Flower-class corvette

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For other naval ship classes of the same name, see Flower class.
HMCS Regina K234 CT-252.jpg
Class overview
Operators:

During World War II (Allies):
 Royal Navy
 Royal Canadian Navy
 United States Navy

 Free French Naval Forces
 Belgian Navy
 Hellenic Navy
 Royal Indian Navy
 Royal Netherlands Navy
 Royal New Zealand Navy
 Royal Norwegian Navy
 South African Navy

During World War II (Axis)—seized during construction:

 Kriegsmarine

After World War II:

 Argentine Navy
 Chilean Navy
 Dominican Navy
 Hellenic Navy
 Royal Indian Navy
 Israeli Navy
 Irish Naval Service
 South African Navy
 Bolivarian Armada of Venezuela
 People's Liberation Army Navy
 Royal Thai Navy
Completed: 225 (original), 69 (modified)
Cancelled: 5 (original), 6 (modified)
Lost: 33 World War II (22 to submarines)
Preserved: 1
General characteristics
Original Flower-class corvette
Type: Corvette
Displacement: 925 long tons (940 t; 1,036 short tons)
Length: 205 ft (62.5 m)o/a
Beam: 33 ft (10.1 m)
Draught: 11.5 ft (3.51 m)
Propulsion: 1939-1940 program
  • single shaft
  • 2 × fire tube Scotch boilers
  • 1 × double acting triple-expansion reciprocating steam engine
  • 2,750 ihp (2,050 kW)

1940-1941 program

  • single shaft
  • 2 × water tube boilers
  • 1 × double acting triple-expansion reciprocating steam engine
  • 2,750 ihp (2,050 kW)
Speed: 16 knots (29.6 km/h)
Range: 3,500 nautical miles (6,482 km) at 12 knots (22.2 km/h)
Complement: 85
Sensors and
processing systems:
1 × SW1C or 2C radar
1 × Type 123A or Type 127DV sonar
Armament: 1 × 4 inch BL Mk.IX single gun

2 × Vickers .50 machine guns (twin)
2 × .303 inch Lewis machine gun (twin)
2 × Mk.II depth charge throwers
2 × depth charge rails with 40 depth charges

originally fitted with minesweeping gear, later removed
General characteristics
Modified Flower-class corvette
Displacement: 1,015 long tons (1,031 t; 1,137 short tons)
Length: 208 ft (63.4 m)o/a
Beam: 33 ft (10.1 m)
Draught: 11 ft (3.35 m)
Propulsion: single shaft

2 × water tube boilers
1 × 4-cylinder triple-expansion reciprocating steam engine

2,750 ihp (2,050 kW)
Speed: 16 knots (29.6 km/h)
Range: 3,500 nautical miles (6,482 km) at 12 knots (22.2 km/h)
Complement: 90
Sensors and
processing systems:
1 × Type 271 SW2C radar
1 × Type 144 sonar
Armament: 1 × 4 inch BL Mk.IX single gun

1 × 2-pounder. Mk.VIII single "pom-pom" AA gun
2 × 20 mm Oerlikon single
1 × Hedgehog A/S mortar
4 × Mk.II depth charge throwers

2 depth charge rails with 70 depth charges

The Flower-class corvette [1][2][3] (also referred to as the Gladiolus-class)[4] was a British class of 267 corvettes used during World War II, specifically with the Allied navies as anti-submarine convoy escorts during the Battle of the Atlantic. The generic term "Flower" is derived from the Royal Navy's use of flower names for ships of this class.

The majority served during World War II with the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Canadian Navy (RCN). Several ships built largely in Canada were transferred from the RN to the United States Navy (USN) under the lend-lease program, seeing service in both navies. Some corvettes transferred to the USN were manned by the US Coast Guard.[5] The vessels serving with the US Navy were known as Temptress- and Action-class patrol gunboats. Other Flower-class corvettes served with the Free French Naval Forces, the Royal Netherlands Navy, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Indian Navy, the Royal Hellenic Navy, the Royal New Zealand Navy and, immediately post-war, the South African Navy.

After World War II many surplus Flower-class vessels saw worldwide use in other navies, as well as civilian use. HMCS Sackville is the only member of the class to be preserved as a museum ship.

Class designation[edit]

The term "corvette" was originally a French name for a small sailing warship, intermediate between the frigate and the sloop-of-war. In the 1830s the term was adopted by the RN for sailing warships of roughly similar size, primarily operating in the shipping protection role. With the arrival of steam power, paddle- and later screw-driven corvettes were built for the same purpose, growing in power, size, and armament over the decades. In 1877 the RN abolished the "corvette" as a traditional category; corvettes and frigates were then combined into a new category, "cruiser".

The months leading up to World War II saw the RN return to the concept of a small escort warship being used in the shipping protection role. The Flower-class was based on the design of the Southern Pride, a whale-catcher; apparently Winston Churchill labelled them "corvettes", thus restoring the title for the RN.[citation needed] As such, there is no linear link between the Flower-class and the cruising vessels of pre-1877.

There are two distinct groups of vessels in this class: the original Flower-class, which was a group of 225 vessels ordered during the 1939 and 1940 building programs; and the modified Flower-class, which followed with a further 69 vessels ordered from 1940 onward. The modified Flowers were slightly larger and somewhat better armed.

In addition, those Flower-class vessels that saw service with the USN are known as Action-class gunboats and carried the hull classification symbol PG (Patrol Gunboat), regardless of whether they were original or modified designs.

Design[edit]

Officers on the open bridge of HMCS Trillium

In early 1939, with the risk of war with Nazi Germany increasing, it was clear to the Royal Navy that it needed more escort ships to counter the threat from Kriegsmarine U-boats. One particular concern was the need to protect shipping off the east coast of Britain. What was needed was something larger and faster than trawlers, but still cheap enough to be built in large numbers, preferably at small merchant shipyards, as larger yards were already busy. To meet this requirement, the Smiths Dock Company of Middlesbrough, a specialist in the design and build of fishing vessels, offered a development of its 700 ton, 16 knots (18 mph; 30 km/h) whale catcher Southern Pride.[6][7] They were intended as small convoy escort ships that could be produced quickly and cheaply in large numbers. Despite naval planners' intentions that they be deployed for coastal convoys, their long range meant that they became the mainstay of Mid-Ocean Escort Force convoy protection during the first half of the war.

The Flower-class became an essential resource for North Atlantic convoy protection until larger vessels such as destroyer escorts and frigates could be produced in sufficient quantities. The simple design of the Flower-class using parts and techniques (scantlings) common to merchant shipping meant they could be constructed in small commercial shipyards all over the United Kingdom and eastern Canada, where larger (or more sophisticated) warships[8] could not be built. Additionally, the use of commercial machinery meant the largely Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve crews that were manning the corvettes would be familiar with their operation.

Flower-class vessels were slow for a warship with maximum speed of 16 kn (30 km/h). They were also very lightly armed as they were intended solely for anti-submarine warfare; many of the RCN's original Flower-class ships were initially fitted with minesweeping equipment, while virtually all of the modified Flowers were fitted with a limited anti-aircraft capability.

The original Flowers had the standard RN layout, consisting of a raised forecastle, a well deck, then the bridge or wheelhouse, and a continuous deck running aft. The crew quarters were in the foc'sle while the galley was at the rear, making for poor messing arrangements.[9]

The modified Flowers saw the forecastle extended aft past the bridge to the aft end of the funnel, a variation known as the "long forecastle" design. Apart from providing a very useful space where the whole crew could gather out of the weather, the added weight improved the ships' stability and speed and was retrospectively applied to a number of the original Flower-class vessels during the mid and latter years of the war.

The original Flowers had a mast located immediately forward the bridge, a notable exception to naval practice at that time. The modified Flowers saw the mast returned to the normal position immediately aft of the bridge; however, this does not seem to have been done in all of the modified builds or conversions of the original vessels.

A cruiser stern finished the appearance for all vessels in the class.

Orders[edit]

The RN ordered 145 Flower-class corvettes in 1939, the first 26 on 25 July with a further batch of 30 on 31 August, all under the 1939 Pre-War Programme. Following the outbreak of World War II, the British Admiralty ordered another 20 on 19 September (all from Harland & Wolff) under the 1939 War Programme. This was followed by an order for a further ten Flower-class corvettes from other British shipbuilders two days later. Another 18 were ordered on 12 December and an additional two on 15 December, again from British shipbuilders. The RN ordered the last ten vessels (under the 1939 War Programme) from Canadian shipbuilders in January 1940.

Thus, by the end of January 1940, a total of 116 ships were building or on order to this initial design. The 10 vessels ordered from Canadian shipbuilders were transferred to the RCN upon completion. Another four vessels were ordered at Smiths Dock Company for the French Navy, the first ship being completed for the Free French Naval Forces in mid-1940 and the other three being taken over by the RN. Another 31 Flowers were ordered by the RN under the 1940 War Programme, but six of these (ordered from Harland & Wolff) were cancelled on 23 January 1941.

The RN ordered 27 modified Flower-class corvettes under the 1941 and 1942 War Programmes. British shipbuilders were contracted to build seven of these vessels under the 1941 Programme and 5 vessels under the 1942 Programme; however, two vessels (one from each year's Programme) were later cancelled. Additionally the RN ordered 15 modified Flowers from Canadian shipyards under the 1941 programme; eight of these were transferred to the USN under the Lend-Lease Programme.

The RCN ordered 70 original and 34 modified Flower-class from Canadian shipbuilders. The Canadian shipbuilders also built seven original Flowers ordered by the USN; however, these vessels were transferred to the RN under the Lend-Lease Programme upon completion as wartime shipbuilding production in the United States had reached the level where the USN could dispense with vessels it had ordered in Canada. The RCN vessels had several design variations from their RN counterparts: the "bandstand," where the aft pom-pom gun was mounted, was moved to the rear of the superstructure; the galley was also moved forward, immediately abaft the engine room.

