Floating production storage and offloading
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A floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) unit is a floating vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry for the processing of hydrocarbons and for storage of oil. An FPSO vessel is designed to receive hydrocarbons produced from nearby platforms or subsea template, process them, and store oil until it can be offloaded onto a tanker or, less frequently, transported through a pipeline. FPSOs are preferred in frontier offshore regions as they are easy to install, and do not require a local pipeline infrastructure to export oil. FPSOs can be a conversion of an oil tanker or can be a vessel built specially for the application. A vessel used only to store oil (without processing it) is referred to as a floating storage and offloading vessel (FSO). There are also under construction (as at 2013) Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) vessels, which will extract and liquify natural gas on board.
Oil has been produced from offshore locations since the late 1940s. Originally, all oil platforms sat on the seabed, but as exploration moved to deeper waters and more distant locations in the 1970s, floating production systems came to be used.
The first oil FPSO was the Shell Castellon, built in Spain in 1977. Today, over 200 vessels are deployed worldwide as oil FPSOs.
In addition to the significant growth of this market sector, we are witnessing today the progressive extension of the significant knowledge base of building and operating these floating facilities to provide solutions for other segments of the oil and gas industry.
As an example, the Sanha LPG FPSO, which operates offshore Angola, is the first such vessel with complete onboard liquefied petroleum gas processing and export facilities. It can store up to 135,000 cubic meters of LPG while awaiting export tankers for offloading.
Another very promising expansion is the progressive development of the floating LNG (FLNG) market. An LNG FPSO works under the same principles an oil FPSO works under, taking the well stream and separating out the natural gas (primarily methane and ethane) and producing LNG, which is stored and offloaded.
On July 29, 2009, Shell and Samsung announced an agreement to build up to 10 LNG FPSOs:
Flex LNG has four contracts for smaller units at the same yard.
As a very significant and momentous event, on May 20, 2011, Royal Dutch Shell announced the planned development of a Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) facility, which will be situated 200 km off the coast of Western Australia and is due for completion in around 2017. When it is finished, this will be the largest floating offshore facility. It will measure around 488m long and 74m wide, and when fully ballasted will weigh 600,000 tonnes. It will have a total storage capacity of 436,000 cubic metres of LNG, plus LPG condensate.
On June 2012, Petronas signed the engineering, procurement, construction, installation and commissioning contract for the project with the Technip and DSME consortium. The unit is destined for the Kanowit gas field off Sarawak, Malaysia. It is expected to be the World's First Floating Liquefaction Unit in operation when completed in 2015. 
At the opposite (discharge and regasification) end of the LNG chain, the first ever conversion of an LNG carrier (Golar LNG owned Moss type LNG carrier) into an LNG floating storage and regasification unit was carried out in 2007 by Keppel shipyard in Singapore.
Oil produced from offshore production platforms can be transported to the mainland either by pipeline or by tanker. When a tanker is chosen to transport the oil, it is necessary to accumulate oil in some form of storage tank such that the oil tanker is not continuously occupied during oil production, and is only needed once sufficient oil has been produced to fill the tanker. At this point the transport tanker connects to the stern of the storage unit and offloads oil.
Floating production, storage and offloading vessels are particularly effective in remote or deepwater locations where seabed pipelines are not cost effective. FPSOs eliminate the need to lay expensive long-distance pipelines from the processing facility to an onshore terminal. This can provide an economically attractive solution for smaller oil fields which can be exhausted in a few years and do not justify the expense of installing a pipeline. Furthermore, once the field is depleted, the FPSO can be moved to a new location.
A floating storage and offloading unit (FSO) is essentially a simplified FPSO without the capability for oil or gas processing. Most FSOs are converted single hull supertankers. An example is Knock Nevis, ex Seawise Giant, for many years the world's largest ship, which has been converted to an FSO for use offshore. The vessel was sold to Indian ship breakers, and renamed Mont for her final journey in December 2009. After clearing Indian customs, she was sailed to, and intentionally beached at Alang, Gujarat, India for demolition.
At the other end of the LNG logistics chain, where the natural gas is brought back to ambient temperature and pressure, specially modified ships may also be used as floating storage and regasification units (FSRUs). A LNG floating storage and regasification unit receives liquefied natural gas (LNG) from offloading LNG carriers, and the onboard regasification system provides natural gas exported to shore through risers and pipelines.
Mooring systems for FSO, FPSO & FSU units are available in market which allow the vessel to be moored on an ice sheet.
Royal Dutch Shell (2013) - LNG FPSO(Liquified Natural Gas Floating production Storage and Offloading) - Samsung Heavy Industry - $2-5 Billion.
The FPSO operating in the deepest waters is the FPSO BW Pioneer, built and operated by BW Offshore on behalf of Petrobras Americas INC. The FPSO is moored at a depth of 2,600 m in Block 249 Walker Ridge in the US Gulf of Mexico and is rated for 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d). The EPCI contract was awarded in October 2007, and production started in early 2012. The FPSO conversion was carried out at Keppel Shipyard Tuas in Singapore, while the topsides were fabricated in modules at various international vendor locations. The FPSO has a disconnectable turret (APL). The vessel can disconnect in advance of hurricanes and reconnect with minimal down time.. A contract for an FPSO to operate in even deeper waters (2,900 m) for Shell's Stones field in the US Gulf of Mexico was awarded to SBM Offshore in July 2013.
One of the world's largest FPSO is the Kizomba A, with a storage capacity of 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m3). Built at a cost of over US$800 million by Hyundai Heavy Industries in Ulsan, Korea, it is operated by Esso Exploration Angola (ExxonMobil). Located in 1200 meters (3,940 ft) of water at Deepwater block 200 statute miles (320 km) offshore in the Atlantic Ocean from Angola, Central Africa, it weighs 81,000 tonnes and is 285 meters long, 63 meters wide, and 32 meters high (935 ft by 207 ft (63 m) by 105 ft).
The first FSO in the Gulf of Mexico, The FSO Ta'Kuntah, has been in operation since August 1998. The FSO, owned and operated by MODEC, is under a service agreement with PEMEX Exploration and Production. The FSO Ta'Kuntah was installed as part of the Cantarell Field Development. The field is located in the Bay of Campeche, offshore Mexico's Yucatán peninsula. The FSO Ta'Kuntah is a converted ULCC tanker with a SOFEC external turret mooring system, two flexible risers connected in a lazy-S configuration between the turret and a pipeline end manifold (PLEM) on the seabed, and a unique offloading system. The FSO is designed to handle 800,000 bbl/d (130,000 m3/d) with no allowance for downtime.
One of the world's smallest FPSO is the Crystal Ocean, operating in 137 m of water in the Bass Strait between Australia and Tasmania on the Basker Manta Field. It is leased by Roc Oil (Sydney-based international petroleum exploration and production company) from Rubicon Offshore and is operated on their behalf by AGR Asia Pacific; it is currently producing 5,000 bbl/d (790 m3/d).
The FPSO in the shallowest water depth of just 13 m is the Armada Perkasa in the Okoro field in Nigeria, West Africa, for Afren Energy. This spread moored (fixed orientation) vessel uses 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm bore DeepFlex non-steel flexible risers in a double lazy wave formation (with weights and distributed buoyancy) to accommodate the large motion offsets in an environment of extreme waves and currents.
