Flores de Mayo
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Flores de Mayo (Spanish for "Flowers of May") is a Catholic and Aglipayan festival held in the Philippines in the month of May. Lasting for a month, it is held in honor of the Virgin Mary. The Santacruzan refers to the pageant on the last day of Flores de Mayo, held in honour of Helena (known as Reyna Elena) and Constantine finding the True Cross in Jerusalem. That it is held in May probably stems from the old, Galician date of Roodmas, which was abolished by Pope John XXIII in 1960 in favour of the present September 14 observance.
The name of the festival is derived from the Spanish word flores ("flowers"); other names are "Flores de María" ("Flowers of Mary") or "Álay" (Filipino for "offering").
In the Bicolandia
In the Bicol Region, especially in Barangay Sabang, Naga, the Flores de Mayo is held every Wednesday and Saturday of May. It is headed by the Legion of Mary, Praesidium Cause of our Joy, and jointly sponsored by the Rañeses and Alcantara families. The ritual begins with the recitation of the rosary, and the last day is simply called the "katapusan".
The traditional "María" with its respective meaning is said after the recitation of the Salve Regina in Spanish and the Litany of Loreto. After the ceremony, simple snacks are given to the children who attended the devotion. Alabasyón (from the Spanish for "praising") is the term for prayers sung in honour of the Holy Cross.
In the Katagalugan
Amongst the Tagalog people, the custom began after the proclamation of the dogma of the Inmaculada Concepción (Immaculate Conception) in 1854 and after the circa 1867 publication of Mariano Sevilla's translation of the devotional "Flores de María" ("Flowers of Mary"), also known by its longer title "Mariquít na Bulaclac nasa Pagninilaynilay sa Buong Buannang Mayo ay Inihahandog nañg mañga Devoto cay María Santísima" ("Beautiful Flowers that in the Meditations in the Whole Month of May are Offered by Devotees to Mary Most Holy").
One famous Maytime tradition in Batangas (particularly in Lipa) is the Luglugan, or nightly devotion and party honouring the Virgin Mary. Held in structures called tuklóng, devotees offer flowers and prayers to an image of Mary every night. After the prayer, the Hermanos or Hermanas for the day will give away treats to the participants, followed by the party. The Luglugan lasts for a month until the Tapusan ("ending") which is marked with a Mass, a Santacruzan and procession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and capped with a final Luglugan that lasts until the following morning.
A Sagalà is a religio-historical beauty pageant held in many cities, towns, and even in small communities throughout the Philippines during the month of May. One of the most colourful aspects of this festival, the pageant depicts the finding of the Holy Cross by Queen Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. Many movie and television personalities participate in the events and are featured in major sagala. This festival was introduced by the Spaniards and has since become part of Filipino traditions identified with youth, love, and romance.
Prior to the Santacruzan, a novena is held in honour of the Holy Cross. The procession itself commemorates the search of the Holy Cross by Reyna Elena and her son, Emperor Constantine. After the Holy Cross was found in Jerusalem and translated to Constantinople (now İstanbul, Turkey), there was a joyful celebration for thanksgiving.
Order of the procession
The participants of this pageant would follow this typical arrangement:
Biblical Characters and Traditional Personifications
- Matusalém (Methuselah) - bearded and bent with age, he is depicted as riding a cart and looking preoccupied with toasting grains of sand in a pan over a fire. This is a reminder that the world is transient and will end up like the dust which he is toasting.
- Reyna Banderada (Queen with a Banner) - a young lady dressed in a long red gown, bearing a yellow pennant. She represents the arrival of Christianity.
- Aetas - represents the dark-skinned indigenous peoples of the Philippines such as the Aeta and Ati. These aboriginal groups predate the ancestors of today's majority Malayo-Polynesian Filipinos by tens of thousands of years.
- Reyna Mora (Queen Moor) - represents Muslim Filipinos, owing to Mary's status in Islam and mention in the 19th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an. Islam arrived in the Philippines two centuries before Christianity and today has the second most number of adherents in the country.
- Reyna ng Saba (Queen of Sheba) - represents the unnamed queen who visited King Solomon and was overwhelmed by his wisdom, power, and riches. She carries a jewelry box. The Queen of Sheba is further associated with the Santacruzan via her inclusion in the Golden Legend, in which she discerns the provenance of the True Cross.
- Rut at Noemi (Ruth and Naomi) - daughter-in-law and mother-in-law, and the ancestresses of King David and Jesus Christ.
- Reyna Judít (Queen Judith) - represents the Biblical widow Judith of Bethulia, who saved her city from the Assyrians by slaying the cruel general Holofernes. Also known as "Infanta Judít", she carries the head of her conquest in one hand and a sword in the other.
- Reyna Ester (Queen Esther) - the Jewish queen of Persia, who spared her people from death at the hands of Haman through her timely intervention with King Xerxes. She carries a sceptre.
- Cleopatra - represents Cleopatra VII Philopator, the famous last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Her male escort is often taken to represent Mark Antony.
- Samaritana/Sta. Photina (The Female Samaritan) - the woman at the well (traditionally named Photini) with whom Christ conversed with. She carries a jug on her shoulder.
- Sta. Verónica - the woman who wiped the face of Jesus who bears her Veil, which in traditional Hispanic iconography has three miraculous imprints of the Holy Face of Jesus instead of one.
