Flagstaff, Arizona

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Flagstaff, Arizona
City
City of Flagstaff
Downtown Flagstaff in 2000
Downtown Flagstaff in 2000
Official seal of Flagstaff, Arizona
Seal
Nickname(s): City of Seven Wonders, Dark Sky City
Motto: "Service at a Higher Elevation"
Location in Coconino County and the state of Arizona
Location in Coconino County and the state of Arizona
U.S. Census
U.S. Census
Coordinates: 35°11′57″N 111°37′52″W / 35.19917°N 111.63111°W / 35.19917; -111.63111Coordinates: 35°11′57″N 111°37′52″W / 35.19917°N 111.63111°W / 35.19917; -111.63111
Country  United States of America
State  Arizona
County  Coconino
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Body Flagstaff City Council
 • Mayor Jerry Nabours (R)
Area
 • City 165.4 km2 (63.9 sq mi)
 • Land 165.1 km2 (63.9 sq mi)
 • Water 0.09 km2 (0.03 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 2,106 m (6,910 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 65,870
 • Estimate (2013[3]) 68,667
 • Density 408.6/km2 (1,055.8/sq mi)
 • Metro 136,539 (US: 292th)
Demonym Flagstonian or Flagstaffian
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) no DST/PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 86001-86005-86004, 86011
Area code(s) 928
FIPS code 04-23620
GNIS ID(s) 28749, 29046
Major airport Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
Website www.Flagstaff.AZ.gov

Flagstaff (Navajo: Kinłání Dookʼoʼoosłííd Biyaagi, Havasupai: Wii Hagnbaj or Wii Baggwa[4]) is a city located in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States. In 2013, the city's estimated population was 68,667.[3] The combined metropolitan area of Flagstaff has an estimated population 136,539. It is the county seat of Coconino County.[5] The city is named after a Ponderosa Pine flagpole made by a scouting party from Boston (known as the "Second Boston Party") to celebrate the United States Centennial on July 4, 1876.[6]

Flagstaff lies near the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, along the western side of the largest contiguous Ponderosa Pine forest in the continental United States.[7] Flagstaff is located adjacent to Mount Elden, just south of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona. Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m), is located about 10 miles (16 km) north of Flagstaff in Kachina Peaks Wilderness.

Flagstaff's early economy was based on the lumber, railroad, and ranching industries. Today, the city remains an important distribution hub for companies such as Nestlé Purina PetCare and Walgreens, and is home to Lowell Observatory, The U.S. Naval Observatory, the United States Geological Survey Flagstaff Station, and Northern Arizona University. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Oak Creek Canyon, the Arizona Snowbowl, Meteor Crater, and historic Route 66. The city is also a center for medical device manufacturing, since Flagstaff is home to W. L. Gore and Associates.

History[edit]

Flagstaff ca. 1899; view of Post Office and other buildings on Terrace Street

In 1855, Lieutenant Edward Fitzgerald Beale surveyed a road from the Rio Grande in New Mexico to Fort Tejon in California, and camped near the current location of Flagstaff. The lieutenant had his men cut the limbs from a straight Ponderosa Pine tree in order to fly the United States flag.[8]

The first permanent settlement was in 1876, when Thomas F. McMillan built a cabin at the base of Mars Hill on the west side of town. During the 1880s, Flagstaff began to grow, opening its first post office and attracting the railroad industry. The early economy was based on timber, sheep, and cattle. By 1886, Flagstaff was the largest city on the railroad line between Albuquerque and the west coast of the United States.[8] A ca. 1900 diary entry by journalist Sharlot Hall described the houses in the city at the time as a "third rate mining camp", with unkempt air and high prices of available goods.[9]

In 1894, Massachusetts astronomer Percival Lowell hired A. E. Douglass to scout an ideal site for a new observatory. Douglass, impressed by Flagstaff's elevation, named it as an ideal location for the now famous Lowell Observatory, saying: "other things being equal, the higher we can get the better".[10] Two years later, the specially designed 24-inch (610 mm) Clark telescope that Lowell had ordered was installed. In 1930, Pluto was discovered using one of the observatory's telescopes. In 1955 the U.S. Naval Observatory joined the growing astronomical presence, and established the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, where Pluto's satellite, Charon, was discovered in 1978.[11]

During the Apollo program in the 1960s, the Clark Telescope was used to map the moon for the lunar expeditions, enabling the mission planners to choose a safe landing site for the lunar modules.[12] In homage to the city's importance in the field of astronomy, asteroid 2118 Flagstaff is named for the city, and 6582 Flagsymphony for the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra.