The Skarv FPSO, developed and engineered by Aker Solutions for BP Norge, will be the most advanced and largest FPSO deployed in the Norwegian Sea, offshore Mid Norway. Skarv is a gas condensate and oil field development. The development will tie in five sub-sea templates, and the FPSO has capacity to include several smaller wells nearby in the future. The process plant on the vessel can handle about 19,000,000 cubic metres per day (670,000,000 cu ft/d) of gas and 13,500 cubic metres per day (480,000 cu ft/d) of oil. An 80 km gas export pipe will tie in to Åsgard transport system. Aker Solutions (formerly Aker Kvaerner) developed the front-end design for the new floating production facility as well as the overall system design for the field and preparation for procurement and project management of the total field development. The hull is an Aker Solutions proprietary "Tentechtm975" design. BP also selected Aker Solutions to perform the detail engineering, procurement and construction management assistance (EPcma) for the Skarv field development. The EPcma contract covers detail engineering and procurement work for the FPSO topsides as well as construction management assistance to BP including hull and topside facilities. The production start for the field is scheduled for August 2011. BP awarded the contract for fabrication of the Skarv FPSO hull to Samsung Heavy Industries in South Korea and the Turret contract to SBM. The FPSO has a length of 292m, breadth of 50.6m and is 29m deep and accommodate 100 people in single cabins. The hull will be delivered in January 2010.
Data on operating FPSOs is reported each year in an annual survey.
|This section is incomplete. (June 2009)|
|FPSO Vessel Name||Oilfield||Current Location||Field Operator||Newbuild or
|Abo FPSO||Abo||Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria||Agip||Conversion||2003||Prosafe|
|Abu FSO||Abu Cluster||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Petronas Carigali||Conversion||2005||MISC/FPSO Ventures|
|Agbami FPSO||Nigeria||Star Deep Water Petroleum||Newbuild||2008||Chevron|
|Akpo FPSO||Akpo||Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria||Total||Newbuild||2009||Total|
|Al Zaafarana FPSO||Warda||Gulf of Suez, Egypt||Aker Solutions||Conversion||1994||Gemsa Petroleum Co|
|Anasuria FPSO||Teal, Teal South, Guillemot A||North Sea, UK||Shell||Newbuild||1996|
|Anoa Natuna||Anoa Field, Natuna Sea||Indonesia||Premier Oil||1990||Premier Oil,KN, Natuna Sea BV|
|Angsi FSO||Angsi||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Talisman||Conversion||2005||MISC/FPSO Ventures|
|Aoka Mizu||Ettrick||North Sea, UK||Nexen||2009||Bluewater Energy Services|
|Arco Ardjuna FSO||Ardjuna Oil Field||West Java Sea, Indonesia||Pertamina Hulu Energy||1973||Pertamina|
|Armada Perkasa||Okoro Setu||Nigeria||Afren/AMNI||Conversion||2009||Bumi Armada Berhad|
|Armada Perdana||Oyo||Nigeria||Allied Energy/Agip||2010||Bumi Armada Berhad|
|Aseng FPSO||Aseng||Equitorial Guinea||JV (SBM Offshore/GEPetrol)||Conversion||2011||SBM Offshore|
|Åsgard A||Åsgard||North Sea, Norway||Statoil||Newbuild||1999|
|Azurite FDPSO||Azurite||Atlantic, Republic of the Congo||Murphy Oil||2009||Prosafe Production|
|Baobab Ivoirien MV10 FPSO||Baobab Field||Côte d'Ivoire||CNR International S.A.R.L.||2005||MODEC|
|Belanak||Belanak Field||South Natuna Sea, Indonesia||ConocoPhillips||2004||KBR / J. Ray McDermott|
|Berge Helene(OIM Adarsh Shukla)||Chinguetti||North Atlantic Ocean, Mauretania||Woodside Petroleum||2006|
