Flora of Italy
The flora of Italy was traditionally, estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular plant species. However, as of 2004, 6,759 species are recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora. Geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal Region and Mediterranean Region. According to the index compiled by the Italian Ministry for the Environment in 2001, 274 vascular plant species are protected.
Geography and floral composition
The native vegetation of Italy reflects the diversity of the physical environment:geology, altitude, climate.
Italy consists of a 1,000 km (620 miles) long peninsula extending out into the central Mediterranean, together with a number of islands to the South and West. The Apennines run north-south through the peninsula connecting the Alps in the North to Etna and the Peloritani mountains in Sicily in the South.
Northern Italy is dominated by the Alps and extensive valley of the Po river which is extensively agricultural and industrialised.
Central Italy includes the regions of Tuscany, Umbria, Marche and Lazio. It is dominated by the Apennines, from which a few major rivers flow. There are few natural plains. A process of land reclamation has replaced the coastal swamps and marshes with agricultural land.
Southern Italy includes the regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Apulia, Basilicata and Campania. Agriculture and industry are less developed.
Each region has a distinct flora.
Broadly there are three different vegetational zones in Italy:
1.evergreen vegetation: maquis shrubland (macchia mediterranea) with plants and bushes that always have leaves on. This flora is typical of the dry mediterranean climate, especially along the coast and in the islands. The most common plants are olives, maritime pines, oaks, myrtles, junipers.(Mediterranean South)
Carlo Blasi et al. identify and map 2 Divisions (Temperate and Mediterranean) , 13 Provinces, 33 Sections and approximately 80 Subsections.Each unit has an alphanumeric code that indicates its hierarchical level and a full name that indicates its geographic location and main diagnostic factor.
The Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands have around 7,500 vascular plant taxa (species and subspecies) (Castroviejo 2010 Flora Iberica), followed by Italy with 6,711 (6,759) species (Conti et al., 2005 An inventory of vascular plants endemic to Italy). In Greece, the number of species is around 5,700 (Strid and Tan, 1997 Flora Hellenica) and in France, there are 4,630 species (Walter and Gillett, 1998 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants). Per unit area Greece is the country with the highest concentration of native plant species.
Italy has 1371 endemic species and subspecies (18.9% of the total vascular flora).
- Arcangeli, Giovanni. Compendio della flora italiana. Torino: Loescher, 1882.
- Cesati, Vincenzo de, Giovanni Passerini & Giuseppe Gibelli. Compendio della flora italiana. Vol. 1-35. Milano: Vallardi, 1868-1886.
- Fiori, Adriano. Nuova flora analitica d'Italia. Vol. 1-2. Firenze: Ricci, 1923-1929.
- Parlatore, Filippo & Teodoro Caruel. Flora italiana. Vol. 1-10. Firenze: Le Monnier, 1848-1896.
- Pignatti, Sandro. Flora d'Italia. Vol. 1-3. Bologna: Edagricole, 1982. ISBN 88-506-2449-2.
The Department of Biology of the University of Trieste houses the National Data Bank for the Italian Flora and Vegetation.
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are the most significant threats to plant species that occur in Italy. Also changing water flow patterns and over-extraction, increasing droughts due to climate change, pollution and the introduction of alien species threaten the flora. Other threats come from farming (as a result of agricultural expansion and intensification), urbanization and tourism.
Italy is a signatory to the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats and the Habitats Directive both affording protection to the fauna and flora of Italy.
- Geography of Italy
- List of national parks of Italy
- Flora of the Alps
- Po Basin mixed forests
- Illyrian deciduous forests
- Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
- South Apennine mixed montane forests
- Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests
- Dinaric Mountains mixed forests
- Orchidee del Gargano
- List of orchids of Italy In Italian Links in turn to Orchidee della Montagna della Ganzaria, Orchidee di Monte Pellegrino, Orchidee dello Zingaro and Orchidee di Cavagrande del Cassibile.
- Specie botaniche in Italia
- Specie botaniche in Sardegna
- Pignatti,S.,1982 Flora d’Italia. Edagricole, Bologna, vol. 1-3, 1982
- Riccardo Guarino, Sabina Addamiano, Marco La Rosa, Sandro Pignatti Flora Italiana Digitale:an interactive identification tool for the Flora of Italy
- Carlo Blasi, Giulia Capotorti, Daniela Smiraglia, Domenico Guida, Laura Zavattero, Barbara Mollo, Raffaella Frondoni, and Riccardo Copiz A thematic contribution to the National Biodiversity Strategy - The ecoregions of Italy
- Lorenzo Peruzzi. Fabio Conti and Fabrizio Bartolucci An inventory of vascular plants endemic to Italy
- Italy’s biodiversity at risk IUCN
- Tutin T.G. et al., 1964-1980. Flora Europaea, Cambridge University Press
- Ansaldi M., Medda E., Plastino S., 1994. I fiori delle Apuane, Mauro Baroni & c. s.a.s., Viareggio
- D. Aeschimann; K. Lauber; D. Martin Moser; J. P. Theurillat. Flora Alpina. Bologna, Zanichelli, 2004. ISBN 88-08-07159-6
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flora of Italy.|
- Acta Plantarum Checklist. Extensive photo gallery. Bibliography. Other features. Image access vis "Schede Botaniche" and "Galleria della Flora italiana"
- Ecoregions of Italy Sapienza
- Flora Italiana Digitale Distribution, images (via Google search), flowering time,altitude.
- Melanie Bilz, Shelagh P. Kell, Nigel Maxted and Richard V. Lansdown European Red List of Vascular Plants
- Walter and Gillett, 1998 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants
- Natura Mediterraneo Forum. Many images (see Galleria Tassonomica) In Italian.
- Franz Xaver/Pflanzen aus Italien
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