Northern Arizona University's Old Main building

The Northern Arizona Normal School was established in 1899, renamed Northern Arizona University in 1966.[8] Flagstaff's cultural history received a significant boost on April 11, 1899, when the Flagstaff Symphony made its concert debut at Babbitt's Opera House. The orchestra continues today as the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, with its primary venue at the Ardrey Auditorium on the campus of Northern Arizona University.[13]

The city grew rapidly, primarily attributable to its location along the east-west transcontinental railroad line in the United States. In the 1880s, the railroads purchased land in the west from the federal government, which was then sold to individuals to help finance the railroad projects.[14] By the 1890s, Flagstaff found itself located along one of the busiest railroad corridors in the U.S., with 80-100 trains travelling through the city every day, destined for Chicago, Los Angeles, and elsewhere.[15][16]

Old Coconino County Courthouse from Birch Avenue, June 2005

Route 66 was completed in 1926 and ran through Flagstaff. Flagstaff was incorporated as a city in 1928,[8] and in 1929, the city's first motel, the Motel Du Beau, was built at the intersection of Beaver Street and Phoenix Avenue. The Daily Sun described the motel as "a hotel with garages for the better class of motorists." The units originally rented for $2.60 to $5.00 each, with baths, toilets, double beds, carpets, and furniture.[17] Flagstaff went on to become a popular tourist stop along Route 66, particularly due to its proximity to the Grand Canyon.

Flagstaff grew and prospered through the 1960s. During the 1970s and 1980s, however, many businesses started to move from the city center, and the downtown area entered an economic and social decline. Sears and J.C. Penney left the downtown area in 1979 to open up as anchor stores in the new Flagstaff Mall, joined in 1986 by Dillard's. By 1987, the Babbitt Brothers Trading Company, which had been a retail fixture in Flagstaff since 1891, had closed its doors at Aspen Avenue and San Francisco Street.[18]

In 1987, the city drafted a new master plan, also known as the Growth Management Guide 2000, which would transform downtown Flagstaff from a shopping and trade center into a regional center for finance, office use, and government. The city built a new city hall, library, and the Coconino County Administrative Building in the downtown district, staking an investment by the local government for years to come. In 1992, the city hired a new manager, Dave Wilcox, who had previously worked at revitalizing the downtown areas of Beloit, Wisconsin and Missoula, Montana. During the 1990s, the downtown area underwent a revitalization, many of the city sidewalks were repaved with decorative brick facing, and a different mix of shops and restaurants opened up to take advantage of the area's historical appeal.[18]

On October 24, 2001, Flagstaff was recognized by the International Dark-Sky Association as the world's first "International Dark-Sky City."[19][19]

Geography[edit]

Flagstaff is located at 35°11′57″N 111°37′52″W / 35.19917°N 111.63111°W / 35.19917; -111.63111.[20] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 63.9 square miles (165.5 km2), of which only 0.03 square miles (0.08 km2) (0.08%) is water.

At 7,000 feet (2,130 m) elevation, located adjacent to the largest contiguous Ponderosa Pine forest in North America, Flagstaff is located on a mountain surrounded by volcanoes, in the heart of the Coconino national forest. Any type of desert climate can be found below its elevation 100 miles from Flagstaff.[21] The city is situated on the Rio de Flag, and is about 130 miles (210 km) north of Phoenix.

Cityscape[edit]

San Francisco Peaks from Flagstaff

Downtown Flagstaff lies immediately to the east of Mars Hill, the location of Lowell Observatory. Streets in the downtown area are laid out in a grid pattern, parallel to Route 66 and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Rail Line, running east-west through the city. Milton Road branches off from Route 66 west of downtown, and travels south, adjacent to the Northern Arizona University campus, to the junction of Interstate 17 and Interstate 40. Milton Road becomes I-17. A road called Beulah Boulevard, which also runs south, becomes State Route 89A, and travels through Oak Creek Canyon to Sedona. Traveling north from downtown, Fort Valley Road (U.S. 180) connects with the Museum of Northern Arizona, Arizona Snowbowl, and Grand Canyon National Park. Traveling east from downtown, Route 66 and the railroad run in parallel toward East Flagstaff (and beyond), at the base of Mount Elden. Much of Flagstaff's industry is located east of downtown, adjacent to the railroad tracks, as well as in East Flagstaff.

Several towns are located close to Flagstaff along Interstates 40 and 17. Approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) south are the small urban areas of Kachina Village (west of I-17) and Mountainaire (east of I-17; 2 miles (3.2 km)). About 35 miles (56 km) to the west is Williams, 20 miles (32 km) to the south is Munds Park, and 30 miles (48 km) to the south on Arizona Highway 89A is Sedona. 15 miles (24 km) to the east of Flagstaff is the town of Winona, mentioned in the famous song, Route 66.

Climate[edit]

View of Flagstaff from Mars Hill

Flagstaff has a rather dry semi-continental climate (Köppen Dsb/Csb).[22] Flagstaff has five distinct seasons: a cold and snowy winter, with extended dry periods punctuated with deep snows about once every 3-4 weeks; a dry and windy spring with occasional snows; a very dry and hot early summer from May to early July; a wet and humid monsoon season from July to early September; and a dry and pleasant fall which lasts until the first snows in November.