- Tres Marías (Three Marys) - each Mary holds a unique attribute associated with the Entombment of Christ:
- Sta. María Magdalena (St Mary Magdalene) - a bottle of perfume, as Catholic tradition once conflated her with Mary of Bethany who wiped Jesus' feet;
- The Virgin Mary - a handkerchief, for she is in mourning;
- Sta. María de Cleofás (Mary, the mother of James, wife of Clopas) - bears a bottle of oil, alluding to her role as one of the Myrrhbearers.
- Reyna Fé (Queen Faith) - symbolises Faith, the first of the theological virtues. She carries a cross.
- Reyna Esperanza (Queen Hope) - symbolises Hope, the second theological virtue. She carries an anchor.
- Reyna Caridád (Queen Charity) - symbolises Charity, the third theological virtue. She carries a red-coloured heart.
- Reyna Sentenciada (Queen Convicted) - has her hands bound by a rope, she stands for the Early Christians and in particular the virgins, who were martyred for the Faith. She is sometimes accompanied by two Roman soldiers.
Each figure in this group alludes to a title of the Virgin Mary (usually found in the Litany of Loreto) or to a figure associated with her. Each letter of the angelic salutation "AVE MARÍA" is borne by an "angel"—a girl wearing a long white dress and wings.
- Reyna Abogada (Queen Advocate/Lawyer) - defender of the poor and the oppressed, she wears a black mortarboard cap, Graduation gown, and carries a large book. Her appearance is a representation of Mary, Help (Advocate) of Christians. In some Santacruzan processions, the figure of the Doctora ("female doctor") also makes an appearance, which may allude to "Mary, Health of the Sick".
- Reyna Justícia (Queen Justice) - a personification of the "Mirror of Justice", her attributes are a weighing scale and a sword.
- Divina Pastora (Divine Shepherdess) - bears a shepherd's staff.
- Reyna de los Ángeles (Queen of Angels) - bears a bouquet of white flowers, and is escorted by angels.
- Luklukan ng Karunungan (Seat of Wisdom) - carries a Bible.
- Susî ng Langit (Key of Heaven) - bears two keys, one gold and the other silver, a design adapted from the keys on the Papal arms.
- Reyna de las Estrellas (Queen of the Stars) - holds a wand topped with a star.
- Rosa Mystica (Mystical Rose)- carries a bouquet of roses.
- Pusó ni María/Corazón de María (Heart of Mary) - a pink heart.
- Reyna del Santísimo Rosario (Queen of the Most Holy Rosary) - she carries a large rosary.
- Reyna Luna (Queen Moon) - she represents the moon, which serves as the footstool of Mary as the Woman of the Apocalypse.
- Reyna Candelária (Queen of Candles) - she carries a long, lit taper, symbolising the Purification of Mary.
- Reyna de la Páz (Queen of Peace) - a dove, real or otherwise.
- Reyna de los Patriarcas (Queen of Patriarchs) - bears a wooden rod.
- Reyna de los Profetas (Queen of Prophets) - an hourglass.
- Reyna de los Confesores (Queen of Confessors) - a scroll.
- Reyna de los Mártires (Queen of Martyrs) - the Crown of thorns or a pierced heart, representing the Mater Dolorosa.
- Reyna de los Apóstoles (Queen of Apostles) - the palm of martyrdom.
- Reyna de los Santos (Queen of Saints) - a golden wreath, symbolic of the crown of the saints.
- Reyna del Cielo (Queen of Heaven) - a flower; accompanied by two little "angels".
- Reyna de las Vírgenes (Queen of Virgins) - a rosary or a lily, the latter signifying chastity; also escorted by two little "angels".
- Reyna de las Flores (Queen of Flowers) - The Queen of the Flores de Mayo. She carries a bouquet of flowers.
- Reyna Emperatríz (Queen Empress) - this is another representation of Saint Helena, this time alluding to the imperial Roman title of Augusta (meaning 'empress' or 'queen mother') which Constantine had bestowed upon her.
- Reyna Elena (Queen Helena) - always the last member of the procession, she is the actual personification of Helena of Constantinople, whose Invention of the True Cross is symbolised by her attribute: a small cross or crucifix that she carries in her arms. This considerably prestigious role is usually awarded to the most beautiful girl participating in the pageant. In some communities, the identity of the maiden playing Reyna Elena is a closely guarded secret until the event itself, while other places are a bit more accommodating, boasting of three Reynas Elenas in their Santacruzan.
- Constantíno - the escort of Reyna Elena representing the Emperor Constantine, who is almost always played by a small boy in princely raiment.
The procession is accompanied by the steady beat of a local brass band, playing and singing the Dios te salve (the Spanish version of the Hail Mary). Devotees hold lighted candles and sing the prayer as they walk. It is customary for males participating in the Santacruzan to wear the traditional Barong Tagalog and that the females wear any Filipiniana-inspired dress.
After the procession in some places, there is the pabítin game (in Cavite, it is called "agaw-bitin") that serves as a culminating activity for the children. The pabítin is a square-shaped bamboo grille or frame to which goodies (candies, fruits, small trinkets, etc.) are tied with thin strings. This grille in turn is tied to a long rope passed over a strong branch or pole some 2 metres above the ground. Children then gather under the frame as the it is slowly lowered, and they then jump as high as they could to grab the goodies while someone jerks it up and down repeatedly until all the prizes are gone. Sometimes the palosebo (the local version of the greasy pole) is also played, where a tall bamboo pole is smeared with grease which participants must climb to get a small red banner or a bag with a prize, such as ₱500 or a higher amount.