Florian Znaniecki

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Florian Znaniecki
Znaniecki Plaque Poznan.JPG
Florian Znaniecki plaque, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
Born (1882-01-15)January 15, 1882
Świątniki, Congress Poland
Died March 23, 1958(1958-03-23) (aged 76)
Illinois, USA
Nationality Polish
Fields Sociology
Institutions Adam Mickiewicz University (Poznań), Columbia University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Alma mater Jagiellonian University (Kraków)
Known for The Polish Peasant in Europe and America; humanistic coefficient
Influences William I. Thomas, Georg Simmel, Robert E. Park, Émile Durkheim

Florian Witold Znaniecki (15 January 1882 – 23 March 1958) was a Polish philosopher and sociologist who taught and wrote in Poland and the United States.

He is a major figure in the history of Polish and American sociology; the founder of Polish academic sociology, and of an entire school of thought in sociology.[1]

He won international renown as co-author, with William I. Thomas, of the study, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–20), which is considered the foundation of modern empirical sociology. He also made major contributions to sociological theory.

He was the 44th President of the American Sociological Association.

Life[edit]

Childhood and education[edit]

Florian Znaniecki was born 15 January 1882 at Świątniki, Congress Poland, a state controlled by the Russian Empire.[2] He received early schooling from tutors, then attended secondary schools at Warsaw and Częstochowa.[3] While in secondary school, he was a member of an underground study group, specializing in history, literature and philosophy.[3][4][5] His secondary-school grades were average at best, and he had to repeat a year of school; this was largely due to his extracurricular interest in Polish-language study, which was banned under the Russified school program.[4] As a youth, he wrote some poetry, including a drama, Cheops (1903).[6][7][8] A poem of his, "Do Prometeusza" ("To Prometheus"), was included in a 1900 anthology; however, neither he in later life, nor literary critics, judged his poetry outstanding.[8]

He entered the Imperial University of Warsaw in 1902, but was soon expelled after taking part in protests against the Russian administration's curtailment of student rights.[5][6] Threatened with conscription into the Imperial Russian Army, he chose to emigrate[6] and in early 1904 left Warsaw for Switzerland.[9]

During that period, he was briefly an editor at a French-language literary magazine, Nice Illustrée (late 1904 - early 1905);[3][10] faked his own death; briefly served in the French Foreign Legion in Algeria; and worked at a flea market, on a farm, in a traveling circus,[3][10] and as a librarian at the Polish Museum in Rapperswil, Switzerland.[11]

In Switzerland he soon resumed his university studies, first at the University of Geneva (1905–07), then at the University of Zurich (1907–08), eventually transferring to the Sorbonne in Paris, France (1908–09), where he attended lectures by sociologist Émile Durkheim.[3][12][13][14] In 1909, after the death of his supervisor Frédéric Rauh, he returned to Poland, where in 1910 he obtained his Ph.D. degree at Jagiellonian University, in Kraków, under a new supervisor, Maurycy Straszewski.[15]

Early Polish career[edit]

That year he also joined the Polish Psychological Society (Polskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne) in which he would be highly active over the next few years, becoming its vice president in the years 1913–14.[16] Much of his early academic work at that time could be classified as philosophy.[17] Already in 1909 he published his first academic work, a philosophical article Etyka filozoficzna i nauka o wartościach moralnych (Philosophical ethics and the science of moral values);[18] a year later he published Zagadnienie wartości w filozofii (The Problem of Values in Philosophy), based on his doctoral dissertation,[3][14] and a treatise Myśl i rzeczywistosc (Mind and Reality).[19] In 1912 he published a new book, Humanizm i Poznanie (Humanism and Knowledge) and a treatise Elementy rzeczywistości praktycznej (Elements of Practical Reality).[19] A year later, he published the annotated translation of Henri Bergson's Creative Evolution [20] and a treatise Znaczenie rozwoju świata i człowieka (The Meaning of World's and Human's Development).[21] 1914 saw the publication of treatises Formy i zasady twórczości moralnej (Forms and Rules of Moral Creativity)[22] and Zasada względności jako podstawa filizofii (The Rule of Relativity as a Foundation of Philosophy).[18] His works, published in Polish, were well receive in the community of Polish scholars and intelligentsia.[23]

