the time, a triangular flag proved difficult to build.

Flag of March 1822[edit]

FIAV historical.svg Second design, by Torre Tagle.

In March 1822, José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre Tagle and Supreme Delegate of the Republic, who replaced San Martín provisionally when the latter traveled to Guayaquil, decreed a new design for the flag. This consisted of a horizontal triband, with a white band between two red ones, and a golden sun at the center, similar to the flag of Argentina. This modification was justified, according to Torre Tagle, by the inconvenience in the construction of the previous version, among other issues.

A problem came up on the battlefields: the resemblance with the Spanish flag, especially from far away, made the distinction between the armies difficult, which led to a new change to the flag.

Flag of May 1822[edit]

FIAV historical.svg Third design.

On 31 May 1822, Torre Tagle changed the flag's design again. The new version was a vertical triband, with red outer bands and a white middle band, with a golden sun representing Inti at the center.

Flag of 1825[edit]

FIAV historical.svg Fourth flag, created in 1825.

On February 25, 1825, during Simón Bolívar's administration, the Constituent Congress changed Cortés.[clarification needed]

Flags of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation era, 1836-1839[edit]

FIAV historical.svg Flag of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, 1836-9.
FIAV historical.svg Flag of the Republic of South Peru, 1836-9.

From 1836 to 1839, Peru was temporarily dissolved into the Republics of South Peru and North Peru, which joined Bolivia to form the Peru–Bolivian Confederation.

The South was formed first, thus adopting a new flag: a red vertical band on the left, with a golden sun and four small stars above (representing Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cuzco and Puno, the four Departments of the republic), and the right side divided into an upper green band and a lower white one. The North kept the currency and all symbols of the dissolved Peru, including its flag.

The flag of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation showed the coats of arms of Bolivia, South and North Peru, from left to right and slanted at different angles, on a red field, adorned by a laurel crown.

After the dissolution of the Confederation, the old Republic of Peru was restored to its 1836 composition, as were its national symbols.

Flag of 1950[edit]

In 1950, General Odría modified the national flag to its current form, removing the coat of arms from the civil flag, since it was used de facto, being easier to make. The national ensign and war flag were created for exclusive uses, each with a variant of the coat of arms, which was also changed slightly. These remain as the official flags today.

Similar flags[edit]

With some variation in the particular shade of red and the size proportions of the vertical bands, the design of the flag of Canada, adopted in 1965, is similar to that of Peru. The main difference between both flags, aside from the length of the bands, are the symbols which for Canada is the traditional maple leaf. Other similar flags include those whose colors are horizontal, such as the Austrian triband.

The Marcha de Banderas[edit]

The Marcha de Banderas (Spanish: March of Flags) is a military march sung during the flag raising. It was created in 1897 by SM Jose Salas Libornio who said President Nicolás de Piérola, he disagreed with the indiscriminate interpretation of the National Anthem at all official events that were derived from civic events. In December of that year was officially recognized to be executed in any official act.

Arriba, arriba, arriba el Perú
y su enseña gloriosa inmortal,
llevad en alto siempre
la bandera nacional.

Tal la llevaron con gloria y honor,
héroes peruanos de invencible ardor.
Arriba, arriba siempre la bandera nacional.

Es la bandera del Perú,
de blanco y rojo color,
cual llamarada de amor,
que en Ayacucho y en Junín
victoriosa amaneció con el
sol de la Libertad

Todo Peruano ha de sentir,
vibrar en su corazon
amor al patrio pendón,
y bajo sus pliegues luchar,
y si fuera menester
por sus lauros y honor morir

Long live, long live, long live Peru
and to its glorious immortal ensign
always carried aloft
is the national flag.

They carry it with glory and honor,
Peruvian heroes with invincible ardor.
Going up, up whenever, the national flag.

This is the flag of Peru,
of white and red in color,
as a flame of love,
in Ayacucho and Junín
it dawned victorious with the
Sun of Liberty

Every Peruvian has to feel
his heart vibrating,
for love for the fatherland's flag
and fight under its folds,
and if ever needed
by their laurels and honor, to die.

In all occasions today only 3 out of 4 verses of this flag anthem are sung instead.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán (1868). Historia del Perú independiente. pp. 75–. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  2. ^ Jorge Fernández Stoll. "Los orígenes de la bandera", Lima, Sociedad Bolivariana de Lima, 1953

External links[edit]