Shortly after the outbreak of war the French Navy ordered 18 Flower-class vessels;[10] 12 from UK yards, two from Ateliers et Chantiers de France at Dunkirk and four from Chantiers de Penhoët at Saint-Nazaire.[11] The two At. & Ch. de France ships are listed as "cancelled"[12] but the four Penhoët ships were under construction at the time of the Fall of France and were seized by Nazi Germany. Three were completed for Kriegsmarine service and commissioned in 1943–44 as the PA class patrol ships.[11][13]

Armament[edit]

Typical BL 4 inch Mk IX gun mounting, here seen on HMS Vervain
Loading a depth charge thrower on HMS Dianthus
QF2 Mk. VIII pom-pom gun, from HMCS Kamloops

The original Flower-class were fitted with a 4 inch (102 mm) gun on the bow, depth charge racks carrying 40 charges on the stern, a minesweeping winch, and a 2-pounder (40 mm) pom-pom gun on a "bandstand" over the engine room.

Due to initial shortages, a pair of Lewis guns was sometimes substituted for the pom-pom, which would have left the ship very vulnerable to aircraft attack in its envisaged role of coastal convoy escort and patrol in the North Sea. The long-range endurance of the vessels, coupled with early war-time shortages of larger escort warships, saw Flowers assigned to trans-Atlantic convoy escort where Luftwaffe fighter-bombers were rarely encountered. Vessels assigned to the Mediterranean Sea usually had their anti-aircraft capability significantly upgraded.

Underwater detection capability was provided by a fixed ASDIC dome; this was later modified to be retractable. Subsequent inventions such as the High Frequency Radio Detection Finder (Huff-Duff) were later added, along with various radar systems (such as the Type 271), which proved particularly effective in low-visibility conditions in the North Atlantic.

The Flower-class had been designed for inshore patrol and harbour anti-submarine defence; therefore, many required minor modifications when the Allied navies began deploying these vessels as trans-Atlantic convoy escorts. These small warships could be supported by any small dockyard or naval station, so many ships came to have a variety of different weapons systems and design modifications depending upon when and where they were refitted; there is really no such thing as a 'standard Flower-class corvette'

Several of the major changes that vessels in the class underwent are indicated below, in a typical chronological order:

  • Original twin mast configuration changed to single mast in front of the bridge, then moved behind the bridge for improved visibility.
  • Heavy minesweeping gear removed for deep-sea escort work and to improve range.
  • Galley relocated from the stern to midships.
  • Extra depth-charge storage racks were fitted at the stern. Later, more depth charges stowed along walkways.
  • Hedgehog fitted to enable remote attacks while keeping ASDIC contact.
  • Surface radar fitted in a "lantern" housing on the bridge.
  • Forecastle lengthened to midships to provide more accommodation and better seaworthiness. Several vessels were given a "three-quarters length" extension.
  • Increased flare at the bow. This and the above modification created the modified Flower design for subsequent orders.
  • Various changes to the bridge, typically lowering and lengthening it. Enclosed compass house removed.
  • Extra twin Lewis guns mounted on the bridge or engine room roof.
  • Oerlikon 20 mm cannons fitted, usually two on the bridge wings but sometimes as many as six spread out along the engine-room roof, depending on the theatre of operations.

Note that any particular ship may have had any mix of these (including none), in any order, or other specialist one-off modifications. Ships allocated to other navies such as the RCN or USN usually had different armament (3 inch {76 mm}/50 cal) and deck layouts.

A major difference between the RN vessels and the RCN, USN, and other navies' vessels was the provision of upgraded ASDIC and radar. The RN was a world leader in developing these technologies, and thus RN Flowers were somewhat better equipped for remote detection of enemy submarines. A good example of this is the difficulty that RCN Flowers had in intercepting U-boats with their Canadian-designed SW1C metric radar while the RN vessels were equipped with the technologically advanced Type 271 centimetric sets. In addition, RCN vessels were incapable of operating gyrocompasses, making ASDIC attacks more difficult.

Operations[edit]

Flower-class corvettes were used extensively by both the RN and RCN during the Battle of the Atlantic. They also saw limited service elsewhere with the RN, as well as the USN and several Allied navies such as the Royal Netherlands Navy, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Hellenic Navy, the Free French Naval Forces, the Royal Indian Navy, and the Royal New Zealand Navy. The Belgian Navy manned some of these vessels during WW2, and have continued to use Flower names for their minehunters to this day.

Most Royal Navy Flower-class ships drew their officers and crew from the Royal Naval Reserve and the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). Many RN Flowers had captains drawn from the Merchant Navy.

Service on Flowers in the North Atlantic was typically cold, wet, monotonous and uncomfortable. Every dip of the forecastle into an oncoming wave was followed by a cascade of water into the well deck amidships.[14] Men at action stations were drenched with spray, and water entered living spaces through hatches opened to access ammunition magazines.[14] Interior decks were constantly wet and condensation dripped from the overheads.[14] The head (or sanitary toilet) was drained by a straight pipe to the ocean; and a reverse flow of the icy North Atlantic would cleanse the backside of those using it during rough weather.[14] By 1941 corvettes carried twice as many crewmen as anticipated in the original design.[14] Men slept on lockers or tabletops or in any dark place that offered a little warmth.[14] The inability to store perishable food meant a reliance on preserved food such as corned-beef and powdered potato for all meals.[15]

The Flowers were nicknamed "the pekingese of the ocean". They had a reputation of having poor sea-handling characteristics, most often rolling in heavy seas, with complete 80-degree rolls (40 degrees each side of the normal upright position) being fairly common; it was said they "would roll on wet grass".[16] Many crewmen suffered severe motion sickness for a few weeks until they acclimatised to shipboard life.[14] Although poor in their sea-handling characteristics, the Flowers were extremely seaworthy; no Allied sailor was ever lost overboard from a Flower during World War II, outside combat.

A typical action by a Flower during convoy escort duties should she encounter a surfaced U-boat was to run directly at the submarine, forcing it to dive and thus limiting its speed and manoeuvrability. The corvette would then keep the submarine down and pre-occupied with avoiding depth charge attacks long enough to allow the convoy to pass safely. The 16-knot (30 km/h) top speed of the Flower-class ships made effective pursuit of a surfaced U-boat (about 17 knots) impossible, though it was adequate to manoeuvre around submerged U-boats or convoys, both of which ran at a typical maximum of 8 knots, and sometimes much less in poor weather. The low speed also made it difficult for Flowers to catch up to the convoy again after action.[9]

This technique was hampered when the Kriegsmarine began deploying its U-boats in "wolf-pack" attacks, which were intended to overwhelm the escort warships of a convoy and allow at least one of the submarines to attack the merchant vessels. Upgrades in sensors and armament for the Flowers, such as radar, HF/DF, depth-charge projectors, and ASDIC, meant these small warships were well equipped to detect and defend against such attacks, but the tactical advantage often lay with the attackers, who could operate a cat-and-mouse series of attacks intended to draw the defending Flower off-station.

Success for the Flowers, therefore, should be measured in terms of tonnage protected, rather than U-boats sunk. Typical reports of convoy actions by these craft include numerous instances of U-boat detection near a convoy, followed by brief engagements using guns or depth-charges and a rapid return to station as another U-boat took advantage of the initial skirmish to attack the unguarded convoy. Continuous actions of this kind against a numerically superior U-boat pack demanded considerable seamanship skills from all concerned, and were very wearing on the crews.

Thirty-six ships in the class were lost during World War II, many due to enemy action, some to collision with Allied warships and merchant ships. One, sunk in shallow water, was raised and repaired. Of the vessels lost to enemy action, 22 were torpedoed by U-boats, five were mined, and four were sunk by enemy aircraft. The Flower-class corvettes are credited with participating in the sinking of 47 German and four Italian submarines.

Construction of the Flower-class was superseded toward the end of the war as larger shipyards concentrated on River-class frigates, and smaller yards on the improved Castle-class corvette design.

The Flower-class represented fully half of all Allied convoy escort vessels in the North Atlantic during World War II.

Ships[edit]

The following tables list all Flower-class corvettes which served in the Allied navies during World War II.

Flower-class (original)[edit]

Free French Navy[edit]

Free French Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Aconit Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Troon 25 March 1940 31 March 1941 23 July 1941 30 April 1947 Formerly HMS Aconite. Transferred on 23 July 1941 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN on 30 April 1947. Sold and rebuilt as buoy boat (towing vessel) Terje 11 for United Whalers. 1951 converted to a whale catcher. 1960 sold and renamed Southern Terrier. 1963 sold to Norway and 1967 scrapped in Belgium.
Alysse George Brown & Co., Greenock 24 June 1940 3 March 1941 17 June 1941 9 February 1942 Formerly HMS Alyssum. Transferred on 17 June 1941 to the Free French Navy. Torpedoed and sunk on 9 February 1942 by U-654 while escorting convoy ON-60 about 420 nautical miles (780 km) east of Cape Race at 46-00N, 44-00W. 36 crew were killed.
Commandant d'Estienne d'Orves Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 26 May 1941 17 January 1942 23 May 1942 31 May 1947 Formerly HMS Lotus. Transferred on 23 May 1942 to the Free French Navy upon completion. Returned to RN on 31 May 1947 and sold. Rebuilt as buoy boat Southern Lotus for Christian Salvesen. 1953 converted to a whale catcher. 1966 in tow from Melsomvik to Bruges for scrapping stranded near Hvide Sande on the Jutland coast.
Commandant Detroyat Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 19 September 1940 9 June 1941 16 September 1941 1947 Formerly HMS Coriander. Transferred on 16 September 1941 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN in 1947.
Commandant Drogou Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 December 1940 11 April 1941 15 January 1942 May 1947 Formerly HMS Chrysanthemum. Transferred on 26 January 1942 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN in May 1947 Sold and rebuilt as buoy boat Terje 10 for United Whalers. 1959 sold to Portugal and renamed Carvalho Araújo (A524) and used as survey vessel. 1975 to Angola.
La Bastiaise Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 18 November 1939 8 April 1940 22 June 1940 22 June 1940 First and only Flower-class corvette commissioned into the French Navy before the Fall of France. Mined during sea trials off Hartlepool on day of her commissioning.
Lobelia Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 27 June 1940 15 February 1941 16 July 1941 April 1947 Formerly HMS Lobelia. Transferred on 16 July 1941 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN in April 1947. Sold and rebuilt as whale catcher Thorgeir for A/S Thor Dahl. Continuous upgrading after the catching seasons until 1955. 1955 steam machinery replaced by a Sulzer diesel engine. 1970 scrapped in Norway.
Mimosa Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 22 April 1940 18 January 1941 11 May 1941 9 June 1942 Formerly HMS Mimosa. Transferred on 11 May 1941 to the Free French Navy. Torpedoed and sunk on 9 June 1942 by U-124 while escorting convoy ONS-100 at 52-12N, 32-37W. 58 French and 6 British crew were killed; the French crew being largely from Saint Pierre and Miquelon. 4 survivors rescued by HMCS Assiniboine.
Renoncule W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 19 July 1940 25 June 1941 28 July 1941 1947 Formerly HMS Ranunculus. Transferred on 28 July 1941 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN in 1947 and sold. Converted to buoy boat Southern Lily. 1952 rebuilt as whale catcher and used in the Antarctic until 1963. 1967 scrapped in Belgium.
Roselys J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen 4 November 1940 28 May 1941 19 September 1941 1947 Formerly HMS Sundew. Transferred on 19 September 1941 to the Free French Navy. Returned to RN in 1947.

