Flipped classroom

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Flipped classroom is an instructional methodology and a type of blended learning that delivers instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom and moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom model, students watch online lectures, collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of the instructor.[1]


Traditional vs flipped teaching[edit]

In the traditional model of classroom instruction, the teacher is typically the central focus of a lesson and the primary disseminator of information during the class period. The teacher responds to questions while students defer directly to the teacher for guidance and feedback. In a classroom with a radically traditional style of instruction, individual lessons may be didactic and entirely content oriented. Pedagogical methods, however, evolve and in some traditional classrooms the instructional flow involves teacher-driven lessons where content is conveyed after which students work independently or in small groups on an application task or activity. Class discussions are typically centered on the teacher who controls the flow of the conversation.[2] Typically, this pattern of teaching also involves giving students the task of reading from a textbook or practicing a concept by working on a problem set, for example, outside school.[3]


In contrast to the traditional teacher-centered model of classroom learning, the flipped classroom intentionally shifts instruction to a learner-centered model in which class time is dedicated to exploring topics in greater depth and creating meaningful learning opportunities, while educational technology such as online videos are employed to deliver content outside of the classroom. In a flipped classroom content delivery may take a variety of forms. Often times video lessons prepared by the teacher or third parties are used as a content delivery mechanism, though online collaborative discussions, digital research, or text readings may be utilized as well. [4] [5] [6]


Just as the content delivery in a flipped classroom takes diversified forms at home, so too do the in-class activities. In-class lessons accompanying flipped classroom may include activity learning or more traditional homework problems, among other practices, to engage students in the content. In the flipped classroom, in-class activities vary by instructor and subject but may include: using math manipulatives and emerging mathematical technologies, in-depth laboratory experiments, original document analysis, debate or speech presentation, current event discussions, peer reviewing, project-based learning, and skill development or concept practice [7] [8] These types of active learning allow for highly differentiated instruction [9] and more time can be spent in class on the upper end of Bloom's taxonomy as students tackle difficult problems, work in groups, research, and construct knowledge with the help of their teacher and peers [10]


As a result a teacher's interaction with students in a flipped classroom is more personalized and less didactic and students are actively involved in knowledge acquisition and construction as they participate in and evaluate their learning.[11][12][13]

History[edit]

In the early 1990s, Harvard professor Eric Mazur began the development of an instructional strategy he called peer instruction. He published a book in 1997 outlining the strategy entitled, Peer Instruction: A User's Manual. He found that his approach which moved information transfer out of the classroom and information assimilation into the classroom allowed him to coach students in their learning instead of lecture. [14] [15]

In 1993, Alison King published "From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side"[17] In the article, King focuses on the importance of the use of class time for the construction of meaning rather than information transmission. While not directly illustrating the concept of "flipping" a classroom, King's work is often cited as an impetus for an inversion to allow for the educational space for active learning. [16]

In 2000 Lage, Platt and Treglia published the paper "Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment".[16] In their research focusing on two college economics courses, Lage, Platt, and Treglia assert that one can leverage the class time that becomes available from the inversion of the classroom (moving information presentation via lecture out of the classroom to media such as computers or VCRs) to meet the needs of students with a wide variety of learning styles. [17]

J. Wesley Baker (2000) presented "The classroom flip: using web course management tools to become the guide by the side" at the 11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. Baker's article advocates for the use of online programs to present instructional material online as homework, while allowing students to spend class time engaging in active learning activities and collaboration with peers. [18]

Starting in fall 2000, the University of Wisconsin-Madison used eTeach software to replace lectures in large lecture-based computer science course with streaming video of the lecturer and coordinated slides.[19] This platform made it possible to use the live class periods for group problem-solving activities moderated by course instructors. [19]

In 2004, Salman Khan began recording videos at the request a younger cousin he was tutoring because she felt that recorded lessons would let her skip segments she had mastered and replay parts that were troubling her. [20] [21] Salman Kahn founded Kahn Academy where free online videos in this style continue to be added in a variety of subjects. Khan's TED Talk in Feb 2011 and his book "The one world schoolhouse: Education reimagined" (2012) [22] brought the concept to the broader public, and Khan Academy videos are now used as part of some educators' flipped teaching strategy. For some, Kahn Academy has become synonymous with the flipped classroom, however, these videos are only one form of the flipped classroom strategy. [23]