Due to his past political activism, he was unable to gain a position at one of the major universities.[24] From 1912 to 1914 he was a lecturer at a novel female institute of higher education, the Higher Pedagogical Courses for Women (Wyższe Kursy Pedagogiczne dla Kobiet).[16] During his studies he worked at several European institutions dealing with Polish immigrants abroad; he would build on his experiences by becoming involved with the Society for the Welfare of Immigrants in Warsaw (Towarzystwo Opieki nad Wychodźcami), where he worked in the years 1910–1914.[13][14][25] By 1911 Znaniecki was a director of the Society and an editor of its journal, the Wychodźca Polski (Polish Immigrant, 1911–1912).[26] In that period, Znaniecki became an expert on Polish immigration, also authoring a 500-page report Wychodźtwo Sezonowe (Seasonal Immigration) for the government in 1914.[27]

Work with Thomas[edit]

A year earlier, in 1913, Znaniecki met William I. Thomas, an American sociologist who came to Poland as part of his research on the Polish immigrants in the United States. Thomas and Znaniecki begun to collaborate, and soon Thomas invited Znaniecki to Chicago in continue the work with him in the United States.[27][28] He came there in 1914, to work with Thomas as a research assistant, leaving Poland in July, on the very eve of World War I.[28][29] From 1917 to 1919 he was also a lecturer in sociology at the Chicago University.[30]

Their work culminated in the co-authored The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–1920),[31] considered to be a sociology classic.[32] It was his collaboration with Thomas that marked transition of Znaniecki's career from a philosopher to a sociologist.[33][34] Znaniecki stayed with Thomas in Chicago until the middle of 1919, when he moved to New York, following Thomas, who lost his job at Chicago due to the a social scandal.[35][36] That year Znaniecki published a new book, still mostly philosophical than sociological, Cultural Reality. Published in English, it was a synthesis of Znaniecki's philosophical thought.[33][37] In New York Thomas and Znaniecki carried research for the Carnegie Corporation on the process of Americanization of immigrants.[36] Znaniecki contributed to Thomas' Old World Traits Transplanted book, and published an anonymous, solicited article on that topic in The Atlantic Monthly magazine, February 1920 issue.[36][38]

Founding Polish sociology[edit]

Poland regained independence following the end of World War I in 1918. Znaniecki contacted the newly established Ministry of Religion and Education in 1919, offering to return to Poland if the Ministry could help him secure a professor position at one of the Polish universities.[39] He proposed creating a novel Institute of Sociology, but bureaucratic and communication delays resulted in that idea behind shelved, and he was offered a professorship in philosophy at the newly organized University in Poznań.[40] Znaniecki returned to the newly established Second Polish Republic in 1920, where soon he became the first Polish chair in sociology at the University in Poznań.[28][41][42] He did so by successfully renaming department, originally entitled "Third Philosophical Department", into a "Department of Sociology and Cultural Philosophy", doing a similar renaming for his chair, and establishing a new organizational unit, Sociological Seminary.[43] Also that year he founded the Polish Institute of Sociology (Polski Instutut Socjologiczny, PIS), the fifth oldest sociological institute in Europe.[44] From 1927 his department was officially renamed to the department of sociology, and from 1930, the department gained the ability to issue degrees in sociology.[45] From 1930 the Polish Institute of Sociology began publishing the first Polish sociological journal, the Przegląd Socjologiczny (Sociological Review), with Znaniecki being its chief editor from 1930 to 1939.[41][46][47] That year the Institute organized the first Polish academic conference for sociologists.[48] Due to his role as a founder of so many buildings blocks of sociology in Poland, Znaniecki is considered to be the father of that field in Poland.[1]

Late U.S. career[edit]

Keeping in touch with American sociologists, he lectured as a visiting professor[49] at Columbia University in New York in 1932–1934 and during the summer of 1939.[42] This summer ended the Polish stage of his career, since the German invasion on Poland and the start of World War II prevented his return to Poland.[42] He was already on a ship bound to Poland, but his travel was cut short in the United Kingdom. For a brief period he considered returning to Poland, where his wife and daughter remained, however faced with the occupation of Poland he returned to the United States, where his family arrived in 1940.[50]

Through help from his American colleagues, Znaniecki obtained an extension of his appointment at Columbia until mid-1940.[51] He then moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and in 1942 he obtained American citizenship, which allowed him to transition from a visiting to regular professorship.[52] He taught at Illinois until his retirement, deciding not to return to the communist People's Republic of Poland, established in the aftermath of World War II (despite an offer from the Poznań University).[42][53] In 1950 he retired, becoming a professor emeritus.[54]

He was the 44th President of the American Sociological Association (for the year 1954).[55] His Presidential Address, "Basic Problems of Contemporary Sociology," was delivered on September 8, 1954 at the Association's Annual Meeting, and was later published in the American Sociological Review.[56]