Royal Canadian Navy[edit]

Royal Canadian Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid Off Fate
Agassiz Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd., North Vancouver (city), British Columbia 29 April 1940 15 August 1940 23 January 1941 14 June 1945 Sold on 16 November 1945.
Alberni Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, British Columbia 29 April 1940 22 August 1940 4 February 1941 21 August 1944 Torpedoed and sunk on 21 August 1944 by U-480 while escorting a convoy in the English Channel south of St. Catherine's Point at 50-18N, 00-51W. 59 crew killed and 31 rescued by RN motor torpedo boats.
Algoma Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 18 June 1940 17 December 1940 11 July 1941 6 July 1945 Transferred in 1945 to Venezuela as Constitucion.
Amherst Saint John Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Saint John, New Brunswick 23 May 1940 4 December 1940 5 August 1941 16 July 1945 Wrecked in 1945 while under tow.
Arrowhead Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy, Quebec 11 April 1940 8 August 1940 22 November 1940 27 June 1945 Formerly HMS Arrowhead. Transferred to RCN 22 November 1940. Returned to RN 27 June 1945.
Arvida Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 28 February 1940 21 September 1940 22 May 1941 14 June 1945 Sold in 1950 to Spain as mercantile La Ceie.
Baddeck Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 14 August 1940 20 November 1940 18 May 1941 4 July 1945 Sold in 1947 as mercantile Efthai.
Barrie Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 4 April 1940 23 November 1940 12 May 1941 26 June 1945 Sold in 1947 as mercantile Gasestado.
Battleford Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 30 September 1940 15 April 1941 31 July 1941 18 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Venezuela as Libertad.
Bittersweet Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 17 April 1940 12 September 1940 23 January 1941 22 June 1945 Formerly HMS Bittersweet. Transferred to RCN 23 January 1941. Returned to RN 22 June 1945.
Brandon Davie Shipbuildingg & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 10 October 1940 29 April 1941 22 July 1941 22 June 1945 Sold on 5 October 1945.
Brantford Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 24 February 1941 6 September 1941 15 May 1942 17 August 1945 Converted 1950 to whale catcher Olympic Arrow.
Buctouche Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 14 August 1940 20 November 1940 5 June 1941 15 June 1945 Sold on 23 October 1945. Scrapped in 1949 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Calgary Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 22 March 1941 23 August 1941 16 December 1941 19 June 1945 Sold 30 August 1946. Scrapped 1951 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Camrose Marine Industries 17 February 1940 16 November 1940 30 June 1941 22 July 1945 Scrapped in Canada.
Chambly Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 29 July 1940 18 December 1940 20 June 1945 Sold in 1946. 1954 as Dutch whale catcher Sonia Vinkle (AM20) in service. Scrapped in October 1966 at Santander, Spain.
Charlottetown Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 7 June 1941 10 September 1941 13 December 1941 11 September 1942 Torpedoed and sunk on 11 September 1942 by U-517 off Cap-Chat.
Chicoutimi Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 5 July 1940 16 October 1940 12 May 1941 16 June 1945 Scrapped in 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Chilliwack Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd., North Vancouver (city) 3 July 1940 14 September 1940 8 April 1941 14 July 1945 Sold on 5 October 1945. Scrapped in 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Cobalt Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 1 April 1940 17 August 1940 25 November 1940 17 June 1945 In the Netherlands 1953 as whale catcher Johanna W. Vinke (AM5²) in service. Scrapped 15 December 1961 in South Africa.
Collingwood Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 2 March 1940 27 July 1940 19 November 1940 23 July 1945 Scrapped in 1950 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Dauphin Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 6 July 1940 24 October 1940 17 May 1941 20 June 1945 Sold in 1949 to Honduras as mercantile Cortes.
Dawson Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia 7 September 1940 8 February 1941 6 October 1941 19 June 1945 Scrapped in 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Drumheller Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 4 December 1940 5 July 1941 13 September 1941 11 July 1945 Scrapped in 1949 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Dundas Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia 19 March 1941 25 July 1941 1 April 1942 17 July 1945 Sold on 23 October 1945.
Dunvegan Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 30 August 1940 11 December 1940 9 September 1941 3 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Venezuela as Independencia. Scrapped in 1953.
Edmundston Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, British Columbia 23 August 1940 22 February 1941 21 October 1941 16 June 1945 Sold in 1948 to Liberia as mercantile Amapala.
Eyebright Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 22 July 1940 26 November 1940 17 June 1945 Formerly Eyebright. Transferred to RCN 26 November 1940. Returned to RN 17 June 1945. Became 1950 Dutch whale catcher Albert W. Vinke (AM2²).
Fennel Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 29 March 1940 20 August 1940 15 May 1941 12 June 1945 Formerly HMS Fennel. Transferred to RCN 15 May 1941. Returned to RN 12 June 1945. 1948 sold to Norway and converted to buoy tender Milliam Khil by Howaldtswerke, Kiel, 1951 conversion to whale catcher in Kiel,1966 scrapped
Fredericton Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 22 March 1941 2 September 1941 8 December 1941 14 July 1945 Sold in 1946 as mercantile Tra Los Montes. Resold in 1950 as whaler Olympic Fighter and in 1956 as Otori Maru No. 6 and thenKyo Maru No. 20. (?? HMCS Saskatoon ??)
Galt Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 27 May 1940 28 December 1940 15 May 1941 21 June 1945 Sold on 5 October 1945. Scrapped in 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Halifax Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 26 April 1941 4 October 1941 26 November 1941 12 July 1945 Sold in 1945 as mercantile Halifax.
Hepatica Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 6 July 1940 15 May 1941 27 June 1945 Formerly HMS Hepatica. Transferred to RCN 15 May 1941. Returned to RN 27 June 1945.
Kamloops Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia 29 April 1940 7 August 1940 17 March 1941 27 June 1945 Sold on 19 October 1945.
Kamsack Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 20 November 1940 5 May 1941 4 October 1941 22 July 1945 Sold in 1945 to Venezuela as Carabobo. Lost in December 1945.
Kenogami Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 20 April 1940 5 September 1940 29 June 1941 9 July 1945 Scrapped in January 1950 in Canada.
Kitchener Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 28 February 1941 18 November 1941 28 June 1942 11 July 1945 Formerly Vancouver. Scrapped in September 1949 in Canada.
La Malbaie Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 22 March 1941 25 October 1941 28 April 1942 28 June 1945 Formerly Fort William. Sold on 17 October 1945.
Lethbridge Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 5 August 1940 21 November 1940 25 June 1941 23 July 1945 1955 in service as Dutch whale catcher Nicolaas W. Vinke (AM22). Scrapped in September 1966 at Santander, Spain.
Levis Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 11 March 1940 4 September 1940 16 May 1941 19 September 1941 Torpedoed and sunk 19 September 1941 by U-74 while escorting convoy SC-44 east of Cape Farewell at 60-07N, 38-37W. 18 crew killed and 91 rescued.
Louisburg Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 4 October 1940 27 May 1941 2 October 1941 6 February 1943 Bombed and torpedoed on 6 February 1943 by Luftwaffe aircraft while escorting convoy KMF-8 off Cape Tenes in Mediterranean Sea at 36-15N, 00-15E. 59 crew killed, 50 rescued.
