Vertebrate fauna of the Maastrichtian stage

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This is an incomplete list that briefly describes vertebrates that were extant during the Maastrichtian, a stage of the Late Cretaceous Period which extended from 72.1 to 66 million years before present. This was the last time period in which non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and mosasaurs existed.

Amphibians[edit]

Amphibians of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Beelzebufo ampinga

At 40 cm long and 4 kilograms, Beelzebufo is the largest frog of all time.

Ornithischians[edit]

Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Ankylosaurus magniventris
Confirmed.

Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada

The largest ankylosaur.
  • Brachypodosaurus gravis
Lameta Formation, India
  • Edmontonia longiceps
  • Edmontonia schlessmani
Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada

Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA

St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada
A bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long and 2 m (6 ft) high. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and head and many sharp spikes along its back and tail. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.
  • Glyptodontopelta mimus
Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA
  • Tarchia kailanae
Barun Goyot Formation, Mongolia

Ceratopsians[edit]

Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Agathaumas sylvestris
Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA
  1. Anchiceratops ornatus
St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Arrhinoceratops brachyops
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Bravoceratops polyphemus
Javelina Formation, Texas, USA
  1. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna
Cerro del Pueblo Formation, Coahuila, Mexico
  1. Eotriceratops xerinsularis
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Leptoceratops gracilis
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Lance Formation, Alberta, Canada

Scollard Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Micropachycephalosaurus hongtuyanensis
Originally thought to be a pachycephalosaur.
  1. Montanoceratops cerorhynchos
St. Mary River Formation, Montana, USA
  1. Nedoceratops hatcheri
Lance Formation, Wyoming, USA
  1. Ojoceratops fowleri
Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA Possibly synonymous with Triceratops or Eotriceratops.
  1. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta Canada

St. Mary River Formation, Alberta, Canada

  1. Polyonax mortuarinus
Denver Formation, Colorado, USA
  1. Protoceratops andrewsi
  2. Protoceratops hellenikorhinus
Djadochta Formation, Mongolia

Bayan Mandahu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

  1. Sinoceratops zhuchengensis
  1. Tatankaceratops sacrisonorum
Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota, USA Probably a juvenile specimen of Triceratops.
  1. Torosaurus latus
  1. Triceratops horridus
  2. Triceratops prorsus
  1. Zhuchengceratops inexpectus

Ornithopoda[edit]

Ornithopods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Amurosaurus riabinini
reka Amur, Russian Federation
  1. Anasazisaurus horneri
Kirtland Formation, New Mexico, USA
  1. Barsboldia sicinskii
  1. Charonosaurus jiayinensis
  1. Edmontosaurus regalis
  2. Edmontosaurus annectens
  1. Hadrosaurus foulkii
  1. Hypacrosaurus altispinus
  1. Kerberosaurus manakini
  1. Koutalisaurus kohlerorum
  1. Microhadrosaurus nanshiungensis
  1. Nanningosaurus dashiensis
  1. Olorotitan arhanensis
  1. Orthomerus dolloi
  1. Pararhabdodon isonensis
  1. Parasaurolophus walkeri
  1. Parksosaurus warreni
  1. Rhabdodon priscus
  2. Rhabdodon septimanicus
  1. Sahaliyania elunchunorum
  1. Saurolophus osborni
  1. Secernosaurus koerneri
  1. Shantungosaurus giganteus
  1. Talenkauen santacrucensis
  1. Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus
  1. Thescelosaurus garbanii
  2. Thescelosaurus neglectus
  1. Thespesius occidentalis
  1. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus
  1. Wulagasaurus dongi
  1. Zalmoxes robustus
  2. Zalmoxes shqiperorum

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Alaskacephale gangloffi
Confirmed Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
  1. Dracorex hogwartsia
Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota
  1. Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis
  1. Prenocephale prenes
  2. Prenocephale brevis
  3. Prenocephale edmontonensis
  4. Prenocephale goodwini
Mongolia

USA

  1. Sphaerotholus bucholtzae
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA
  1. Stygimoloch spinifer

Non-Avian Saurischians[edit]

Non-Avian Theropods[edit]