The combination of high elevation and low humidity provide mild weather conditions throughout most of the year. The predominantly clear air and high elevation radiates daytime heating effectively resulting in overnight temperatures generally much lower than the daytime temperature. This means a 55 degree day in January can drop to 15 at night. Winter nights in fact can be very cold, with temperatures sometimes dropping far below zero.[23]

Winter weather patterns in Flagstaff are cyclonic and frontal in nature, originating in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These deliver periodic, widespread snowfall followed by extended periods of fair weather. The area's generally stable weather pattern is broken by brief, but often intense, afternoon downpours and dramatic thunderstorms common during the monsoon of July and August. Summer temperatures are moderate and high temperatures average around 82 °F (27.8 °C).[8] Extreme temperatures range from −30 °F (−34 °C) on January 22, 1937, and up to 97 °F (36 °C) on July 5, 1973, respectively.[24] The weather in Flagstaff is generally sunny. In fact Flagstaff gets more sunshine than snow cities such as New York City, Chicago, Boston and Denver. Flagstaff is the only city in Arizona to have never reported temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher.[24]

The annual snowfall averages 100.3 inches (255 cm), placing Flagstaff among the snowiest incorporated cities in the United States.[25] Overall, the city features an average of 276 days without measurable precipitation each year. Despite snow storms often being spread weeks apart, snow often covers the ground for weeks after major winter storms due to the low night temperatures refreezing the snowpack, even when daytime temperatures are above freezing. However, due to the infrequent and scattered nature of the snowstorms, persistent snow pack into spring is rare.[8] One notable exception occurred during the severe winter of 1915–16, when successive Pacific storms buried the city under over 70 inches (178 cm) of snow, and some residents were snowbound in their homes for several days.[26]


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 964
1900 1,271 31.8%
1910 1,633 28.5%
1920 3,186 95.1%
1930 3,891 22.1%
1940 5,080 30.6%
1950 7,663 50.8%
1960 18,214 137.7%
1970 26,117 43.4%
1980 34,743 33.0%
1990 45,857 32.0%
2000 52,894 15.3%
2010 65,870 24.5%
Est. 2013 68,667 4.2%
Source:[30]
U.S. Decennial Census[31]
2013 Estimate[3]

According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 65,870.[32] The population density was 831.9 people per square mile (321.2/km²). There were 26,254 housing units at an average density of 336.5 per square mile (129.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 73.4% White, 1.9% Black or African American, 11.7% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 7.3% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. 18.4% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. The city's African American population is considerably lower than the U.S. average (1.9% versus 12.6%), while the Native American population is markedly higher (11.7% vs. 0.9%). This is primarily attributable to the city's proximity to several Native American reservations, including the Navajo, Hopi, Havasupai, and Yavapai. Flagstaff's Native American community is chiefly Navajo, and there are about 5,500 people of Navajo ancestry living in the city.[33]

As of 2000, there were 19,306 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.9% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.13.

The age distribution was 24.3% under the age of 18, 21.7% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 5.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,146, and the median income for a family was $48,427. Males had a median income of $31,973 versus $24,591 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,637. About 10.6% of families and 17.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

As a college town, Flagstaff's population is considerably more educated than the U.S. average. 89.8% of the population has a high school diploma or higher, while the national average is 80.4%. 39.4% of the population has a Bachelor's degree or higher, compared to the national average of 24.4%.

Crime[edit]

For 2012, the FBI's Uniform Crime Report indicated for Flagstaff a rate of 262 cases of violent crime per 100,000 population and 2,834 cases of property crime per 100,000 population.[34]

A 1988 Arizona state law made it a crime to be “present in a public place to beg.” The Flagstaff Police Department and City Attorney aggressively enforced this law, which resulted in a First Amendment lawsuit filed on June 25, 2013. The American Civil Liberties Union filed the lawsuit on behalf of Food Not Bombs, in addition to three people who were arrested, threatened with arrest, or feared being arrested for “loitering to beg.”[35] On October 4, 2013, U.S. District Court Judge Neil Wake overturned the law.[36]

Economy[edit]

BNSF train travels through downtown Flagstaff. The rail and freight industry has long been a part of the city's economy.

In its early days, the city's economic base comprised the lumber, railroad, and ranching industries. Today, that has largely been replaced by tourism, education, government, and transportation. Some of the larger employers in Flagstaff are Northern Arizona University, the Flagstaff Medical Center, and the Flagstaff Unified School District. Tourism is a large contributor to the economy, as the city receives over 5 million visitors per year.[8]

Scientific and high tech research and development operations are located in the city, including the Lowell Observatory, Northern Arizona University, the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) and the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff campus. Lowell Observatory continues to be an active astronomical observatory and a popular visitors center which hosts educational displays and tours. It has a distributed network of small telescopes which together create images of celestial bodies with much higher resolutions than any other single telescope can produce. Current research is involved in observations of near-Earth phenomena such as asteroids and comets. The observatory is also involved in a $30 million project with the Discovery Channel to build the Discovery Channel Telescope, a sophisticated, ground-based telescope with advanced optical capabilities for future projects.[37] Lowell Observatory and NOFS are also collaborators on the major project, the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer, on nearby Anderson Mesa. NOFS is heavily involved with the science of star catalogs and astrometry, or the positions and distances of stars and celestial objects.

