Flock bronzewing

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Flock Bronzewing
Phaps histrionica 1.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Phaps
Species: P. histrionica
Binomial name
Phaps histrionica
(Gould, 1841)

The Flock Bronzewing (Phaps histrionica), also known as the Flock Pigeon, Harlequin Bronzewing and the Harlequin Pigeon [2] is a species of pigeon in the Columbidae family.[3] It is endemic to drier parts of Australia.[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

English ornithologist John Gould first described the Flock Bronzewing, known then as the Harlequin Bronzewing, in volume five of his book: Birds of Australia. It was originally listed under the genus Persitera.[5] His first sighting occurred in 1839 along the Mokai River (upper section of Namoi River) within the Liverpool Ranges, New South Wales.[4]

Description[edit]

The Flock Bronzewing is the most nomadic of the Australian pigeons, and it is difficult to mistake for other Australian species. Fully-grown Flock Bronzewings can range in length from 280–305 mm with a wingspan of 189 – 216 mm. Its weight can range from 260 – 320 grams.[2]

Adult Male[edit]

The adult males' head is black except for the white forehead, patch on lower throat, and white line that runs from behind the eye almost enclosing ear coverts forming a broken ring. Upper section and wings are a reddish - sandy brown.[2] Primary coverts and alula are grey with white margins. Primaries are grey with chestnut inner webs, all but the outer three are tipped white.[2] Secondaries are grey except for the inner secondaries that have a chestnut inner web.[4] The iris is dark brown and the bill is black.[3]

Adult Female[edit]

The upper section including the crown and forehead are sandy-brown. The black and white chin, face and throat markings are very dull compared to the male. There is a sandy-brown section across the fore neck and another difference is that the primaries are not tipped white.[4]

Juvenile[edit]

Juveniles look most similar to the adult females, but have some differences such as the lacking or less distinct facial markings,[3] primaries and some secondaries are tipped brown and the bill is horn coloured.[4]

Food[edit]

The main source of food is the seeds of grasses, herbs and shrubs,[4] whilst occasionally browsing on green shoots.[3] With the introduction of cattle into the interior of Australia, the Flock Bronzewing has adapted to eating the undigested seeds from cattle dung.[3] Some species of seed eaten include the Desert Spurge (Euphorbia tannensis), Camel Bush (Trichodesma zeylanicum), Yellow Daisy (Wedelia asperrima) and River Grass (Chionachne cyathopoda).[3]

Habitat[edit]

More than any other Australian species of pigeon, the Flock Bronzewing is adapted to the arid plains of the continent.[3] The preferred habitat is open grassland plains, clumped grasses and small shrubs with open spaces.[6] A major area for this type of habitat where the Flock Bronzewings are present is within the grass plains of the Barkly Tablelands.[4]

Breeding[edit]

The breeding season is variable and relies heavily on the availability of food.[3] In the south of its range, they tend to breed from spring to early summer and in the north, breeding occurs from early to the middle of the dry season.[2] The nest is a scrape in the ground, which is lined with grass and twigs, usually between the shelter of clumps of grass or shrubs.[3] Two white eggs are incubated for 16 days,[2] with the young capable of leaving the nest after a week.[3]

Distribution[edit]

The Flock Bronzewing is most abundant within the Barkly Tablelands of eastern Northern Territory and Western Queensland;[3] however, their range is quite large and will occasionally be found in the Kimberly region of Western Australia, northern South Australia and northwestern New South Wales.[2]

Threats[edit]

The main impact on Flock Bronzewings has been through pastoralism.[2] In the mid to late 1800s, many observers wrote about the enormous flocks of the Flock Pigeons within areas where they are now just occasional visitors such as northern South Australia and western New South Wales.[4] Pastoralism has affected both populations and range as stock feed on the grasses that the Flock Bronzewings require for food and nesting sites.[4] Another threat to the Flock Bronzewing is through predation, they are vulnerable to predation as they lay their eggs on the ground.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phaps histrionica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Crome, F., Shields, J. (1992). Parrots & Pigeons of Australia. Angus & Robertson Publishers
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gibbs, D., Barnes, E., Cox, J. (2001). Pigeons and Doves – A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. Pica Press. East Sussex: Pica Press
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Firth, J. H. (1982) Pigeons and Doves of Australia. Rigby Publishers
  5. ^ Gould, John (1848). The Birds of Australia: In seven volumes by John Gould. London: John Gould. 
  6. ^ Morcombe, M. (2000) Field Guide to Australian Birds. Archerfield, Queensland: Steve Parish Publishing Pty Ltd

External links[edit]