Non-avian theropods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Acheroraptor temertyorum
Confirmed Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA Geologically the youngest known Dromaeosaur.
  1. Adasaurus mongoliensis
Confirmed Nemegt Formation, Mongolia Dromaeosaurid dinosaur, probably 2.5 meters long; unique in having relatively small sickle claws on its hind feet.
  1. Ajancingenia yanshini
Barun Goyot Formation, Mongolia
  1. Albertosaurus sarcophagus
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Alioramus remotus
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Anserimimus planinychus
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Anzu wyliei
Hell Creek Formation, Montana & South Dakota
  1. Atrociraptor marshalli
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Austroraptor cabazai
Allen Formation, Argentina
  1. Avimimus portentosus
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Bagaraatan ostromi
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Bahariasaurus ingens
Bahariya Formation, Egypt
  1. Balaur bondoc
  1. Banji long
Nanxiong Formation, China
  1. Borogovia gracilicrus
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia A poorly known genus of Mongolian predatory troodontid of about six feet in length. The genus gets its name from creatures known as "borogoves" in the Lewis Carroll poem Jabberwocky. Known only from a partial set of hind limbs.
  1. Bradycneme draculae
Formerly believed to be a giant owl, its scientific name means "Evil Slowleg". Found in Transylvania, the allusion to Count Dracula would seem deliberate.
  1. Carnotaurus sastrei
A large Argentinian predator that attained lengths of up to 10 m (30 ft), Carnotaurus is notable for its short snout, the horns above its eyes and its somewhat vestigial forelimbs. Known from a single complete specimen which had skin impressions preserved that showed it had no feathers.
  1. Compsosuchus solus
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Deinocheirus mirificus
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Dryptosaurus aquilunguis
  1. Elmisaurus rarus
  1. Elopteryx nopcsai
  1. Epichirostenotes curriei
Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada
  1. Erliansaurus bellamanus
Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
  1. Euronychodon portucalensis
  1. Gallimimus bullatus
  1. Gigantoraptor erlianensis
Iren Dabasu Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
  1. Heyuannia huangi
Dalangshan Formation, China The first Oviraptorid found in China.
  1. Indosaurus matleyi
  1. Indosuchus raptorius
  1. Heptasteornis andrewsi
Sânpetru Formation, Romania
  1. Jubbulpuria tenuis
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Laevisuchus indicus
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Lametasaurus indicus
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Leptorhynchos elegans
  2. Leptorhynchos gaddisi
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Aguja Formation, Texas, USA

  1. Majungasaurus crenatissimus
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar
  1. Masiakasaurus knopfleri
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar
  1. Nanotyrannus lancensis
May be a juvenile Tyrannosaurus or other tyrannosaurid.[1]
  1. Nanshiungosaurus brevispinus
  1. Nanuqsaurus hoglundi
Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
  1. Nemegtomaia barsboldi
Nemegt Formation, Mongolia
  1. Noasaurus leali
Lecho Formation, Argentina
  1. Nomingia gobiensis
  1. Ojoraptorsaurus boerei
Ojo Alamo Formation, New Mexico, USA
  1. Orkoraptor burkei
Pari Aike Formation, Argentina First thought to be a relative of tyrannosaurs, now believed to be an allosaur.
  1. Ornithomimoides barasimlensis
  2. Ornithomimoides mobilis
  1. Ornithomimus velox
  2. Ornithomimus edmontonicus
  1. Paronychodon lacustris
  1. Pycnonemosaurus nevesi
  1. Pyroraptor olympius
  1. Rahonavis ostromi
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar
  1. Rajasaurus narmadensis
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Rahiolisaurus gujaratensis
Lameta Formation, India
  1. Richardoestesia gilmorei
  2. Richardoestesia isosceles
  1. Rinchenia mongoliensis
  1. Saurornitholestes langstoni
  1. Shixinggia oblita
  1. Struthiomimus altus
  1. Tarbosaurus bataar
  1. Therizinosaurus cheloniformis
  1. Tochisaurus nemegtensis
  1. Troodon formosus
  1. Tyrannosaurus rex
  1. Variraptor mechinorum
  1. Velociraptor mongoliensis
  1. Vitakridrinda sulaimani

Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Alamosaurus sanjuanensis
Utah, New Mexico, Texas
  • Ampelosaurus atacis
  • Bruhathkayosaurus matleyi
Kellemedu Formation, India A huge Titanosaur may be the largest known dinosaur, but might not be an animal at all but instead a plant.
  • Dreadnoughtus schrani
Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Argentina Dreadnoughtus is one of the largest titanosaurs known.
  • Hypselosaurus priscus
Grès à Reptiles, France; Spain
  • Isisaurus colberti
Lameta Formation, India
  • Jainosaurus septentrionalis
Lameta Formation, India
  • Laplatasaurus araukanicus
South America
  • Magyarosaurus dacus
Romania
  • Opisthocoelocaudia skarzynskii
Mongolia
  • Puertasaurus reuili
Patagonia, Argentina
  • Rapetosaurus krausei
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar
  • Saltasaurus loricatus
Argentina, Uruguay
  • Titanosaurus indicus
  • Titanosaurus blandfordi
Lameta Formation, India
  • Uberabatitan ribeiroi
Marilia Formation, Brazil
  • Vahiny depereti
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Birds (avian theropods)[edit]