Purina PetCare building in Flagstaff

There are five industrial parks in the city, situated near I-40 and I-17. Major manufacturers in Flagstaff include W.L. Gore & Associates, widely known as the maker of Gore-Tex; Nestlé Purina PetCare, manufacturer of pet food; SCA Tissue, a major tissue paper producer; and Joy Cone, manufacturer of ice cream cones. Walgreens also operates a distribution center in the city.[8]

With proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, the city also has a thriving travel and tourism industry, with numerous hotel and restaurant chains. The downtown area is home to two historic hotels, the Weatherford Hotel and the Hotel Monte Vista. The first hotel of the Ramada Inn chain opened in 1954 at the intersection of U.S. Route 66, 89 and 89A adjacent to what was then Arizona State College (now Northern Arizona University). The original building is still intact, operating as a Super 8 Motel.[38]

Arts and culture[edit]

The Orpheum Theater in downtown Flagstaff features a wide variety of concerts and other performances.

Flagstaff has an active cultural scene. The city is home to the Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra, which plays concerts from September through April at Ardrey Auditorium on the NAU campus.[13] The city also attracts folk and contemporary acoustic musicians, and offers several annual music festivals during the summer months, such as the Flagstaff Friends of Traditional Music Festival, the Flagstaff Music Festival, and Pickin' in the Pines, a three-day bluegrass and acoustic music festival held at the Pine Mountain Amphitheater at Fort Tuthill Fairgrounds.[39][40][41] Popular bands play throughout the year at the Orpheum Theater, and free concerts are held during the summer months at Heritage Square.[42]

Flagstaff is home to an active theater scene, featuring several groups. Northern Arizona University Department of Theatre is an active and successful theatre program that produces quality productions for the community as well as the campus. The department has won many prestigious awards including multiple invitations to the Kennedy Center American College Theatre Festival. NAU Theatre performs in two facilities including the Clifford E. White Theatre (named for long-time Theatre professor Clifford E. White) and the Studio Theatre. Both facilities are housed in the Fine and Performing Arts Building on campus.The season includes 4 mainstage and numerous second stage productions and a summer collaboration with Theatrikos Theatre Company. Theatrikos Theatre Company, the community theater company, was founded in 1972 in the basement of the Weatherford Hotel, and today puts on five major productions per year. The group recently moved into a new venue in 2002, the Doris-Harper White Community Playhouse, a downtown building which was built in 1923 as an Elks Lodge and later became the Flagstaff library.[43] Since 1995, the Flagstaff Light Opera Company has performed a variety of musical theatre and light opera productions throughout the year at the Sinagua High School auditorium.[44] There are several dance companies in Flagstaff, including Coconino Community College Dance Program, Northern Arizona Preparatory Company and Canyon Movement, which present periodic concerts and collaborate with the Flagstaff Symphony for free concerts during the summer and holiday seasons.[45]

A variety of weekend festivals occur throughout the year. The annual Northern Arizona Book Festival, held in the spring, brings together nationally known authors to read and display their works.[46] The Flagstaff Mountain Film Festival is held every October, and features a variety of independent films and documentaries focusing on extreme sports, environmental issues, and global topics. The festival is four days long and consists of several sessions of films. The screenings are held at the Orpheum Theater in the historic downtown area.[47] The summer months feature several festivals, including Hopi and Navajo Festivals of Arts and Crafts, the Arizona Highland Celtic Festival, Pride in the Pines,[48] and the Made in the Shade Beer Tasting Festival.[49] For more than 20 years Flagstaff has hosted the 10 day Flagstaff Festival of Science in September. It is a family event which features open houses, lectures, informal talks, and hands-on activities at area museums, observatories, other scientific facilities, and the university. In-school programs also are an important part of the festival. The festival begins with the annual Eugene Shoemaker keynote address. Guest speakers have included famous astronauts, arctic explorers, storm chasers, and scientists from many disciplines. The Coconino County Fair is held every September at the Fort Tuthill County Fairgrounds, featuring a demolition derby, livestock auction, carnival rides, and other activities.[50]

On New Year's Eve, people gather around the Weatherford Hotel as a 70-pound, 6-foot (1.8 m) tall, metallic pine cone is dropped from the roof at midnight. The tradition originated in 1999, when Henry Taylor and Sam Green (owners of the Weatherford Hotel), decorated a garbage can with paint, lights, and pine cones, and dropped it from the roof of their building to mark the new millennium. By 2003 the event had become tradition, and the current metallic pine cone was designed and built by Frank Mayorga of Mayorga Welding in Flagstaff.[51]

The Museum of Northern Arizona includes displays of the biology, archeology, photography, anthropology, and native art of the Colorado Plateau. The Arboretum at Flagstaff is a 200-acre (81 ha) arboretum featuring 2,500 species of drought-tolerant native plants representative of the high-desert region.[52][53]

Route 66, which originally ran between Chicago and Los Angeles, greatly increased the accessibility to the area, and enhanced the culture and tourism in Flagstaff.[54] Route 66 remains a historic route, passing through the city between Barstow, California, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. In early September, the city hosts an annual event, Route 66 Days, to highlight its connection to the famous highway.[55]

Sports[edit]

Northern Arizona University's Walkup Skydome, home to Lumberjack Football, Basketball, and other collegiate sports

There are no major-league professional sports teams based in Flagstaff. However, from 1988 to 2012 (with the exception of the 2005 season, due to an outbreak of a flu-like virus), the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League held their summer training camp at Northern Arizona University [56] The NAU training camp location has been cited as one of the top five training camps in the NFL by Sports Illustrated.[57]

Northern Arizona University sponsors 15 sports at the Division I level, including a football team that competes at the Division I Football Championship Series level. All sports are members of the Big Sky Conference with the exception of the Women's Swimming & Diving team, which competes in the Western Athletic Conference. The Men's Cross Country team has featured four straight top ten finishes at the NCAA Division I Cross Country championships, which are held each year in Terre Haute, Indiana. The track and field team is home to several All-Americans including NCAA Champion/Olympian Lopez Lomong, two time NCAA Champion David McNeill and current All-American/future 2012 Olympian Diego Estrada.

Parks and outdoor recreation[edit]

Scenic Oak Creek Canyon is a short drive from Flagstaff, on the road to Sedona.

Flagstaff has acquired a reputation as a magnet for outdoor enthusiasts, and the region's varied terrain, high elevation, and amenable weather attract campers, backpackers, climbers, recreation and elite runners, and mountain bikers from throughout the southwestern United States. There are 679.2 acres (274.9 ha) of city parks in Flagstaff, the largest of which are Thorpe Park and Buffalo Park. Wheeler Park, located adjacent to city hall, is the location of summer concerts and other events.[58] The city maintains an extensive network of trails, the Flagstaff Urban Trails System, or "FUTS" includes more than 50 miles of paved and unpaved trails for hiking, running, and cycling. The trail network extends throughout the city and is widely used for both recreation and transportation.[59]

The area is a recreational hub for road cycling and mountain biking clubs, organized triathlon events, and annual cross country ski races. Several major river running operators are headquartered in Flagstaff, and the city serves as a base for Grand Canyon and Colorado River expeditions.[60]

Flagstaff's proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, about 75 miles (121 km) north of the city, has made it a popular tourist destination since the mid-19th century. Other nearby outdoor attractions include Walnut Canyon National Monument, Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Wupatki National Monument, and Barringer Crater. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Lake Powell are both about 135 mi (217 km) north along U.S. Route 89.

Government[edit]

Flagstaff City Hall, bounded by Route 66, Humphreys Street, Aspen Avenue and Sitgreaves Avenue

The city government is organized under a council-manager form of government.[61] The current mayor of Flagstaff is Jerry Nabours, who was elected in May 2012, and the current town council consists of the mayor and six councilmembers: Celia Barotz (vice mayor), Karla Brewster, Coral Evans, Jeff Oravits, Scott Overton and Mark Woodson.[62] The city's current city manager is Kevin Burke.[63] Regular meetings of the city council are held on the first and third Tuesday of every month.[64]

Flagstaff is the county seat of Coconino County.

Education[edit]

There are 19 public schools, with 11,500 students and 800 faculty and staff, in the Flagstaff Unified School District. In 1997, Mount Elden Middle School was named an A+ School, citing an outstanding school climate, progressive use of technology and zero-tolerance approach to discipline. The 1999 National Science Teacher of the Year, David Thompson, teaches physics at Coconino High School.[65] Three Arizona Teachers of the Year from 2001 through 2003 teach at Flagstaff High School.[66]

In addition to the numerous public schools, there are several charter schools operating in the Flagstaff area including Flagstaff Junior Academy, Northland Preparatory Academy (ranked #52 in USA News's America's Top 100 Best High Schools), the Flagstaff Arts and Leadership Academy, Pine Forest Charter School, BASIS Flagstaff and the Montessori Schools of Flagstaff.

Flagstaff is home to two institutions of higher education, Northern Arizona University (one of the three public state universities in Arizona) and Coconino Community College.

Infrastructure[edit]

Former Santa Fe depot, now Amtrak station, located on Route 66 near downtown

Transportation[edit]

Flagstaff is at the northern terminus of Interstate 17, which runs 145 miles (233 km) south to Phoenix. Interstate 40 runs east-west through the city, traveling to Barstow, California in the west and Albuquerque, New Mexico (and beyond) in the east. Historic Route 66 also runs east-west through the city, roughly parallel to I-40, and is a major thoroughfare for local traffic. Butler Avenue connects I-40 with downtown Flagstaff, and the major north-south thoroughfare through town is Milton Road. State Route 89A travels through the city (concurrently as parts of Milton Rd. and Route 66), going south through Oak Creek Canyon to Sedona.

The major rail corridor running through Flagstaff is the Southern Transcon, originally built by the Santa Fe Railway and now owned and operated by the BNSF Railway. Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak at the downtown station, connecting on east-west routes to Los Angeles and Albuquerque via the Southwest Chief line.[67] Amtrak also provides connecting Thruway Motorcoach service via Open Road Tours, which has an office inside the Flagstaff depot.[68] Local bus service is provided throughout the city by the Mountain Line. Air travel is available through Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLGICAO: KFLGFAA LID: FLG), located just south of the city. The airport is primarily a small, general aviation airport with a single 6,999 feet (2,133 m) runway. The airport finished a major expansion project to add 1,800 feet (550 m) to the north end of the current runway and lengthen the taxiway in 2007. The primary purpose of the project was to increase its viability for commercial and regional jets.[69] Service to connecting flights at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHXICAO: KPHXFAA LID: PHX) is provided by US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines.[69]

Flagstaff is fairly bike-friendly; there are bike lanes on many major streets,[70] and the Flagstaff Urban Trails System (FUTS) includes more than 50 miles of off-street trails that wind throughout the community.[71] In 2006 Flagstaff was designated a Bicycle-Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists.[72] About nine percent of trips in Flagstaff are made by bicycle.[70]

Utilities[edit]

Electricity generation in Flagstaff is provided by Arizona Public Service, an electric utility subsidiary operated by parent company Pinnacle West. The primary generating station near Flagstaff is the coal-fired, 995-MW Cholla Power Plant, near Holbrook, Arizona, which uses coal from the McKinley Mine in New Mexico. Located near Page, Arizona is the coal-fired, 750-MW Navajo Power Plant, supplied by an electric railroad that delivers coal from a mine on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in northern Arizona.[73] Flagstaff is also home to Arizona's first commercial solar power generating station, which was built in 1997 and provides 87 kW of electricity. Combined with 16 other solar power locations in Arizona, the system provides over 5 MW of electricity statewide.[74]

Drinking water in Flagstaff is produced from conventional surface water treatment at the Lake Mary Water Treatment Plant, located on Upper Lake Mary, as well as from springs at the inner basin of the San Francisco Peaks. Groundwater from several water wells located throughout the city and surrounding area provide additional sources of drinking water.[75]

Health care[edit]

The city's primary hospital is the 270–bed Flagstaff Medical Center, located on the north side of downtown Flagstaff. The hospital was founded in 1936, and serves as the major regional trauma center for northern Arizona.

Media and popular culture[edit]

The Route 66 sign until the 1940s

The major daily newspaper in Flagstaff is the Arizona Daily Sun. Northern Arizona University's weekly newspaper The Lumberjack and "FLAGscanner" an online only publication, also cover Flagstaff news, while the other publications that serve the city include weeklies Flagstaff Live and the Navajo Hopi Observer, and monthlies Mountain Living Magazine and The Noise.

Several radio stations operate in the area, some of which operate translators in Prescott as well.

Flagstaff is included in the Phoenix Designated market area (DMA), the 13th largest in the U.S.[76] Over-the-air television service is provided mostly by low-powered repeaters of the Phoenix stations.[77] There is one local broadcast television station serving the city, KFPH-13 (TeleFutura).

In the early 20th century, the city was considered as a site for the film The Squaw Man by Jesse Lasky and Cecil B. DeMille, but was abandoned in favor of Hollywood.[78] Several recent movies have been filmed, at least in part, in Flagstaff. A small scene in Midnight Run was filmed in Flagstaff at the train depot, the city was also referenced in the film. Several of the running scenes in Forrest Gump were filmed in and around the area, including a memorable scene where Forrest is seen jogging in downtown Flagstaff and gives inspiration to a bumper sticker designer ("Shit happens"). Parts of 2007 Academy Award winner Little Miss Sunshine were filmed at the junction of I-40 and I-17 in Flagstaff, and Terminal Velocity was partially filmed in the city.[79]

During the 1940s and 1950s, over 100 western movies were filmed in nearby Sedona and Oak Creek Canyon. The Hotel Monte Vista in Flagstaff hosted many film stars during this era, including Jane Russell, Gary Cooper, Spencer Tracy, John Wayne, and Bing Crosby. A scene from the movie Casablanca was filmed in one of the rooms of the hotel.[80] Scenes from downtown Flagstaff and the Santa Fe railroad freight depot are seen in the 1969 movie "Easy Rider" during the opening credits [2] starring Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper (Director) and Jack Nicholson.

The city has been mentioned in several novels, such as The Monkey Wrench Gang by Edward Abbey, depicting an encounter with a Flagstaff policeman. Frank Poole discusses his childhood growing up in Flagstaff in Arthur C. Clarke's novel 3001: The Final Odyssey.[81][82]

In 2005, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition built a home just outside of Flagstaff for slain soldier Lori Piestewa's two children and parents. Grizzly Peak Films also filmed Sasquatch Mountain, a feature-length film for the Science Fiction Channel about a Yeti, in Flagstaff and nearby Williams.[83] In December 2007, talk show hostess Ellen DeGeneres selected Flagstaff as the winner of her show's, "Wish You Were Here", contest.[84]

In the post-apocalyptic video game Fallout: New Vegas, Flagstaff is the capital of Caesar's Legion. In the comic series Halo: Escalation, it is noted that Flagstaff and Phoenix agreed to become one city, as the populations and boundaries of both cities grew to intersect. The new city became known as "New Phoenix". New Phoenix's population became "composed" by the Forerunner known as the "Didact" in Halo 4.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Flagstaff has four sister cities:[85]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official records for Flagstaff were kept at the Weather Bureau in downtown from 8 September 1898 to 11 January 1950, and at Pulliam Airport since 12 January 1950. For more information, see ThreadEx

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Feature Detail Report for: Flagstaff". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. 
  2. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  3. ^ a b c "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  4. ^ Hinton, Leanne (1984). A dictionary of the Havasupai language. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=33365
  7. ^ "Biotic Communities of the Colorado Plateau." Northern Arizona University. Retrieved on March 2, 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h "Flagstaff Community Profile." Official City Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  9. ^ Sharlot Hall's diary, quoted in the Plateau Journal of the Museum of Northern Arizona, v. 5 No. 1, 1991, p. 13
  10. ^ P. Lowell to A. E. Douglass, April 16, 1894, Lowell Observatory Archives.
  11. ^ Ferguson, Joe (September 28, 2009). "Ever wonder who makes your GPS work?". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  12. ^ Putnam, William Lowell. "The explorers of Mars Hill : a centennial history of Lowell Observatory, 1894-1994." West Kennebunk, Me. : Published for Lowell Observatory by Phoenix Pub., c1994.
  13. ^ a b "History of the FSO." Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  14. ^ Paradis, Thomas Wayne. "Theme Town: A Geography of Landscape and Community in Flagstaff, Arizona." Backinprint.com (February 2003). pp. 65–67.
  15. ^ Paradis, pp. 96–97.
  16. ^ Thomas W. Paradis, "From Downtown to Theme Town: Reinventing America's Smaller Historic Retail Districts", pp. 57-74 in The Themed Space: Locating Culture, Nation, and Self, ed. Scott A. Lukas (Lanham, Maryland, Lexington Books, 2007), ISBN 0-7391-2142-1
  17. ^ Paradis, pp. 244–245.
  18. ^ a b Paradis, pp. 161–167.
  19. ^ a b "Flagstaff is the world's first "International Dark-Sky City".". flagstaffdarkskies.org. May 2, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  20. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  21. ^ "Flagstaff: The destination for all seasons.". www.flagstaffarizona.org. Retrieved October 8, 2009. 
  22. ^ Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Authors Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L., and McMahon, T.A. Published by European Geosciences Union. Note that the American winter isotherm (0 °C), not the international standard (-3 °C), is used.
  23. ^ "Compare Averages and Records (Flagstaff, Phoenix)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved July 31, 2009. 
  24. ^ a b "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  25. ^ "Snowfall — Average Total In Inches". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 28, 2011. [dead link]
  26. ^ "Arizona’s Most Notable Storms." National Weather Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  27. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 1, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Station Name: AZ FLAGSTAFF PULLIAM AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  29. ^ "NOAA". NOAA. 
  30. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850-1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 11.
  31. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Flagstaff (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  33. ^ American Factfinder, U.S. Census Bureau
  34. ^ "FBI Uniform Crime Report." Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2012. Retrieved on June 18, 2014.
  35. ^ Tim Phillips, "Food Not Bombs Files First Amendment Lawsuit Against City of Flagstaff, Arizona", Activist Defense, June 26, 2013.
  36. ^ Tim Phillips, "Food Not Bombs Wins First Amendment Lawsuit Against City of Flagstaff, Arizona", Activist Defense, October 5, 2013.
  37. ^ Wotkyns, Steele. "Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications, Inc., Announce Partnership to Build Innovative Telescope Technology." Lowell Observatory. October 15, 2003. Retrieved on February 22, 2007. Archived April 16, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ McDonough, Brian. "Building Type Basics for Hospitality Facilities." 2001. John Wiley and Sons, p. 11. ISBN 0-471-36944-6
  39. ^ "Flagstaff Friends of Traditional Music (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  40. ^ "Flagstaff Music Festival (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  41. ^ "Pickin' in the Pines - Bluegrass and Acoustic Music Festival (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  42. ^ "Thursdays on the Square (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  43. ^ "Theatrikos: A Brief History." theatrikos.com. Retrieved on July 18, 2007. Archived October 9, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ "Flagstaff Light Opera Company (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  45. ^ "Canyon Movement Company (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  46. ^ Northern Arizona Book Festival Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  47. ^ "Four Spectacular Days of Films (website)." Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  48. ^ "History". Northern Arizona Pride. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  49. ^ "Made in the Shade Beer Tasting Festival". azbeer.com. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  50. ^ Miller, Cindy. "Summer's worth of festival fun." Arizona Republic. June 18, 2006. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  51. ^ Craven, Scott. "Dec. 31: New Year's Eve Block Party and Pinecone Drop." Arizona Republic. December 28, 2006. Retrieved on July 19, 2007.
  52. ^ "Museum of Northern Arizona (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
  53. ^ "The Arboretum at Flagstaff (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
  54. ^ "Route 66 in the Flagstaff Area." theroadwnaderer.net. 2003. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  55. ^ "Flagstaff Route 66 Days (website)." Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
  56. ^ Staff Writer. "Cardinals arriving for training camp." Northern Arizona University. July 26, 2006. Retrieved on November 26, 2006.
  57. ^ King, Peter. "My top five training camps: Places to get up close and personal with NFL players." Sports Illustrated. July 6, 2005. Retrieved on November 26, 2006.
  58. ^ "City Parks." City of Flagstaff Website. Retrieved on July 14, 2007.
  59. ^ "Flagstaff Urban Trails System." City of Flagstaff Website. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
  60. ^ Staff Writer. "What to Do in Flagstaff." flagstaff.com. May 10, 2007. Retrieved on May 10, 2007.
  61. ^ "Council-Manager Charter for the City of Flagstaff, Arizona." City Government Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  62. ^ "[1]." City Government Website. Retrieved on July 2, 2008. Archived May 26, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ "Administration Directory." City Government Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  64. ^ "City Council Meetings." City Government Website. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  65. ^ "District Information." Flagstaff Unified School District. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  66. ^ "Past Teachers of the Year and Ambassadors." Arizona Education Foundation. Retrieved on April 11, 2007. Archived May 28, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ "Flagstaff, AZ (FLG)." Amtrak. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  68. ^ "Flagstaff - Greyhound Station, AZ (FGG)." Amtrak. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  69. ^ a b "Flagstaff Pulliam Airport." City Government Website. Retrieved on April 11, 2007. Archived April 5, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ a b "City of Flagstaff Official Website — Bicycle Program". Flagstaff.az.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  71. ^ "City of Flagstaff Official Website — Flagstaff Urban Trails System (FUTS)". Flagstaff.az.gov. 2011-07-31. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  72. ^ "League of American Bicyclists * Bicycle Friendly Community Campaign". Bikeleague.org. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  73. ^ "About APS: Power Plants." Arizona Public Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  74. ^ "About APS: APS Solar Power Plants." Arizona Public Service. Retrieved on July 18, 2007. Archived July 17, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^ "Drinking Water." City of Flagstaff. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  76. ^ Holmes, Gary. "Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006-2007 Season." Nielsen Media Research. August 23, 2006. Retrieved on April 11, 2007.
  77. ^ Faber, Daniel M. "Television and FM Translators: A History of Their Use and Regulation." 1993. danielfaber.com. Retrieved on April 11, 2007
  78. ^ Mangum, Richard & Sherry (2003). Flagstaff Past & Present. Northland Publishing. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-87358-847-9. 
  79. ^ Moody, Annemarie. "Arizona in autofocus: Movies put state on road map." Arizona Republic. November 7, 2006. Retrieved on February 27, 2007.
  80. ^ "Legends of the High Desert: Haunted Monte Vista Hotel in Flagstaff." Legends of America. May 2005. Retrieved on February 27, 2007.
  81. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (September 1, 2000). 2001: A Space Odyssey. Roc; Ex-Library edition. p. 296. ISBN 0-451-45799-4. 
  82. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (January 28, 1998). 3001: The Final Odyssey. Del Rey. p. 288. ISBN 0-345-42349-6. 
  83. ^ Staff Writer. "Flagstaff economy held steady in 2005." Arizona Republic. December 28, 2005. Retrieved on February 22, 2007.
  84. ^ Parra, Jerome. "Ellen DeGeneres coming to Flagstaff." Arizona Republic. December 3, 2007. Retrieved on December 12, 2007.
  85. ^ Sister cities in Arizona

External links[edit]