|Bleo Holm||Ross, Blake, Parry||North Sea, UK||Talisman Energy||1999||Bluewater Energy Services|
|Bohai Ming Zhu FPSO||Penglai19-3, China||Bohai, China||ConocoPhillips||2003||CNOOC|
|Bonga FPSO||Bonga||Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria||Shell||2005||Samsung Heavy Industries|
|Brasil FPSO||Roncador||Campos Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||2002||SBM Offshore|
|Bunga Kertas FPSO||North Lukut & Penara||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Petronas Carigali||2004||DPS/FPSO Ventures|
|Capixaba FPSO||Golfinho||Espírito Santo Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2006||SBM Offshore|
|Captain FPSO||Captain||North Sea, UK||Chevron||Newbuild||1996|
|Cendor FSO||Cendor||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Petrofac||Conversion||2006||MISC/FPSO Ventures|
|Cidade de Niteroi||Jabuti, Brazil||Santos Basin, Brazil||MODEC (for Petrobras)||Conversion||2009||MODEC|
|Cidade do Rio de Janeiro MV14 FPSO||Espadarte Sul Field||Campos Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2007||MODEC|
|Cidade de Vitoria FPSO||Golfinho II||Espírito Santo Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2007||Saipem|
|Cuulong MV9 FPSO||Su Tu Den Field||Vietnam||Cuulong Joint Operating Company (CLJOC)||Newbuild||2003||MODEC|
|Dalia FPSO||Dalia||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||Total||Newbuild||2006||Total|
|Dhirubhai 1||MA-D6||Bay of Bengal, India||Reliance Industries Limited||Conversion||2008||AFP|
|Erha||OPL 209||Gulf of Benin, Nigeria||ExxonMobil||Newbuild||2006|
|Espadarte FPSO||Espadarte||Campos Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2000||SBM Offshore|
|Espirito Santo BC-10 FPSO||Espirito Santo (BC10)||Campos Basin, Brazil||Shell Americas||Conversion||2009||SBM Offshore MISC Bhd|
|Espoir Ivorien||Espoir||Gulf of Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire||CNR||Conversion||2002||Prosafe|
|Falcon FPSO||Currently none||Johor River, Malaysia||ExxonMobil||Conversion||SBM Offshore|
|Four Vanguard||Woollybutt||Indian Ocean, Australia||ENI||Conversion||2003||Premuda|
|Frade FPSO||Frade||Campos Basin, Brazil||SBM Offshore||Conversion||2009||SBM Offshore|
|Gimboa FPSO||Gimboa||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||Sonangol||Conversion||2009||Saipem|
|Girassol FPSO||Girassol||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||Total||Newbuild||2001||Total|
|Glas Dowr||JPDA||Timor Sea||ENI||Newbuild||2003||Bluewater Energy Services|
|Global Producer III||Dumbarton||North Sea, UK||Maersk||Newbuild||2006||Maersk|
|Greater Plutonio FPSO||Block 18 Greater Plutonio||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||BP||Newbuild||2007||BP|
|Griffin Venture FPSO||Griffin, Chinook, Scindian||Indian Ocean, Australia||BHP Billiton||Newbuild||1994|
|Gryphon FPSO||Gryphon||North Sea, UK||Maersk||1993|
|Hæwene Brim FPSO||Pierce||North Sea, UK||Shell||Newbuild||1999||Bluewater Energy Services|
|Jasmine Venture MV7 FPSO||Jasmine Field||Thailand||PEARL Energy Pte Ltd.||Conversion||2004||MODEC|
|Jotun A||Jotun||North Sea, Norway||ExxonMobil||Newbuild||1999||Bluewater Energy Services|
|Kakap Natuna FPSO||Kakap KH field||Indonesia||ConocoPhillips(Kakap) Ltd.||Conversion||1986||MODEC|
|Kikeh||Kikeh||Sabah, Malaysia||Murphy Oil||Conversion||2007||SBM Offshore MISC Bhd|
|Kizomba A||Hungo, Chocalho||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||ExxonMobil||Newbuild||2004||SBM Offshore|
|Kizomba B||Kissanje, Dikanza||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||ExxonMobil||Newbuild||2005||SBM Offshore|
|Kuito FPSO||Kuito||Cabinda, Angola||Chevron||Conversion||1999||SBM Offshore|
|"Kwame Nkrumah" FPSO||Jubilee Fields||Gulf of Guinea, Ghana||Tullow Oil & Others||Conversion||2010||MODEC Inc.|
|North Sea Producer||MacCulloch||North Sea, UK||ConocoPhillips||Conversion||1997||Maersk|
|Maersk Curlew||Curlew||North Sea, UK||Shell||Conversion||2002||Maersk|
|Marlim Sul FPSO||Marlim Sul||Campos Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2004||SBM Offshore|
|MODEC Venture 11 FPSO||Mutineer-Exeter Field||Australia||Santos Ltd.||Conversion||2005||MODEC|
|Mondo FPSO||Luanda, Angola||Block 15, Angola||ExxonMobil||Conversion||2008||SBM Offshore|
|Munin||Lufeng, Xijiang||South China Sea, China||CNOOC||Newbuild||1997||Bluewater Energy Services|
|MV8 Langsa Venture FPSO||Langsa field||Malacca Strait, Indonesia||MEDCO MOECO Langsa Ltd.||Conversion||2001||MODEC|
|Mystras FPSO||Okono, Okpoho||Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria||Agip||Conversion||2004||Saipem|
|Nganhurra FPSO||Enfield||Exmouth Sub-basin, Australia||Woodside Petroleum||Newbuild||2006|
|Maersk Ngujima-Yin FPSO||Vincent||Exmouth Sub-basin, Australia||Woodside Petroleum||Conversion||2008||Maersk|
|Norne FPSO||Norne||North Sea, Norway||Statoil||Newbuild||1997|
|Northern Endeavour||Laminaria, Corallina||Timor Sea, Indonesia||Woodside Petroleum||Newbuild||1999;||Kvaerner/SBM;|
|Okha||Cossack, Wanaea||North West Shelf, Australia||Woodside Petroleum||Conversion||2011||SBM Offshore/Woodside Petroleum|
|Pazflor FPSO||Pazflor||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||Total||Newbuild||2011||DSME|
|Perintis FPSO||MASA field||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Petronas Carigali||Conversion||1999||Aker Kvaerner/M3Nergy|
|Petrojarl Banff||Banff||North Sea, UK||CNR||Newbuild||1999||Teekay Petrojarl|
|Petrojarl Foinaven||Foinaven||North Atlantic, UK||BP||Conversion||1997||Teekay Petrojarl|
|Petrojarl I||Glitne oilfield||North Sea, Norway||Statoil||Newbuild||2001||Teekay Petrojarl|
|Petrojarl Varg||Varg||North Sea, Norway||Talisman Energy||Newbuild||1999||Teekay Petrojarl|
|Pertroleo Nautipa FPSO||Etame||South Atlantic Ocean, Gabon||Vaalco Energy||Conversion||2002||Fred Olsen Production, Prosafe|
|Polvo FPSO||Polvo||South Atlantic Ocean, Brazil||Devon Energy||Conversion||2007||Prosafe|
|PSVM FPSO||Block 31 Plutao, Saturno, Venus, Marte||South Atlantic Ocean, Angola||BP||Conversion||2012||MODEC/BP|
|Puteri Dulang FSO||Dulang field||South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia||Petronas Carigali||Conversion||Unknown||Petronas/FPSO Ventures|
|Pyrenees FPSO||Ravensworth, Crosby, Stickle Fields||Exmouth Sub-basin, Australia||BHP Billiton Petroleum||Newbuild||2010||BHP Billiton/MODEC|
|P-57 FPSO||Jubarte Field||Campos Basin, Brazil||Petrobras||Conversion||2010||SBM Offshore|
|Rang Dong 1||Rang Dong||South China Sea, Vietnam||JVPC, Nippon Oil||Conversion||1998||Mitsubishi Heavy Industries|
|Raroa II||Maari||Tasman Sea, New Zealand||OMV||Conversion||2008|
|Ruby Princess FPSO||Ruby||South China Sea, Vietnam||Petrovietnam||Conversion||1998||Prosafe|
|Ruby II FPSO||Ruby||South China Sea, Vietnam||Petronas Carigali Vietnam Ltd||Conversion||2010||MISC Bhd|
|Sanha LPG FPSO||Angola||Chevron||Newbuild||2005||SBM Offshore / Chevron|
|Saxi-Batuque FPSO||Luanda, Angola||Block 15, Angola||ExxonMobil||Conversion||2008||SBM Offshore|
|Schiehallion FPSO||Schiehallion||North Atlantic, UK||BP||Newbuild||1998||Harland & Wolff|
|Sea Eagle FPSO||EA||Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria||Shell||Newbuild||2003||Samsung Heavy Industries|
|SeaRose FPSO||White Rose||Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada||Husky Energy||Newbuild||2005||Samsung Heavy Industries|
|Seillean FPSO||Cachalote||Esprito Santo Basin, Brazil||Petrobras but built for BP||Newbuild||1986||Noble Corporation|
|Serpentina FPSO||Zafiro||Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Guinea||Exxonmobil||Conversion||2003||SBM Offshore|
|Skarv FPSO||Skarv and Idun||North Sea, Norway||BP||Newbuild||2011||BP|
|Song Doc MV19 FPSO||Song Doc Field||Vietnam||Truong Son Joint Operating Company (TSJOC)||Conversion||2008||MODEC|
|Stybarrow MV16 FPSO||Stybarrow Field||Exmouth Sub-basin, Australia||BHP Billiton Petroleum||Newbuild||2007||MODEC|
|Terra Nova||Terra Nova||Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada||Suncor||Newbuild||2002|
|Triton||Bittern, Guillemot West, Guillemot Northwest||North Sea, UK||Dana Petroleum||Newbuild||2000|
|(EnQuest Producer (Former Uisge Gorm) FPSO||Alma (Formerly Ardmore) Oil Field and Galia Tie-Back||currently in Dock at Blohm + Voss, Hamburg, Germany, later North Sea, UK||TBD||Conversion||1995/2012 reconstruction||EnQuest|
|Umuroa FPSO||Tui||Tasman Sea, New Zealand||Australian Worldwide Exploration||Conversion||2007||APS/Prosafe Production|
|Xikomba FPSO||Xikomba||Block 15, Angola||ExxonMobil||Conversion||2003||SBM Offshore|
|Yunus FSO||BDR3||Mediterranean||Syriah & N.T.J. Group||Conversion||1998||Syriah & NTJ Group|
|Yúum K'ak'náab FPSO||Ku-Maloob-Zaap field||Gulf of Mexico||PEMEX||Conversion||2007||BW Offshore AS, Norway|
|ARMADA PERWIRA FPSO||Te Giac Trang field (TGT)||VIETNAM||BUMI ARMADA BERHAD||Conversion||2011||BUMI ARMADA BERHAD|
|SEPAT FSO||Unknown||MALAYSIA||PETRONAS CARIGALLI SDN BHD||Conversion||2011||BUMI ARMADA BERHAD|
|ARMADA STERLING FPSO||D1 Field||INDIA||FORBES BUMI ARMADA||Conversion||2012||BUMI ARMADA BERHAD|
- "The world's first LNG Floating Storage and Regasification conversion". Skipsrevyen. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- "Production grows in West Africa’s largest deepwater development" - The Lamp - Volume 86 Number 3 2004 - Exxon Mobil Corporation
- "Skarv and Idun Fields, North Sea Northern, Norway" -
- 2009 Worldwide Survey of Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) Units, Mustang Engineering, August 2009
- "Maersk FPSO Fleet Location" - Maersk FPSO's
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to FPSO.|
- VIDEO: Maersk Oil Gryphon FPSO – The Recovery Story
- FPSO Seillean FPSO Seillean - the World's first DP production vessel - BP SWOPS
- Auld Alliance Trading FPSO Services FPSO Services - Auld Alliance FPSO production services
- "FPSO World Fleet". 2004. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
- Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) Installations at the United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association
- FPSO's FAQ's at the United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association
- FPSOs at the U.S. Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service - Gulf of Mexico OCS Region
- FPSO pages at Offshore-Technology
- FPSO pages at Ship-Technology
- 2010 Worldwide Survey of FPSO Vessels by Mustang Engineering for Offshore Magazine