Birds of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Anatalavis rex
A genus of bird related to modern ducks and geese. Found in the Hornerstone Formation of New Jersey.The oldest of the two known Anatalavis species. The younger species dates from London's Early Eocene rocks and is called A. oxfordi.
Gargantuavis philoinos pelvis
  • Avisaurus archibaldi
A genus of carnivorous birds containing two known species, only one of which was present during the Maastrichtian. The type species of Avisaurus, A. archibaldi was discovered in Montana's Hell Creek formation.
  • Canadaga arctica
A genus of flightless toothed sea birds related to Hesperornis The only known Canadaga species, it was a large bird (more than 5 feet (1.5 m) long)lived in the shallow seas of northern Canada.
  • Ceramornis major
A charadriiforme from the Lance Creek Formation. Its evolutionary relationships are obscure. Known only from part of a single Coracoid bone, C. major is the only known Ceramornis species.
A genus of shore bird from the Lance Creek Formation of Wyoming.
  • Enantiornis leali
A genus of predatory bird discovered in Argentina. Possibly related to Avisaurus. A 3-foot (0.91 m) long eagle-like predator, it is the only known Enantiornis species.
  • Gargantuavis philoinos
A genus of large flightless ratite-like bird. Eggs previously attributed to Titanosaurs may in fact be from this genus. Known from France, it is the Gargantuavis type species and indeed the only species discovered thus far.
A large aquatic diving bird with teeth, vestigial wings, and lobed toes. Discovered in Kansas by O. C. Marsh during the bone wars.
  • Judinornis nogontsavensis
A somewhat primitive relative of Hesperornis, this toothed but flightless bird lived in freshwater, unlike its relatives. The only known species, this bird lived in the estuaries and rivers of mountains in the Nemegt Formation of Mongolia.
  • Laornis edvardsianus
A genus of wading birds with uncertain evolutionary affinities, it had legs resembling and a body approximately the size of a modern curlew. The only known Lectavis species, it lived in Argentina
  • Neogaeornis wetzeli
A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian-Maastrichitan boundary.
A genus of bird from the Lance Creek Formation that is related to Hesperornis.

The type and only known species, its epithet was chosen to honor Dr. Alexander F. Skutch. Its only remains consist of a right quadrate and fragmentary post-cranial elements.

  • Tytthostonyx glauconiticus
  • Vegavis iaai

A relative of modern ducks and geese.

The only known species of Vegavis, all known fossils of V. iaai came from a single individual discovered in Antarctica.

  • Vorona berivotrensis
Maevarano Formation, Madagascar

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Cartilaginous Fish of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
The thornback ray is a modern species of the genus Raja

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Crocodylomorphs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Labidiosuchus amicum
  1. Mahajangasuchus insignis
A notosuchian from Brazil. May have had a pig like diet and was almost certainly warm blooded.
  1. Simosuchus clarki
  1. Stratiotosuchus maxhechti
  1. Theriosuchus sympiestodon

Bony fish[edit]

Bony Fish of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Mammals[edit]

Mammals of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Didelphodon was one of the largest Mesozoic mammals.
Montana Believed to be the earliest primate or a primatomorph

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Antarctica, Lopez de Bertodano Formation

Chubut, Argentina, Paso del Sapo Formation

    • Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae

Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Aerotitan sudamericanus
Allen Formation, Argentina
  1. Arambourgiania philadelphiae
Jordan
  1. Eurazhdarcho langendorfensis
Romania Sebes Formation
  1. Hatzegopteryx thambema
Densus-Ciula Formation, Romania
  1. P. mauritanicus
Oulad (or Qualad) Abdoun Phosphatic Basin, Grand Doui, near Khouribga, central Morocco
  1. Quetzalcoatlus northropi
Hell Creek Formation, Montana, USA

Javelina Formation, Texas, USA

One of the largest pterosaurs to ever live.

Squamates[edit]

Squamates of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Carinodens belgicus
  1. Goronyosaurus nigeriensis
  1. Hainosaurus bernardi
  1. Halisaurus platyspondylus
  1. Igdamanosaurus aegyptiacus
  1. Liodon sectorius
  1. Mosasaurus dekayi
  2. Mosasaurus hoffmanni
  3. Mosasaurus mokoroa
  1. Platecarpus bocagei
  1. Plesiotylosaurus crassidens
  1. Plotosaurus tuckeri
  1. Pluridens walkeri
  1. Prognathodon waiparaensis
  1. Sanajeh indicus
An early snake.
  1. Taniwhasaurus oweni

Turtles[edit]

Testudines of the Maastrichtian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Gigantatypus is one of the largest turtles ever.
India
  • Pneumatoarthrus peloreus

Kansas

A Kansan genus of sea turtle mistakenly believed to be a hadrosaur by Edward Drinker Cope. The only known species of Pneumatoarthrus to date.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henderson (2005). "Nano No More: The death of the pygmy tyrant." In "The origin, systematics, and paleobiology of Tyrannosauridae”, a symposium hosted jointly by Burpee Museum of Natural History and Northern Illinois University.

See also[edit]

Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian