Flora of Colombia

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The Flora of Colombia is characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide. Over 130.000 species of plants have been described within Colombian territory.[1]

Flower of Victoria cruziana or Victoria regia inhabits in the Amazon basin.

National flower of Colombia[edit]

The national flower of Colombia is the orchid Cattleya trianae which was named after the Colombian naturalist José Jerónimo Triana. The orchid was selected by botanist Emilio Robledo, in representation of the Colombian Academy of History to determine the most representative flowering plant of Colombia. He described it as one of the most beautiful flowers in the world and selected Cattleya trianae as National symbol sweg flewr

National Tree of Colombia[edit]

The national tree of Colombia is the palm Ceroxylon quindiuense (Quindío Wax Palm) which was named after the Colombian Department of Quindío where is located the Cocora valley, only habitat of this restricted range specie. The Wax palm was selected as the national tree by the government of Belisario Betancur and was the first tree officially declared as a protected species in Colombia. C. quindiuense is the only palm that grows at high altitudes and is the tallest monocot in the world.

Endemisms[edit]

Colombia has the largest amount of heliconia species worldwide. Most of them are endemisms
The Baudó Mountains in the Colombian pacific coast have many endemic plants.

Colombia has the largest amount of endemisms (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) worldwide. About 10% of the species in the world live in Colombia.[2] Some determinant factors in the distribution range of the species are the weather conditions, temperature, humidity and sunlight availability.

Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct due to their restricted habitat and vulnerability to the actions of man, including the introduction of new organisms.

Ecoregions with high endemism[edit]

According to the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of botanic endemisms:

Tree species[edit]

Many of the Colombian trees are endangered species due to the high quality of the woods and timber industry exploitation (such as Colombian oak Quercus humboldtidiana and Colombian mahogany) and as source of tanning substances for the leather industry (such as mangrove and Encenillo tree Weinmannia tormentosa). Some tree species described in Colombia are:

Pekea-nut tree (Caryocar nuciferum)
Cyrilla racemiflora

Fruits of Colombia[edit]

Flora genera[edit]

marmalade bush (Streptosolen jamesonii)
The Arrayan[disambiguation needed] was sacred to the precolumbian people
Espeletia schultzii
Espeletia pycnophylla
Velvety Passion Flower
Orange Passion Flower
Passiflora coccinea
Passiflora loefgrenii
Passiflora picturata
Passiflora subpeltata
Passiflora citrina
Macrocarpaea calophylla.
Macrocarpaea apparata.

Abarema[edit]

Acidocroton[edit]

Aiphanes[edit]

Aniba[edit]

Brownea[edit]

Brunellia[edit]

Calatola[edit]

Centronia[edit]

Ceroxylon[edit]

Clusia[edit]

Eschweilera[edit]

Espeletia[edit]

Freziera[edit]

Grias[edit]

Guarea[edit]

Gustavia[edit]

Herrania[edit]

Huilaea[edit]

Inga[edit]

Lennoaceae[edit]

Leptolejeunea[edit]

Licania[edit]

Macrolobium[edit]

Magnolia[edit]

Mayna[edit]

Meriania[edit]

Metteniusa[edit]

Miconia[edit]

Oenocarpus[edit]

Orphanodendron[edit]

Parmentiera[edit]

Passiflora[edit]

Phytelephas[edit]

Pouteria[edit]

Pradosia[edit]

Prunus[edit]

Rinorea[edit]

Rollinia[edit]

Romeroa[edit]

Schoenocephalium[edit]

Solanum[edit]

Sphaerolejeunea[edit]

Streptosolen[edit]

Swartzia[edit]

Utricularia[edit]

Vantanea[edit]

Wettinia[edit]

Xylosma[edit]

Zamia[edit]

Zygia[edit]

Orchid species[edit]

Colombia has the largest number of orchids in the world. Among others:

Frondaria[edit]

Restrepia[edit]

References[edit]