In 2007, Jeremy Strayer published his dissertation research conducted at The Ohio State University entitled "The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: a comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system." Strayer (2012) states that "students in the inverted classroom were less satisfied with how the classroom structure oriented them to the learning tasks in the course, but they became more open to cooperative learning and innovative teaching methods." These studies highlight the importance of attending to the ways the coordination of out-of-class and in-class activities can positively and negatively influence how students engage in course tasks. [24] [25]

In 2007, Woodland Park High School chemistry teachers Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams became driving forces in flipped teaching at the high school level after recording their lectures and posting them online in order to accommodate students who missed their classes. Bergmann and Sams note that one person cannot be credited with having invented the inverted or flipped classroom. Furthermore they assert that there is no one 'right' way to flip a classroom as approaches and teaching styles are diverse, as are needs of schools. [26]

In 2011, two centers at Wisconsin Collaboratory for Enhanced Learning were built to focus on flipped and blended learning. The classroom structure houses technology and collaboration-friendly learning spaces, and emphasis for those involved in the program is placed on individualized learning through non-traditional teaching strategies such as flipped classroom. [27]

Clintondale High School[edit]

In 2011 Michigan's Clintondale High School flipped every class. Principal Greg Green had been posting YouTube videos on baseball techniques for his son’s team. He then worked with social studies teacher, Andy Scheel, to run two classes with identical material and assignments, one flipped and one conventional. The flipped class had many students who had already failed the class — some multiple times. After 20 weeks flipped students were outperforming traditional students. No flipped student class scored lower than a C+. The previous semester 13 percent had failed. The traditional classroom showed no change.[28]

Clintondale had been designated as among the state's worst 5 percent. In 2010 more than half of ninth graders had failed science, and almost half had failed math. That year, the 9th grade flipped. The English failure rate dropped from 52 percent to 19 percent; in math, from 44 percent to 13 percent; in science, from 41 percent to 19 percent; and in social studies, from 28 percent to 9 percent. After 2011 the now-flipped school's failure rate dropped from 30 to 10 percent. Graduation rates soared above 90 percent. College attendance went from 63 percent in 2010 to 80 percent in 2012. Results on standardized tests went up in 2012 and then dropped, although complicated by student body changes.[28]

Teachers found that shorter videos (3–6 minutes) were the most effective. The school uses audio files, readings and videos from the Khan Academy, TED and other sources. Students favored the changes. Students unable to watch the videos at home watch the videos in school.[28]

Flipped mastery[edit]

Traditionally, each topic in class receives a fixed amount of time for all students. Students who do not master the material get no extra time. Mastery learning upends this approach, by requiring each student to master the topic before moving to the next one. Flipped mastery learning applies the mastery concept to flipped classrooms.[29]

Mastery learning was briefly popular in the 1920s, and was revived by Benjamin Bloom in 1968. It has shown dramatic success.[30][31] The teacher provides materials, tools and support. Students set goals and manage their time.[29]

Mastery rewards students for displaying competence. Students who initially turn in shoddy work must correct it before moving on. Before flipping, mastery learning was impractical in most schools. It was not possible to give different lectures for different groups of students. Testing was also impractical, because fast-learning students could reveal the test to those who followed.[29]

In a flipped mastery classroom, students view each lecture and work on each exercise or project when they have mastered the precursors. As of 2013 only a few teachers had blended flipping and mastery.[32]

Tim Kelly, winner of the Presidential Award for Mathematics and Science Teaching, adopted flipped mastery with his colleagues Corey Sullivan and Mike Brust. Sullivan estimated that 40 to 60 hours of work outside school for each of 12 units per course were required the first year. Another Presidential Award winner, Spencer Bean, converted after his daughter went through Kelly’s class.[29]

Flipped mastery eliminates two other out-of-class routines: daily lesson planning and grading papers. The latter happens in class and in person. Replacing lectures with group and individual activities increases in-class activity. Every student has something to do throughout the class. In some classes, students choose how to demonstrate mastery - testing, writing, speaking, debating and even designing a related game. Moodle provides one way to manage the testing process. It creates a different test for each student from a pool of questions. Advocates claim that its efficiency allows most students to do a year’s work in much less time. Advanced students work on independent projects while slower learners get more personalized instruction. Some students might not get through the year’s material, but demonstrated competence on the parts they did complete.[29]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abeysekera, Lakmal, and Phillip Dawson. "Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research." Higher Education Research & Development ahead-of-print (2014): 1-14.
  2. ^ Ryback, D., & Sanders, J. (1980). Humanistic versus traditional teaching styles and student satisfaction. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 20(87), 87-90
  3. ^ The flip: Turning a classroom upside down, Washington Post, 4. June, 2012.
  4. ^ Marco Ronchetti (June 2010), "Using video lectures to make teaching more interactive", International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET)
  5. ^ Greg Topp (6 Oct 2011), "Flipped classrooms take advantage of technology", USA Today
  6. ^ Abeysekera, Lakmal, and Phillip Dawson. "Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research." Higher Education Research & Development ahead-of-print (2014): 1-14.
  7. ^ Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Talk to every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
  8. ^ Sparks, S. D. (2011). Schools "flip" for lesson model promoted by Khan Academy. Education Week, 31(5), 1. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2011/09/28/05khan_ep.h31.html
  9. ^ Alvarez, B. (2011). Flipping the classroom: Homework in class, lessons at home. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 77(8), 18-21. Retrieved from http://neapriorityschools.org/successful-students/flipping-the-classroom-homework-in-class-lessons-at-home-2
  10. ^ Bennett, B., Spencer, D., Bergmann, J., Cockrum, T., Musallam, R., Sams, A., Fisch, K., & Overmyer, J. (2013). The flipped classroom manifest. Retrieved from http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-flipped-class-manifest-823.php
  11. ^ Abeysekera, Lakmal, and Phillip Dawson. "Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research." Higher Education Research & Development ahead-of-print (2014): 1-14.
  12. ^ Alvarez, B. (2011). Flipping the classroom: Homework in class, lessons at home. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 77(8), 18-21
  13. ^ Flipped Learning Network http://fln.schoolwires.net/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/46/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf
  14. ^ Eric Mazur (1997). Peer Instruction: A User's Manual Series in Educational Innovation. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
  15. ^ C. Crouch & E. Mazur (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten Years of Experience and Results, Am. J. Phys., v69, 970-977)
  16. ^ King, Alison. "From sage on the stage to guide on the side." College teaching 41.1 (1993): 30-35.
  17. ^ Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt, Michael Treglia (2000), Inverting the Classroom: A gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment, Journal of Economic Education
  18. ^ J. Wesley Baker (2000), The classroom flip: using web course management tools to become the guide by the side
  19. ^ Foertsch, Julie, et al. "Reversing the Lecture/Homework Paradigm Using eTEACH® Web‐based Streaming Video Software." Journal of Engineering Education 91.3 (2002): 267-274.
  20. ^ Clive Thompson (15 Jul 2011), "How Khan Academy is Changing the Rules of Education", Wired
  21. ^ Sarah D. Sparks (28 Sep 2011), Lectures Are Homework in Schools Following Khan Academy Lead)
  22. ^ Khan, Salman. The one world schoolhouse: Education reimagined. Twelve, 2012.
  23. ^ Sams, Aaron. "The Daily Riff - BE SMARTER. ABOUT EDUCATION." The Flipped Class: Shedding Light on the Confusion, Critique, and Hype. The Daily Riff, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 07 Apr. 2015. <http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-flipped-class-shedding-light-on-the-confusion-critique-and-hype-801.php>.
  24. ^ Jeremy F. Strayer (2007), The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: a comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system.
  25. ^ Strayer, Jeremy F. "How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation." Learning Environments Research15.2 (2012): 171-193.)
  26. ^ Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Talk to every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
  27. ^ "Home | Wisconsin Collaboratory for Enhanced Learning | University of Wisconsin–Madison". Wiscel.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  28. ^ a b c Rosenberg, Tina (2013-10-09). "Turning Education Upside Down". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Rosenberg, Tina (October 23, 2013). "In ‘Flipped’ Classrooms, a Method for Mastery". New York Times. 
  30. ^ "Brandt 79" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  31. ^ "Kulik 90" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  32. ^ Bergmann, Jon; Sams, Aaron. Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. ISBN 1564843157.