He died on March 23, 1958 in the town of Champaign, Illinois, USA.[57] The cause of death was arteriosclerosis.[58] His funeral took place on March 26, and he was buried at the Roselawn Champaign Cemetery .[58]

Family[edit]

In 1906 Znaniecki married a fellow Polish student at the University of Geneva, Emilia Szwejkowska.[59] They had a son, poet and writer Juliusz Znaniecki, born in 1908.[59] Emilia died in 1915.[59] Next year, Znaniecki married Eileen Markley (1886–1976).[59] They had one daughter, sociologist Helena Znaniecki Lopata, born in 1925.[59]

Importance[edit]

Jerzy Szacki notes that major contributions of Znaniecki include: the founding of sociology in Poland; his contributions to empirical sociology; and his contribution to sociological theory.[46] Szacki notes that Znaniecki's work attempted to bridge a number of gaps: between more theoretical approaches and the empirical sociology; between objectivity and subjectivity; between humanistic and naturalistic methodologies and points of views; and between American and European intellectual traditions.[60]

Szacki notes that although theoretical contributions of Znaniecki were overshadowed by the rise of Parson's functionalism, which pushed Znaniecki's contributions to the background,[61] offered the most ambitious sociological theory known to America before Parson.[60]

His most famous work ramains The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–1920), coauthored with William I. Thomas. Some of his other major works are Wstęp do socjologii (Introduction to Sociology, 1922), The Method of Sociology (1934), Social Actions (1936), The Social Role of the Man of Knowledge (1940) and Cultural Sciences (1952).[1]

Themes[edit]

Empirical sociology[edit]

Znaniecki's contributions to empirical sociology begun after and were influenced by his collaboration with William I. Thomas.[46] The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–1920, a five-tome work he wrote together with William I. Thomas, is considered to be a one of the classics of empirical sociology.[1] It is a study of Polish immigrants and their families based on personal documents.[1] The work became a landmark study of Americanization - i.e. how do new immigrants to United States become "Americans".[62][63]

This work represents the most valued contribution of Znaniecki to the field of empirical sociology; most of his other works were focused on theory, with the only other notable exception being Miasto w świadomości jego obywateli (City in the Consciousness of its Citizens, 1931).[64][65]

Sociology: theory and definition[edit]

One of the key elements of Znaniecki's sociological theory is to see sociology in particular, and social sciences in general, as a field of science uniquely different from the natural sciences.[66] Znaniecki defines sociology as a study of social actions.[66] His recommended methodology was analytic induction: analysis of typical case studies, and generalization from them.[66]

Znaniecki's theories form a major part of action theory in sociology,[61] and his work is a major part of the foundation of humanistic sociology.[61] Another term connected to Znaniecki's theories is "systematic sociology" (socjologia systematyczna).[67] He attempted to create a grand sociological theory, one that would bridge the gap between more theoretical approaches and empirical sociology.[65]

Znaniecki criticized the widespread definition of sociology as a study of society.[68][69] According to the culturalist perspective, sociology is a study of culture (although it is not the study of culture, as Znaniecki recognized that other social sciences study culture as well).[1][70] His definition of sociology has been described as "a cultural science whose function is to study systems of social interaction based upon patterns of values and norms of behaviour, through the use of the humanistic coefficient", or more simply, "the investigation of organized, interdependent interaction among human beings."[69] The part of the culture that sociology focused on was that of social relation or interaction.[68] Znaniecki saw culture as a field that is separate from nature, but also, from perception of individuals.[1] The essence of culture are socially constructed objects.[1] As one of the first sociologists, he started analyzing personal documents like letters, autobiographies, diaries and similar items.[71] He considered the analysis of such documents an important part of the humanistic coefficient method.[1]

Znaniecki saw sociology as an objective, inductive and generalizig science.[69] According to Szacki, for Znaniecki sociology was a nomothetic science that should be able to use a similar methodology as natural sciences[72] (however, Helena Znaniecki Lopata in her introduction to Social Relations and Social Roles contradicts Szacki, writes that for Znaniecki, sociology is a science "whose subject matter calls for a method different from that of natural sciences."[69]). In 1934 he formulated the principle of analytic induction, designed to identify universal propositions and causal laws.[73] He contrasted it with enumerative research, which provided mere correlations and could not account for exceptions in statistical relationships.[73] He was also critical of the statistical method, which he did not see as very useful.[73]

In addition to the science of sociology, Znaniecki was also deeply interested in the larger field of the sociology of science.[1] He analyzed the social roles of scientists, and the concept of a school of thought.[1]

Four social systems[edit]

According to Znaniecki, sociology can be divided into the study of four dynamic social systems: social action theory, social relation theory, social actors theory and social groups theory.[74] For Znaniecki, social actions were a foundation of a society, as they give rise to more complex social relations, and he saw that theory as the foundation of all others.[1][74] Unlike Max Weber, he did not believe that everything can be reduced to social actions; he was also quite skeptical of any insights coming from the science of psychology, which he held in low esteem.[74]

The four major forms of cooperative interaction, or four social systems in growing complexity, included:

  • social actions (Polish czyny/czynności społeczne) - the most basic type of a social fact;[75]
  • social relations (Polish stosunki społeczne) - need at least two people and a mutual obligation; study of social relations is the study of norms regulating social actions;[76]
  • social personalities (Polish osoby/osobowości społeczne) - the combined picture that emerges from a number of different social roles that an individual has;[77]
  • social group (Polish grupy społeczne) - any group which is recognized by some as a separate entity;[78] Znaniecki saw the society as a group of groups, but denied it the primacy as an area that sociologist should focus on (at the same time recognizing that most sociologists differ on this).[79]

The four category division as described above is as it described in his 1934 The Method of Sociology. By 1958 Znaniecki reformulated it, and instead talked of social relations, social roles, social groups and societies.[69][80]

Sociology of culture[edit]

Znaniecki coined the term humanistic coefficient, a method of conducting social research that refers to a way of data analysis stressing the importance of the perception of the analyzed experience by its participants.[81] According to the humanistic coefficient, all social facts are created by social actors, and can only be understood from their perspective.[82] Thus the sociologist should study reality by trying to understand how others see the world, not as an independent observer (objectively); in other words the scientist needs to understand the world of the subject.[82][83] While some have criticized this approach as too close to subjectivism, Znaniecki himself saw is as anti-subjectivist; he noted that social facts like cultural systems can exist even if nobody perceives their existence.[84] He was also critical of any value coming from personal, subjective observations, arguing that such observations have value only if they can be objectively described.[85] Thus Znaniecki argued that the difference between natural and social sciences lies not in the difference between objective and subjective experiences, but in the subject of what is being studied: for Znaniecki, natural sciences studied things, and social sciences - cultural values.[84]

Florian Znaniecki characterized the world as caught within two contrary modes of reflection; these were idealism and realism.[86][87] Znaniecki proposed a third way, which he labeled culturalism.[1][86][87] Znaniecki's culturalism is one of the ideas that founded modern sociological views of antipositivism and antinaturalism.[82] This term was introduced in his Cultural Reality (1919) in English language and would be translated to Polish as kulturalizm; previously Znaniecki discussed this concept in Polish language as humanism (humanizm).[37]

Other themes[edit]

Znaniecki's work touched on many other areas of sociology, such as intergroup conflict, urban sociology, and rural sociology.[88]

Works[edit]

Znaniecki's first academic works of the 1910s were more philosophical then sociological; from the 1920s his works was primarily sociological in nature.[7] His Cultural Reality (1919) was a synthesis of his philosophical thought,[37] but simultaneous publication of the much more popular The Polish Peasant ... (1918–1920) made his name be primarily perceived in academic circles as that of a sociologist, rather than a philosopher.[34] His early works were focused on the analysis of culture, and characterized by strong criticism of the principles of sociological naturalism.[89] Szacki notes a puzzling gap in Znaniecki's research, which was that while he was well read and in discussion with most past and present theories, he mostly ignored the works of some notable sociologists of his time, such as Max Weber, Vilfredo Pareto and Talcott Parsons.[60] In turn, his works were in close discussion with those of William I. Thomas, Georg Simmel, Robert E. Park and Émile Durkheim.[60]

His The Method of Sociology first introduced his concept of divisions within subfields of sociology.[42] Some of his most notable works included two books published in the same year (1952): Modern Nationalities and Cultural Sciences . The first is an analysis of the evolution of national culture societies and the second presents a theoretical study of the relation between sociology and other sciences.[42] He never finished the work on his magnum opus Systematic Sociology, which would eventually be collected and published posthumously in its unfinished, but final form, as the Social Relations and Social Roles: The Unfinished Systematic Sociology (1965).[42][90]

List of works[edit]

Roughly half of Znaniecki's published works are in English; the rest, in Polish.[46]

In English:

  • The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (with William I. Thomas, 5 vols., 19l8-20).
  • "The Principle of Relativity and Philosophical Absolutism", The Philosophical Review, vol. 24, no. 2 (March 1915), pp. 150–64.
  • Cultural Reality, Chicago, 1919.
  • The Laws of Social Psychology, Warsaw, 1926.
  • The Method of Sociology, New York, 1934.
  • Social Actions, New York 1936.
  • The Social Role of the Man of Knowledge, New York, 1940.
  • Cultural Sciences: Their Origin and Development, Urbana, 1952.
  • Modern Nationalities, Urbana, 1952.
  • Social Relations and Social Roles: The Unfinished Systematic Sociology, San Francisco, 1965
  • On Humanistic Sociology (a selection of works edited by R. Bierstedt), Chicago, 1969.
  • "The Subject Matter and Tasks of the Science of Knowledge", translated by Christopher Kasparek (first published in Polish, 1923), Polish Contributions to the Science of Science, edited by Bohdan Walentynowicz, Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1982, ISBN 83–01–03607–9, pp. 1–81. (Znaniecki proposes the founding of a new empirically based science which would study science itself, and which he terms "the science of knowledge"; Znaniecki's proposed meta-science has since been called by various other names, including "the science of science", "the sociology of science", and "logology".)
  • The Social Role of the University Student, Poznań, 1994.

In Polish:

  • Zagadnienie wartości w filozofii (The Question of Value in Philosophy), Warsaw, 1910.
  • Humanizm i poznanie (Humanism and Knowledge), Warsaw, 1912.
  • Upadek cywilizacji zachodniej: Szkic z pogranicza filozofii kultury i socjologii (The Decline of Western Civilization: A Sketch from the Interface of Cultural Philosophy and Sociology), Poznań, 1921.
  • Wstęp do socjologii (Introduction to Sociology), Poznań, 1922.
  • Socjologia wychowania (The Sociology of Education), Warsaw (vol. I: 1928; vol. II: 1930).
  • Miasto w świadomości jego obywateli (The City in the Consciousness of Its Citizens), Poznań, 1931.
  • Ludzie teraźniejsi a cywilizacja przyszłości (Contemporary People and the Civilization of the Future), Lwów, 1934.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Piotr Sztompka (2002). Socjologia: Analiza społeczeństwa. Znak. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-83-240-0218-4. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1986). A Commemorative Book in Honor of Florian Znaniecki on the Centenary of His Birth: Papers and Communiques Presented to International Scientific Symposium on 3-4 December 1982 at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. UAM. p. 13. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Helena Znaniecki Lopata (January 1965). Social Relations and Social Roles: The Unfinished Systematic Sociology. Ardent Media. p. 13. GGKEY:ZNTB80GRBQ4. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  5. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  6. ^ a b c Zygmunt Dulczewski (1 January 1994). "Florian Znaniecki: Life History". What Are Sociological Problems?. University of Illinois Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-83-85060-75-8. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Jerzy Szacki (2002). Historia mysli sociologicznej. Panstwowe wydawnictwo naukowe. p. 754. ISBN 83-01-13844-0. 
  8. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 25–33. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  9. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 37. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  10. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1 January 1994). "Florian Znaniecki: Life History". What Are Sociological Problems?. University of Illinois Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-83-85060-75-8. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  11. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 43. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  12. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 45. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  13. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1 January 1994). "Florian Znaniecki: Life History". What Are Sociological Problems?. University of Illinois Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-83-85060-75-8. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c Zygmunt Dulczewski (1 January 1994). "Florian Znaniecki: Life History". What Are Sociological Problems?. University of Illinois Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-83-85060-75-8. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  16. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 5153. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  17. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 55. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  18. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 54. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  19. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 63. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  20. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  21. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 81. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  22. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 95. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  23. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 101. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  24. ^ Martin Bulmer (15 August 1986). The Chicago School of Sociology: Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research. University of Chicago Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-226-08005-5. 
  25. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 106. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  26. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  27. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 131–134. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  28. ^ a b c Helena Znaniecki Lopata (January 1965). Social Relations and Social Roles: The Unfinished Systematic Sociology. Ardent Media. p. 14. GGKEY:ZNTB80GRBQ4. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  29. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 140. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  30. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  31. ^ Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
  32. ^ Martin Bulmer (15 August 1986). The Chicago School of Sociology: Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research. University of Chicago Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-226-08005-5. 
  33. ^ a b Martin Bulmer (15 August 1986). The Chicago School of Sociology: Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research. University of Chicago Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-226-08005-5. 
  34. ^ a b Zygmunt Dulczewski (1984). Florian Znaniecki: życie i dzieło (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Poznańskie. p. 189. ISBN 978-83-210-0482-2. 
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