Lunenburg Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 28 September 1940 10 July 1941 4 December 1941 23 July 1945 Scrapped in June 1946 in Canada.
Matapedia Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 2 February 1940 14 September 1940 9 May 1941 16 June 1945 Scrapped in December 1950 in Canada.
Mayflower Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 3 July 1940 15 May 1941 31 May 1945 Formerly HMS Mayflower. Transferred to RCN 15 May 1941. Returned to RN 31 May 1945.
Midland Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 24 February 1941 25 June 1941 17 November 1941 15 July 1945 Sold on 19 November 1945. Scrapped in 1946 at Fort William, Ontario.
Moncton Saint John Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Saint John, New Brunswick 17 December 1940 11 August 1941 24 April 1942 12 December 1945 Sold in 1955 to the Netherlands as whale catcher Willem Vinke (AM21). Scrapped in 1966 at Santander, Spain.
Moose Jaw Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 12 August 1940 9 April 1941 19 June 1941 8 July 1945 Scrapped in September 1949 in Canada.
Morden Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 25 October 1940 5 May 1941 6 September 1941 29 June 1945 Scrapped in November 1946 in Canada.
Nanaimo Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, British Columbia 27 April 1940 28 October 1940 26 April 1941 28 September 1945 Sold in 1952 to the Netherlands, became whale catcher René W. Vinke (AM 7²).
Napanee Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 20 March 1940 31 August 1940 12 May 1941 12 July 1945 Scrapped in June 1946 in Canada.
New Westminster Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia 4 February 1941 14 May 1941 31 January 1942 21 June 1945 Sold in 1950 as mercantile Elisa. Resold in 1952 as mercantile Portoviejo and in 1954 as mercantile Azura. Scrapped in 1966 at Tampa, Florida.
Oakville Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 21 December 1940 21 June 1941 18 November 1941 20 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Venezuela as Patria.
Orillia Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 4 March 1940 15 September 1940 25 November 1940 2 July 1945 Scrapped in January 1951 in Canada.
Pictou Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 12 July 1940 5 October 1940 29 April 1941 12 July 1945 1950 converted to whale catcher Olympic Chaser. Resold in 1956 as Otori Maru No. 7. Converted in 1963 to a barge.
Port Arthur Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 28 April 1941 18 September 1941 26 May 1942 11 July 1945 Sold on 23 October 1945. Scrapped in 1948 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Prescott Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 31 August 1940 7 January 1941 26 June 1941 20 July 1945
Quesnel Victoria Machinery Depot Co. Ltd., Victoria 9 May 1940 12 November 1940 23 May 1941 3 July 1945 Sold on 5 October 1945. Scrapped in 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Regina Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 22 March 1941 14 October 1941 22 January 1942 8 August 1944 Torpedoed and sunk on 8 August 1944 by U-667 off Trevose Head at 50-42N, 05-03W. 30 crew were killed.
Rimouski Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 12 July 1940 3 October 1940 26 April 1941 24 July 1945 Scrapped in December 1950 in Canada.
Rosthern Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 18 June 1940 30 November 1940 17 June 1941 19 July 1945 Scrapped in June 1946 in Canada.
Sackville Saint John Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Saint John, New Brunswick 28 May 1940 15 May 1941 30 December 1941 8 April 1946 Transferred in 1953 to Department of Fisheries as research ship Sackville. Acquired in 1982 by the Canadian Naval Corvette Trust and restored to 1944 configuration. Now a museum ship at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, operated by the Canadian Naval Memorial Trust. Sackville is the last remaining Flower-class corvette.
Saskatoon Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 9 August 1940 7 November 1940 9 June 1941 25 June 1945 Sold in 1948 as whaling ship Tra los Montes. Resold in 1950 as mercantile Olympic Fighter, in 1956 as Otori Maru No. 6, and in 1961 as Kyo Maru No. 20 (same life to HMCS Fredericton)
Shawinigan Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 4 June 1940 16 May 1941 19 September 1941 25 November 1944 Torpedoed and sunk with all hands 25 November 1944 by U-1228 in the Cabot Strait at 47-34N, 59-11W.
Shediac Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 5 October 1940 29 April 1941 8 July 1941 28 August 1945 Sold in 1952 to the Netherlands, conversion to whale catcher Jooske W. Vinke (AM19). Scrapped in 1966 at Santander, Spain.
Sherbrooke Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 5 August 1940 25 October 1940 5 June 1941 28 June 1945 Scrapped in May 1947 in Canada.
Snowberry Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 8 August 1940 26 November 1940 8 June 1945 Formerly HMS Snowberry. Transferred to RCN on 26 November 1940. Returned to RN on 8 June 1945.
Sorel Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 24 August 1940 16 November 1940 19 August 1941 22 June 1945 Sold on 16 November 1945.
Spikenard Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 10 August 1940 15 May 1941 11 February 1942 Formerly HMS Spikenard. Transferred to RCN 15 May 1941. Torpedoed and sunk on 11 February 1942 by U-136 while escorting convoy SC-67 west of Malin Head at 56-10N, 21-07W. 8 crew survived.
Sudbury Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 25 January 1941 31 May 1941 15 October 1941 28 August 1945 Sold in 1949 as mercantile Sudbury. Scrapped 1967.
Summerside Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 4 October 1940 7 May 1941 11 September 1941 6 July 1945 Scrapped in June 1946 in Canada.
The Pas Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 7 January 1941 16 August 1941 21 October 1941 24 July 1945 Sold on 16 September 1945. Scrapped 1946 at Hamilton, Ontario.
Timmins Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, British Columbia 14 December 1940 26 June 1941 10 February 1942 15 July 1945 Sold in 1948 as mercantile Guayaquil. Lost on 3 August 1960.
Trail Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd., North Vancouver (city) 20 July 1940 16 October 1940 30 April 1941 17 July 1945 Scrapped in August 1950 in Canada.
Trillium Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 26 June 1940 31 October 1940 27 June 1945 Formerly HMS Trillium. Transferred to RCN 31 October 1940. Returned to RN 27 June 1945. Converted 1950 to whale catcher Olympic Runner, 1956 resold as Otori Maru No. 10, then Kyo Maru No. 16
Vancouver Yarrows Ltd., Esquimalt, British Columbia 16 June 1941 26 August 1941 20 March 1942 26 June 1945 Formerly HMCS Kitchener.
Ville de Quebec Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 7 June 1941 12 November 1941 24 May 1942 6 July 1945 Sold in 1946 as mercantile Dispina. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Dorothea Paxos, in 1948 as Tanya, and in 1949 as Medex.
Wetaskiwin Burrard Dry Dock Co. Ltd., North Vancouver 11 April 1940 18 July 1940 17 December 1940 19 June 1945 Formerly HMCS Banff. Sold in 1946 to Venezuela as Victor.
Weyburn Port Arthur Shipbuilding Co., Port Arthur, Ontario 21 December 1940 26 July 1941 26 November 1941 22 February 1943 Mined on 22 February 1943 off Cape Espartel at 36-46N, 06-02W. 7 crew were killed.
Windflower Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 25 February 1940 4 July 1940 15 May 1941 7 December 1941 Formerly HMS Windflower. Transferred to RCN 15 May 1941. Sunk 7 December 1941 while escorting convoy SC-58 after collision with freighter Zypenberg in dense fog on the Grand Banks at 46-19N, 49-30W. 23 crew were lost.
Woodstock Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 23 May 1941 10 December 1941 1 May 1942 27 January 1945 Converted 1951 to whale catcher Olympic Winner. Resold in 1956 as Otori Maru 20 and in 1957 as Akitsu Maru. Scrapped in 1975 at Etajima.

Royal Navy[edit]

Royal Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Abelia Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 19 August 1940 28 November 1940 3 February 1941 Torpedoed and badly damaged on 9 January 1944 by a U-boat. Sold in 1947. Resold 1948 to Norway, converted in Kiel to buoy tender Kraft, 1951 converted to whale catcher. Resold in 1954 and renamed Arne Skontorp. Scrapped in 1966 in Norway.
Acanthus Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Troon 21 December 1939 26 May 1941 Transferred on 1 October 1941 before completion to Norway as HNoMS Andenes. 1956 sold and converted to whale catcher Colyn Frye. 1970 scrapped.
Aconite Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Troon 25 March 1940 31 March 1941 FFL Transferred on 23 July 1941 to the Free French Navy as Aconit. Returned to RN on 30 April 1947. Sold in July 1947 and rebuilt as whale catcher Terje 11, 1960 Southern Terrier, 1964 laid up and 1966 scrapped
Alisma Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 19 August 1940 17 December 1940 13 February 1941 Sold in 1947. Resold in 1949 as mercantile Laconia, in 1950 as mercantile Constantinos S, and in 1952 as mercantile Parnon. Sunk 16 July 1954.
Alyssum George Brown & Co., Greenock 24 June 1940 3 March 1941 Transferred on 17 June 1941 to the Free French Navy as Alysse.
Amaranthus Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 4 May 1940 17 October 1940 12 February 1941 Sold in 1946 as mercantile ship. Scrapped in 1953 at Hong Kong.
Anchusa Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 September 1940 15 January 1941 1 March 1941 Sold in 1946. Resold in 1949 as mercantile Silverlord and in 1954 as mercantile Sir Edgar. Sunk 18 January 1960. Salvaged and scrapped in Mauritius.
Anemone Blyth Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. Ltd., Blyth, Northumberland[17] 26 October 1939[17] 22 April 1940[17] 12 August 1940[17] Sold in November 1949. Resold on 3 October 1950 to Norway as buoy tender Pelkan, 1951 rebuilt as whale catcher, sold December 1963, renamed Østfold, Scrapped 1 November 1964.
Arabis Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 14 February 1940 5 April 1940 30 April 1942 Transferred on 30 April 1942 to USN as Saucy. Returned to RN 26 August 1945 and renamed HMS Snapdragon. Sold in 1947 as mercantile Katina.
Arbutus Blyth Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. Ltd., Blyth, Northumberland[17] 30 November 1939[17] 5 June 1940[17] 12 October 1940[17] 5 February 1942[17] Torpedoed and sunk on 5 February 1942 by U-136[18] west of Erris Head at 55-05N, 18-43W. Shared sinking of U-70 on 7 March 41. Probable shared sinking of U-47 same day.
Armeria Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 September 1940 16 January 1941 28 March 1941 Sold in 1947. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Deppie, in 1950 as mercantile Canastel, in 1952 as mercantile Rio Blanco and in 1955 as mercantile Lillian.
Arrowhead Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 11 April 1940 8 August 1940 Transferred on 22 November 1940 before completion to RCN as HMCS Arrowhead. Returned RN 27 June 1945. Sold in May 1947. Resold in 1948 as whale catcher Southern Larkspur. 1953 laid up. Scrapped in November 1959 at Odense.
Asphodel George Brown & Co., Greenock[17] 20 October 1939[17] 25 May 1940[17] 11 September 1940[17] 10 March 1944 Torpedoed and sunk 10 March 1944 by U-575 de:U 575 [19] while escorting convoys SL-150 and MKS-41 at 45-24N, 18-09W. 92 crew were killed, 5 survivors rescued by HMS Clover.
Aster Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 15 October 1940 12 February 1941 9 April 1941 Scrapped on 29 May 1946 at Bo'ness.
Aubretia George Brown & Co., Greenock[17] 27 October 1939[17] 5 September 1940[17] 23 December 1940[17] Sold on 29 July 1946. Resold in October 1948 as buoy tender Arnfinn Bergan. Converted in 1951 to whale catcher. 1966 scrapped.
Auricula George Brown & Co., Greenock[17] 25 November 1939[17] 14 November 1940[17] 5 March 1941[17] 6 May 1942 Mined on 6 May 1942 in Courrier Bay, Madagascar at 12-12S, 49-19E. Foundered the following day while under tow.
Azalea Cook, Welton & Gemmell, Beverley[17] 15 November 1939[17] 8 July 1940[17] 27 January 1941 Sold on 5 April 1946 as mercantile Norte. Sunk on 19 January 1955.
Balsam George Brown & Co., Greenock 16 April 1941 30 May 1942 28 November 1942 Formerly Chelmer. Scrapped on 20 April 1947 at Newport.
Begonia Cook, Welton & Gemmell, Beverley[17] 13 March 1940[17] 18 September 1940[17] 3 March 1941[17] 10 March 1942 Transferred on 10 March 1942 to USN as USS Impulse. Returned to RN on 22 August 1945. Sold on 22 July 1946 as mercantile Begonlock. Resold in 1949 as mercantile Fundiciones Molinao, in 1951as mercantile Astiluzu and in 1956 as mercantile Rio Mero.
Bellwort George Brown & Co., Greenock 17 September 1940 11 August 1941 20 November 1941 Transferred in 1946 to the Irish Naval Service as Cliona.
Bergamot Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 15 October 1940 15 February 1941 12 May 1941 Sold in May 1946 as mercantile ship. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Syros, in 1951 as mercantile Delphini and in 1955 as mercantile Ekaterini.
Bittersweet Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 17 April 1940 12 September 1940 Transferred on 23 January 1941 before completion to RCN as HMCS Bittersweet on 23 January 1941. Returned to RN on 22 June 1945. Scrapped in November 1950.
Bluebell Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley[17] 25 October 1939[17] 24 April 1940[17] 19 July 1940[17] 17 February 1945[17] Torpedoed and sunk on 17 February 1945 by U-711[20] off the Kola Inlet at 69-36N, 35-29E.
Borage George Brown & Co., Greenock 27 November 1940 22 November 1941 29 April 1942 Transferred on 15 November 1946 to the Irish Naval Service as Macha. Sold for scrap on 22 November 1970.
Bryony Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 16 November 1940 15 March 1941 4 June 1942 Bombed and sunk by the Luftwaffe on 15 April 1941 during sea trials. Raised and repaired. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy in 1947, in service as weathership HNoMS Polarfront.
Burdock John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 13 June 1940 14 December 1940 27 March 1941 Sold in June 1946. Scrapped in August 1946 at Hayle.
Buttercup Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 December 1940 10 April 1941 24 April 1942 20 December 1944 Served from 23 April 1942 to 20 Dezember 1944 in the Royal Navy Section Belge, manned with Belgian volunteers. Transferred on 20 December 1944 to Royal Norwegian Navy as HNoMS Buttercup. Bought in 1946 by Norway and renamed HNoMS Nordkyn. 1956 sold and converted to diesel-driven whale catcher Thoris. 1969 scrapped.
Calendula Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 21 March 1940 6 May 1940 12 March 1942 Transferred on 12 March 1942 to USN as USS Ready. Returned to RN on 23 August 1945. Sold on 22 July 1946. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Villa Cisneros and in 1949 as mercantile Villa Bens.
Camellia Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 4 May 1940 18 June 1940 Shared sinking of U-70 7 March 1941. Probable shared sinking of U-47 same day. Sold on 9 August 1946. Resold in 1948 as whale catcher Hetty W. Vinkle (AM9).
Campanula Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley[17] 26 October 1939[17] 23 May 1940[17] 6 September 1940[17] Scrapped on 21 August 1947 at Dunston[disambiguation needed]. Nicholas Monsarrat served aboard as officer.
Campion John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 16 September 1940 20 June 1941 7 July 1941 Sold on 20 April 1947 and scrapped at Newport.
Candytuft Grangemouth Dry Dock Co., Grangemouth[17] 31 October 1939[17] 8 July 1940[17] 16 October 1940[17] 4 March 1942 Transferred on 4 March 1942 to USN as USS Tenacity. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945. Sold on 9 July 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Maw Hwa.
Carnation Grangemouth Dry Dock Co., Grangemouth[17] 26 February 1940[17] 3 September 1940[17] 22 February 1941[17] Transferred on 26 March 1943 to the Royal Netherlands Navy as HNMS Frisco. Returned to RN on 4 October 1944. Sold on 31 March 1948 as mercantile ship. Resold in 1949, became whale catcher Southern Laurel. Scrapped in 1966 at Stavanger.
Celandine Grangemouth Dry Dock Co., Grangemouth[17] 30 April 1940[17] 28 December 1940[17] 30 April 1941[17] Shared sinking of U-556 27 June 41. Sold in October 1948 and scrapped at Portaferry.
Chrysanthemum Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 December 1940 11 April 1941 Transferred on 26 January 1942 to the Free French Navy as Commandant Drogou. Returned to RN in May 1947. Sold on 7 August 1947. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Terje 10. Resold in 23 May 1959 to Portugal as hydrographic survey vessel NRP Carvalho Araújo (A524) until 3 September 1975 when she was transferred to the Angolan Navy.
Clarkia Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 7 March 1940 22 April 1940 Sold on 30 July 1947 for scrap.
Clematis Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol[17] 11 October 1939[17] 22 April 1940[17] 27 July 1940[17] Scrapped in September 1949 at Charlestown.
Clover Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 29 July 1940 30 January 1941 13 May 1941 Sold on 17 May 1947 as mercantile Cloverlock. Resold to People's Republic of China as mercantile Kai Feng.
Coltsfoot Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 4 September 1940 15 May 1941 1 November 1941 Sold in 1947 as mercantile Alexandra.
Columbine Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol[17] 2 November 1939[17] 13 August 1940[17] 9 November 1940[17] Sold on 9 August 1946. Resold and renamed Leif Welding in 1949, used as buoy tender, then whale catcher. Scrapped in 1966 at Grimstad.
Convolvulus Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol[17] 17 January 1940[17] 22 September 1940[17] 26 February 1941[17] Sold on 21 August 1947 and scrapped on 5 October 1947 at Newport.
Coreopsis A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow[17] 19 September 1939[17] 23 May 1940[17] 17 August 1940[17] 10 November 1943 Transferred on 10 November 1943 to the Royal Hellenic Navy as Kriezis. Returned to RN on 1 June 1952. Portrayed the fictional HMS Compass Rose (K49) in the 1953 film The Cruel Sea. Scrapped on 22 July 1952 at Sunderland.
Coriander Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 19 September 1940 9 June 1941 Transferred on 16 September 1941 to the Free French Navy as Commandant Detroyant. Returned to RN in 1947. Scrapped in 1948 at Troon.
Cowslip Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 16 January 1941 28 May 1941 9 August 1941 Sold in July 1948. Scrapped in April 1949 at Troon.
Crocus A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow[17] 26 October 1939[17] 26 June 1940[17] 20 October 1940[17] Badly damaged U-333 by ramming her twice 6 October 1942. Sold on 22 July 1946 as mercantile Annlock. Scrapped in 1952 at Hong Kong.
Cyclamen J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen[17] 30 November 1939[17] 20 June 1940[17] 30 September 1940[17] Sold in 1947. Resold in 1948, became whale catcher Southern Briar. Wrecked 1966 at Thorsminde while under tow for demolition in Belgium.
Dahlia J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen[17] 28 February 1940[17] 31 October 1940[17] 21 March 1941[17] Scrapped on 28 October 1948 at Gelliswick Bay.
Delphinium Henry Robb Ltd., Leith[17] 31 October 1939[17] 6 June 1940[17] 15 November 1940[17] Scrapped in February 1949 at Pembroke Dock.
Dianella J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen[17] 8 December 1939[17] 3 September 1940[17] 6 January 1941[17] Formerly Daffodil. Scrapped on 24 June 1947 at Portaferry.
Dianthus Henry Robb Ltd., Leith[17] 31 October 1939[17] 9 July 1940[17] 17 March 1941[17] Sank U-379 single-handed by both ramming and depth-charging enemy 8 August 42. Sold in May 1947 as mercantile ship. Resold in June 1949 to Norway as buoy tender Thorslep. Rebuilt in 1950 to whale catcher. Scrapped in June 1969 at Grimstad.
Eglantine Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 16 January 1941 11 June 1941 Transferred on 29 August 1941 to Royal Norwegian Navy as Eglantine. Sold to Norway on 10 August 1946 as fishery protection service Soroy.
Erica Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 22 February 1940 18 June 1940 9 August 1940 9 February 1943 Mined and sunk on 9 February 1943 while escorting a convoy in the Mediterranean Sea off Derna, Libya at 32-48N, 21-10E. Entire crew rescued by HMS Southern Maid.
Eyebright Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 22 July 1940 Transferred on 26 November 1940 before completion to RCN as HMCS Eyebright. Returned to RN on 17 June 1945. Sold on 17 May 1947. Resold in 1950 to the Netherlands as mercantile Albert W. Vinke. Scrapped in 1965 at Cape Town.
Fennel Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy 29 March 1940 20 August 1940 Transferred on 15 May 1941 before completion to RCN as HMCS Fennel. Shared sinking of U-744 6 March 44. Returned to RN on 12 June 1945. Sold 1948 to Norway as Milliam Kihl. Converted October 1948 as buoy tender, then 1951 in West Germany to whale catcher. Laid up 1960-61. Last whaling season 1964-65. Scrapped in 1966 at Grimstad.
Fleur de Lys Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 30 January 1940 21 June 1940 26 August 1940 14 October 1941 Launched as La Dieppoise for the French Navy. Completed for RN after the Fall of France. Torpedoed and sunk by U-206[21] west of Gibraltar at 36-00N, 06-30W. There were 3 survivors.
Freesia Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 18 June 1940 3 October 1940 19 November 1940 Sold on 22 July 1946 as mercantile Freelock. Sunk on 1 April 1947.
Fritillary Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 15 February 1941 22 July 1941 1 November 1941 Sold on 19 March 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Andria and in 1949 as mercantile V.D. Chidambaram. Scrapped in 1955 in India.
Gardenia W. Simons & Co., Renfrew[17] 20 September 1939[17] 10 April 1940[17] 24 May 1940[17] 9 November 1942[17] Rammed and sunk off Oran at 35-49N, 01-05W in collision with HMS Fluellen.
Genista Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 15 February 1941 24 July 1941 8 December 1941 Sold in 1947 as a weather ship. Scrapped in 1961.
Gentian Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 20 April 1940 6 August 1940 20 September 1940 Scrapped on 21 August 1947 at Purfleet.
Geranium W. Simons & Co., Renfrew[17] 21 September 1939[17] 10 April 1940[17] 24 June 1940[17] Shared sinking of U-306 31 October 43. Transferred on 8 September 1945 to Royal Danish Navy as Thetis.
Gladiolus Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees[17] 19 October 1939[17] 24 January 1940[22] 6 April 1940 17 October 1941 Torpedoed and sunk on 17 October 1941 by U-553[23] while escorting convoy SC-48 south of Iceland at 57-00N, 25-00W. All hands were lost. Shared sinkings of U-26 1 July 40 and U-556 27 June 41.
Gloriosa Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Gloxinia Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 21 March 1940 2 July 1940 22 August 1940 Scrapped on 15 July 1947 at Purfleet.
Godetia Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 4 January 1940 8 May 1940 15 July 1940 6 September 1940 Rammed and sunk 3 miles (4.8 km) off Altacarry Head at 55-18N, 05-57W in collision with mercantile Marsa.
Godetia John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 15 January 1941 24 September 1941 23 February 1942 Formerly Dart. Served from 12 February 1942 to 16 Dezember 1944 in the Royal Navy Section Belge, manned with Belgian volunteers. Sold on 22 May 1947 and scrapped at Grays.
Harebell Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Heartsease Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 20 April 1940 4 June 1940 3 April 1942 Transferred on 3 April 1942 to USN as Courage. Returned to RN on 23 August 1945. Sold on 22 July 1946. Resold in 1951 as mercantile Roskva, in 1956 as mercantile Douglas, and in 1958 as mercantile Seabird. Lost in December 1958.
Heather Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 22 May 1940 17 September 1940 1 November 1940 Sold on 22 May 1947 and scrapped at Grays.
Heliotrope John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 23 October 1939 5 June 1940 12 September 1940 24 March 1942 Transferred on 24 March 1942 to USN as Surprise. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945. Sold as mercantile ship. Finally served in People's Liberation Army Navy as Lin I.
Hemlock Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Hepatica Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 6 July 1940 Transferred on 15 May 1941 before completion to RCN as HMCS Hepatica. Returned to RN on 27 June 1945. Scrapped on 1 January 1948 at Llanelly.
Hibiscus Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 6 April 1940 21 May 1940 2 May 1942 Transferred on 2 May 1942 to USN as Spry. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945. Sold as mercantile Madonna. Scrapped in 1955 at Hong Kong.
Hollyhock John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 27 November 1939 19 August 1940 19 November 1940 9 April 1942 Bombed and sunk on 9 April 1942 by Japanese aircraft east of Ceylon at 07-21N, 81-57E.
Honeysuckle Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 26 October 1939 22 April 1940 14 September 1940 Sold in 1950 and scrapped in November 1950 at Grays.
Hyacinth Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 20 April 1940 19 August 1940 3 October 1940 24 October 1943 Shared sinking of U-617 by gunfire after enemy ran aground 12 September 43. Transferred on 24 October 1943 to Royal Hellenic Navy as Apostolis. Returned to RN in 1952.
Hyderabad Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 24 December 1940 23 September 1941 23 February 1942 Formerly Nettle. Shared sinking of U-436 26 May 43. Sold on 1 January 1948 and scrapped in October 1948 at Portaferry.
Hydrangea Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 22 November 1939 4 September 1940 3 January 1941 Shared sinking of U-401 3 August 41. Sold in 1947. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Hydralock. Wrecked on 25 February 1957 off Taiwan.
Ivy Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Jasmine Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 23 December 1939 14 January 1941 16 May 1941 Sold on 11 September 1948 for scrap.
Jonquil Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 27 December 1939 9 July 1940 21 October 1940 Sold in May 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Lemnos. Resold in 1951 as Olympic Rider. Whale catcher sank in Antarctic waters on 1 December 1955 after collision with Olympic Cruiser.
Kingcup Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 19 July 1940 31 October 1940 30 December 1940 Sold on 31 July 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Rubis and in 1954 as mercantile Seislim. Scrapped in 1959 at Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht.
La Malouine Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 13 November 1939 21 March 1940 29 July 1940 Launched and commissioned as La Malouine for the French Navy. Seized by and completed for RN after the Fall of France (name not changed). Scrapped on 22 May 1947 at Gelliswick Bay.
Larkspur Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 26 March 1940 5 September 1940 4 January 1941 17 March 1942 Transferred on 17 March 1942 to USN as Fury. Returned to RN on 22 August 1945. Sold on 22 July 1946 as mercantile Larkslock. Scrapped in 1953 at Hong Kong.
Lavender Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 30 April 1940 27 November 1940 16 May 1941 Sold on 9 August 1946. Resold 1948 to the Netherlands and converted to whale catcher Eugene Vinke (AM10)
Ling Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Lobelia Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 27 June 1940 15 February 1941 Transferred on 16 July 1941 to the Free French Navy as Lobelia (name not changed). Sank U-609 single-handed 7 February 43. Returned to RN in April 1947. Sold on 3 May 1947 to Norway as mercantile ship. Resold in July 1948 as buoy tender Thorgeir. Rebuilt as whale catcher, since 1955 diesel-engined. Scrapped in 1969 at Grimstad.
Loosestrife Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 9 December 1940 25 August 1941 25 November 1941 Sold on 4 October 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Kallsevni.
Lotus Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 26 May 1941 17 January 1942 23 May 1942 Transferred on 23 May 1942 to the Free French Navy as Commandant d'Estienne d'Orves. Returned to RN on 31 May 1947. Sold 23 October 1947. BU May 1951.
Mallow Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 22 May 1940 2 July 1940 11 January 1944 Shared sinking of U-204 19 October 41. Transferred on 11 January 1944 to the Yugoslav Navy as Nada. Renamed in 1948 as Partizanka. Returned to RN in 1948. Transferred in 1948 to the Egyptian Navy as El Sudan.
Marguerite Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 30 December 1939 8 July 1940 20 November 1940 Sold in 1947 as a weather ship. Scrapped on 8 September 1961 at Ghent.
Marigold Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 26 January 1940 4 September 1940 28 February 1941 9 December 1942 Torpedoed and sunk on 9 December 1942 by the Aviazione Ausiliara per la Marina while escorting convoy KMS.3Y off Algiers at 36-50N, 03-00E. 40 crew were killed.
Marjoram Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast Cancelled on 23 January 1941.
Mayflower Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 3 July 1940 Transferred on 15 May 1941 before completion to RCN as Mayflower. Returned to RN on 31 May 1945. Scrapped on 20 September 1949 at Inverkeithing.
Meadowsweet Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 12 August 1941 28 March 1942 8 July 1942 Sold on 31 March 1951 to the Netherlands for conversion as whale catcher Gerrit W. Vinkle (AM 1²).
Mignonette Hall, Russell & Co., Aberdeen 15 July 1940 28 January 1941 7 May 1941 Shared sinkings of U-135 15 July 43 and U-1199 21 April 45. Sold in 1946. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Alexandrouplis. Sunk on 30 November 1948.
Mimosa Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 22 April 1940 18 January 1941 Transferred on 11 May 1941 to the Free French Navy as Mimosa (name not changed).
Monkshood Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 1 October 1940 17 April 1941 31 July 1941 Sold in 1947. Resold in 1948 as buoy tender W.R. Strang. Converted to whale catcher. Resold in 1957 as Toshi Maru. Scrapped in Japan in 1965.
Montbretia Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 16 November 1940 27 May 1941 Transferred on 29 September 1941 to Royal Norwegian Navy as HNoMS Montbretia.
Myosotis J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen 21 June 1940 28 January 1941 30 May 1941 Sold on 2 September 1946 to Faroe Islands as trawler Grunningur. Resold in 1949 as buoy tender, then diesel-engined whale catcher Thorørn. Scrapped in 1969 at Grimstad.
Narcissus J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen 9 September 1940 29 March 1941 17 July 1941 Sold in April 1946 as mercantile Este.
Nasturtium Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 23 March 1940 4 July 1940 26 September 1940 Launched as La Paimpolaise for the French Navy. Completed for RN after the Fall of France. Shared sinking of U-556 27 June 1941. Sold in 1946.
Nigella George Philip & Sons Ltd., Dartmouth, Devon 28 November 1939 21 September 1940 25 February 1941 Sold in 1947 as mercantile Nigelock. Sunk on 10 March 1955.
Orchis Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 18 June 1940 15 October 1940 29 November 1940 21 August 1944 Sank U-741 single-handed 15 August 44. Mined and heavily damaged on 21 August 1944 off Courseulles-sur-Mer. Beached on Juno Beach and declared a total loss.
Oxlip A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 9 December 1940 28 August 1941 28 December 1941 Transferred in 1946 to the Irish Naval Service as Maev. Stricken March 1972.
Pennywort A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 11 March 1941 18 October 1941 5 March 1942 Sold in 1947. Scrapped in February 1949 at Troon.
Pentstemon George Philip & Sons Ltd., Dartmouth, Devon 28 November 1939 18 January 1941 31 July 1941 Sold in 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Galaxidi and in 1951 as mercantile Rosa Vlassi.
Peony Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 24 February 1940 4 June 1940 2 August 1940 1943 Transferred in 1943 to the Royal Hellenic Navy as Sakhtouris. Returned to RN in September 1951. Scrapped on 21 April 1952.
Periwinkle Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 24 February 1940 8 April 1940 15 March 1942 Shared sinking of U-147 2 June 1941. Transferred on 15 March 1942 to USN as USS Restless. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945. Sold in 1947 as mercantile Perilock. Scrapped in 1953 at Hong Kong.
Petunia Henry Robb Ltd., Leith 4 December 1939 19 September 1940 13 January 1941 Sold in January 1946 to the Republic of China Navy as Fu Po. Sunk on 19 March 1947.
Phlox Henry Robb Ltd., Leith ? 16 January 1942 May 1942 Renamed Lotus (ii) April 1942 after transfer of Lotus (i) to France. Sold in 1947/January 1948 as mercantile Southern Lotus. Refitted in 1948 as a buoy tender. Refitted in 1950 as a whaling ship. Sold in December 1966 for scrapping in Belgium. Wrecked 18 December 1966 off Jutland, Denmark, while being towed from Norway to Belgium for scrapping together with her sister Southern Briar (ex-HMS Cyclamen).
Picotee Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 21 March 1940 19 July 1940 5 September 1940 12 August 1941 Torpedoed and sunk on 12 August 1941 by U-568[24] while escorting convoy ONS-4 south of Iceland at 62-00N, 16-01W. All hands were lost.
Pimpernel Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 19 July 1940 16 November 1940 9 January 1941 Sold on 6 February 1948. Scrapped in October 1948 at Portaferry.
Pink Henry Robb Ltd., Leith 20 May 1941 16 February 1942 2 July 1942 27 June 1944 Torpedoed and heavily damaged on 27 June 1944 by U-988[25] off Normandy at 49-48N, 00-49W. Declared a total loss and scrapped in 1947 at Llanelly.
Polyanthus Henry Robb Ltd., Leith 19 March 1940 30 November 1940 24 April 1941 21 September 1943 Torpedoed and sunk on 21 September 1943 by U-952[26] while escorting convoy ON-202 at 57-00N, 31-10W. 1 survivor rescued by Itchen but was killed when Itchen was torpedoed and sunk by U-666 on 23 September 1943.
Poppy Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 6 March 1941 20 November 1941 12 May 1942 Sold in 1946 as mercantile Rami. Scrapped in 1956.
Potentilla W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 28 February 1941 18 December 1941 Transferred on 16 January 1942 to the Royal Norwegian Navy as Potentilla. Returned to RN on 13 March 1944. Sold on 13 March 1946 and scrapped at Gateshead.
Primrose W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 22 September 1939 8 May 1940 15 July 1940 Sold on 9 August 1946. Resold in June 1949 as buoy tender Mek V. Resold in 1952 as whaling ship Norfinn. Sold in October 1965. Scrapped in June 1966 in Belgium.
Primula W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 23 September 1939 22 June 1940 27 August 1940 Sold on 22 July 1946. Resold in 1947 as mercantile Marylock. Scrapped in 1953 at Hong Kong.
Ranunculus W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 19 July 1940 25 June 1941 Transferred on 28 July 1941 to the Free French Navy as Renoncule. Returned to RN in 1947. Sold in 1947 as buoy tender, later whale catcher Southern Lily. 1963 Laid up. Scrapped on 9 January 1967 at Bruges.
Rhododendron Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 22 May 1940 2 September 1940 18 October 1940 Sold on 17 May 1947. Resold 1950 to the Netherlands and converted to whale catcher Maj Vinke (AM15)
Rockrose Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 28 October 1940 26 July 1941 4 November 1941 Transferred on 4 October 1947 to the South African Navy as HMSAS Protea.
Rose W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 3 September 1940 22 September 1941 Transferred on 31 October 1941 to the Royal Norwegian Navy as Rose.
Salvia W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 26 September 1939 6 August 1940 20 September 1940 24 December 1941 Torpedoed and sunk on 24 December 1941 by U-568[27] west of Alexandria at 31-46N, 28-00E. All hands were lost plus a number of the crew, servicemen and POW's rescued from the loss of SS Shuntien torpedoed and sunk by U-559 on 23 December 1941
Samphire Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 4 December 1940 14 April 1941 30 June 1941 30 January 1943 Shared sinking of U-567 21 December 41. Torpedoed and sunk on 30 January 1943 by Italian submarine Platino while escorting convoy TE-14 off Béjaïa at 36-56N, 05-40E.
Saxifrage Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 1 February 1941 24 October 1941 6 February 1942 Transferred in August 1947 to Royal Norwegian Navy as Polarfront I.
Snapdragon Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 27 September 1939 3 September 1940 28 October 1940 19 December 1942 Bombed and sunk on 19 December 1942 by the Luftwaffe northwest of Benghazi at 32-18N, 19-54E.
Snowberry Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 8 August 1940 Transferred on 26 November 1940 before completion to RCN as Snowberry. Shared sinking of U-536 20 November 43. Returned to RN on 8 June 1945. Scrapped in August 1947 at Middlesbrough.
Snowdrop Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 4 February 1941 12 May 1941 30 July 1941 Sold on 17 May 1947. Scrapped in September 1949 at Newcastle upon Tyne.
Snowflake Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 19 May 1941 22 August 1941 2 November 1941 Formerly Zenobia. Shared sinking of U-125 3 July 43 by gunfire. Sold in 1947 as a weather ship. Scrapped in May 1962 at Dublin.
Spikenard Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 24 February 1940 10 August 1940 Transferred on 15 May 1941 before completion to RCN as Spikenard.
Spiraea A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 31 May 1940 31 October 1940 27 February 1941 Sold in August 1947. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Thessalonika.
Starwort A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 11 June 1940 12 February 1941 26 May 1941 Shared sinking of U-660 12 November 42 (scuttled). Sold in 1948, converted to whale catcher Southern Broom. 1963 laid up. Scrapped on 9 January 1967 at Bruges.
Stonecrop Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 4 February 1941 12 May 1941 30 July 1941 Shared sinking of U-124 2 April 43. Shared sinking of U-634 30 August 43. Sold on 17 May 1947. Resold in 1949 as mercantile Silver King. 1952 in Dutch service as whale catcher Martha W. Vinke (AM 6²).
Sundew J. Lewis & Sons Ltd., Aberdeen 4 November 1940 28 May 1941 Transferred on 19 September 1941 to the Free French Navy as Roselys. Returned to RN in 1947. Sold on 23 October 1947 and scrapped in May 1948 at Troon.
Sunflower Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 24 May 1940 19 August 1940 25 January 1941 The most successful Royal Navy Flower-class. Shared sinking of U-282 29 October 43. Sank single-handed 2 U-boats: U-631 17 October 43 and U-638 5 May 43. Scrapped in August 1947 at Hayle.
Sweetbriar Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 4 April 1941 26 June 1941 8 September 1941 Sold on 29 July 1946. Resold in June 1949 as whale catcher Star IX. Scrapped in April 1966 at Bruges.
Tamarisk Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 10 February 1941 28 July 1941 26 December 1941 November 1943 Formerly Ettrick, renamed before completion. Shared sinking of U-82 6 February 42. Transferred in November 1943 to Royal Hellenic Navy as Tompazis. Returned to RN in 1952. Scrapped on 20 March 1952 in the United Kingdom.
Thyme Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 30 April 1941 25 July 1941 23 October 1941 Sold in 1947 as weather ship Weather Explorer. Resold in 1958 as mercantile Epos.
Trillium Canadian Vickers Ltd., Montreal 20 February 1940 26 June 1940 Transferred on 31 October 1940 before completion to RCN as HMCS Trillium. Returned to RN on 25 June 1945. Sold in 1950 as whale catcher Olympic Runner. Resold in 1956 as Otori Maru 10, then in 1959 as Kyo Maru No. 16.
Tulip Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 30 May 1940 4 September 1940 18 November 1940 Sold in May 1947. Resold in 1950 as whale catcher Olympic Conqueror. Confiscated November 1954 by Peru. In 1956 sold to Japan as Otori Maru No. 8. Resold in 1957 as Thorlyn and in November 1964 to Sweden. Scrapped in 1965 in West Germany.
Verbena Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 29 June 1940 1 October 1940 19 December 1940 Sold on 17 May 1947. Scrapped on 1 October 1951 at Blyth, Northumberland.
Veronica Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 9 July 1940 17 October 1940 18 February 1941 16 February 1942 Transferred on 16 February 1942 to USN as Temptress. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945. Sold in 1946 as mercantile Verolock. Sank in 1947. Raised in 1951 and scrapped at Blyth, Northumberland.
Vervain Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 16 November 1940 12 March 1941 9 June 1941 20 February 1945 Formerly Broom. Torpedoed and sunk on 20 February 1945 by U-1276[28] southeast of Dungarvan at 51-47N, 07-06W.
Vetch Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 15 March 1941 27 May 1941 11 August 1941 Shared sinking of U-252 14 April 42. Sank U-414 single-handed 25 May 43. Sold in August 1945. Resold in 1948 as mercantile Patrai, in 1951 as whale catcher Olympic Hunter and in 1956 as Otori Maru No. 18.
Violet W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 21 March 1940 30 December 1940 3 February 1941 10 February 1946 Shared sinking of U-651 29 June 41. Sank U-641 single-handed 25 May 43. Sold on 17 May 1947 as mercantile La Aguerra. Resold in 1949 to Spain as mercantile La Guera then in 1958 as mercantile Claudio Sabadell. Scrapped in October 1970 at Bilbao
Wallflower Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 23 July 1940 14 November 1940 7 March 1941 Shared sinking of U-523 25 August 43. Sold on 29 July 1946. Resold in 1949 as buoy tender Asbjørn Larsen, 1950 converted to whale catcher. Scrapped in October 1966 at Grimstad.
Windflower Davie Shipbuilding & Repairing Co. Ltd., Lauzon, Quebec 25 February 1940 4 July 1940 Transferred on 15 May 1941 before completion to RCN as Windflower.
Woodruff W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 29 April 1940 28 February 1941 7 April 1941 Sold in 1947, converted to whale catcher. Resold in 1948 as buoy tender Southern Lupin and later as whale catcher. 1950 to 1952 and since 1954 laid up. Scrapped in 1959 at Odense.
Zinnia Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 20 August 1940 28 November 1940 30 March 1941 23 August 1941 Torpedoed and sunk on 23 August 1941 by U-564[29] while escorting convoy OG-71 west of Portugal at 40-25N, 10-40W.

South African Navy[edit]

South African Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Protea Charles Hill & Sons Ltd., Bristol 28 October 1940 26 July 1941 4 October 1947 Formerly Rockrose. Transferred on 4 October 1947 to the South African Navy. Converted to a survey vessel. Scrapped in 1967.

Royal Netherlands Navy[edit]

Royal Netherlands Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Friso Grangemouth Dry Dock Co., Grangemouth 31 October 1939 8 July 1940 26 March 1943 4 October 1944 Formerly Carnation. Transferred on 26 March 1943 to the Royal Netherlands Navy. Returned to RN on 4 October 1944.

Royal Norwegian Navy[edit]

Royal Norwegian Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Andenes Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Troon 21 December 1939 26 May 1941 1 October 1941 1956 Formerly HMS Acanthus. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 1 October 1941. Bought by Norway in 1946 as a fishery protection ship. Reclassified in 1950 as a frigate with pennant number F307. Sold in 1956 as whale catcher Colin Frye. Resold in 1957 as Toshi Maru No. 2. Scrapped in 1970 in Japan.
Buttercup Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 17 December 1940 10 April 1941 20 December 1944 November 1957 Formerly HMS Buttercup. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 20 December 1944. Bought by Norway in 1946 as fishery protection ship Nordkyn. Sold in November 1957 as whaling ship Thoris. Scrapped in June 1969.
Eglantine Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 16 January 1941 11 June 1941 29 August 1941 August 1956 Formerly HMS Eglantine. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 29 August 1941. Bought by Norway in 1946 as fishery protection ship Soroy. Sold in August 1956 and convered to diesel-engined whale catcher Thorglimt. Scrapped in June 1969 at Grimstad.
Montbretia Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 16 November 1940 27 May 1941 29 September 1941 18 November 1942 Formerly HMS Montbretia. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 29 September 1941. Torpedoed and sunk by U-262 on 18 November 1942 at 53-37N, 38-15W. 48 crew killed, 23 survivors were rescued by Potentilla.
Potentilla W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 28 February 1941 18 December 1941 16 January 1942 13 March 1944 Formerly HMS Potentilla. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 16 January 1942. Returned to RN on 13 March 1944.
Rose W. Simons & Co., Renfrew 3 September 1940 22 September 1941 31 October 1941 26 October 1944 Formerly HMS Rose. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy on 26 October 1941 and commissioned on 31 October 1941. Rammed and sunk on 26 October 1944 by Manners at 45-50N, 40-15W. 3 crew were killed.

Royal Hellenic Navy[edit]

Royal Hellenic Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Apostolis Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 20 April 1940 19 August 1940 24 October 1943 1952 Formerly HMS Hyacinth. Transferred to the Royal Hellenic Navy on 24 October 1943. Returned to RN in 1952.
Kriezis A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 19 September 1939 23 April 1940 10 November 1943 1 June 1952 Formerly HMS Coreopsis. Transferred to the Royal Hellenic Navy on 10 November 1943. Returned to RN on 1 June 1952.
Sachtouris Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 24 February 1940 4 June 1940 1943 1951 Formerly HMS Peony. Transferred to the Royal Hellenic Navy in 1943. Returned to RN in September 1951.
Tombazis Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 10 February 1941 28 July 1941 November 1943 Formerly HMS Tamarisk. Transferred to the Royal Hellenic Navy in November 1943. Returned to RN in 1952.

United States Navy[edit]

United States Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Courage Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 20 April 1940 3 April 1942 22 August 1945 Formerly HMS Heartsease. Transferred to USN on 3 April 1942. Returned to RN on 23 August 1945.
Fury Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 26 March 1940 5 September 1940 17 March 1942 22 August 1945 Formerly HMS Larkspur. Transferred to USN on 17 March 1942. Returned to RN on 22 August 1945.
Impulse Cook, Welton & Gemmell, Beverley 13 March 1940 18 September 1940 10 March 1942 22 August 1945 Formerly HMS Begonia. Transferred to USN on 10 March 1942. Returned to RN on 22 August 1945.
Ready Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 21 March 1940 12 March 1942 23 August 1945 Formerly HMS Calendula. Transferred to USN on 12 March 1942. Returned to RN on 23 August 1945.
Restless Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 24 February 1940 15 March 1942 20 August 1945 Formerly HMS Periwinkle. Transferred to USN on 15 March 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.
Saucy Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 30 October 1939 14 February 1940 30 April 1942 20 August 1945 Formerly HMS Arabis. Transferred to USN on 30 April 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.
Spry Harland & Wolff Ltd., Belfast 14 November 1939 6 April 1940 2 May 1942 20 August 1945 Formerly HMS Hibiscus. Transferred to the USN on 2 May 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.
Surprise John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 23 October 1939 5 June 1940 24 March 1942 20 August 1945 Formerly HMS Heliotrope. Transferred to USN on 24 March 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.
Temptress Smiths Dock Co., South Bank-on-Tees 9 July 1940 17 October 1940 21 March 1942 20 August 1945 Formerly HMS Veronica. Transferred to USN on 16 February 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.
Tenacity Grangemouth Dry Dock Co., Grangemouth 31 October 1939 8 July 1940 11 June 1942 22 August 1945 Formerly HMS Candytuft. Transferred to USN on 4 March 1942. Returned to RN on 26 August 1945.

Flower-class (modified)[edit]

Royal Canadian Navy[edit]

Royal Canadian Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Asbestos Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 20 July 1943 22 November 1943 16 June 1944 8 July 1945 Scrapped in March 1949 at New Orleans.
Atholl Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 15 August 1942 4 April 1943 14 October 1943 17 July 1945 Scrapped in October 1952 in Canada.
Beauharnois Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 8 November 1943 11 May 1944 25 September 1944 12 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to the "Mossad Le'Aliya bet" in Quebec (The Institute for Immigration B) as a passenger vessel Yoashia Wegwood.[30] Transferred to Israel in 1948 as corvette HaShomer.
Belleville Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 21 January 1944 17 June 1944 19 October 1944 5 July 1945 Sold in 1947 to the Dominican Republic as Juan Bautista Cambiaso.
Brampton Cancelled in December 1943.
Charlottetown Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 7 June 1941 10 September 1941 13 December 1941 11 September 1942 Torpedoed and sunk on 11 September 1942 by U-517 while escorting convoy SQ-30 in the Saint Lawrence River north of Cap-Chat at 49-10N, 66-50W. 9 crew killed.
Cobourg Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 25 November 1942 14 July 1943 11 May 1944 15 June 1945 Sold in 1947 as mercantile Camco. Resold in 1956 to Panama as mercantile Puerto del Sol. Burned and sunk in 1971.
Fergus Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 10 December 1943 30 August 1944 18 November 1944 14 July 1945 Sold in 1945 as mercantile Camco II. Resold in 1948 as Hartcourt Kent. Wrecked in 1949.
Forrest Hill Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 5 February 1943 30 August 1943 1 December 1943 9 July 1945 Formerly Ceanothos. Transferred to RCN before completion.
Frontenac Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 19 February 1943 2 June 1943 26 October 1943 22 July 1945 Sold in October 1945 to United Ship Corporation.
Giffard Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 30 November 1942 19 June 1943 10 November 1943 5 July 1945 Formerly Buddleia. Scrapped in October 1952 in Canada.
Guelph Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 29 May 1943 20 December 1943 9 May 1944 27 June 1945 Sold in 1945 to Panama as mercantile Guelph (name not changed). Resold in 1956 as Burfin.
Hawkesbury Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 20 July 1943 16 November 1943 14 June 1944 10 July 1945 Sold in 1950 to Cambodia as Campuchea.
Ingersoll Cancelled in December 1943.
Lachute Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 24 November 1943 9 June 1944 26 October 1944 10 July 1945 Sold in 1947 to the Dominican Republic and renamed Cristobal Colon. Wrecked by Hurricane David on 30 August 1979.[31]
Lindsay Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 30 September 1942 4 June 1943 15 November 1943 18 July 1945 Sold in 1946 as mercantile North Shore.
Listowel Cancelled in December 1943.
Long Branch A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 27 February 1943 28 September 1943 5 January 1944 17 June 1945 Formerly Candytuft. Sold in 1947 as mercantile Rexton Kent II.
Louisburg Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 11 January 1943 13 July 1943 13 December 1943 25 June 1945 Sold in 1947 to the Dominican Republic and renamed Juan Alejandro Acosta. Wrecked by Hurricane David on 30 August 1979.[31]
Meaford Cancelled in December 1943.
Merrittonia Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 23 November 1943 24 June 1944 10 November 1944 11 July 1945 Formerly Pointe Claire.
Mimico John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 22 February 1943 11 October 1943 8 February 1944 18 July 1945 Formerly Bullrush. Sold to Honduras and converted 1950 in Germany to whale catcher Olympic Victor. Resold in 1956 to Japan as Otori Maru No. 12 and in 1962 as Kyo Maru No. 25.
Norsyd Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 14 January 1943 31 July 1943 22 December 1943 25 June 1945 Sold in 1946 to Yugoslavia as mercantile Balboa under Panamanian flag. Resold to the "Mossad Le'Aliya bet" (The Institute for Immigration B) while still in Quebec as a passenger vessel Hagana.[30] Transferred to Israel in 1948 as corvette Hagana.
North Bay Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 29 September 1942 27 April 1943 25 October 1943 5 June 1945 Sold in 1946 as mercantile Kent County II. Resold in 1950 as Galloway Kent and in 1951 as Bedford II.
Owen Sound Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 11 November 1942 15 June 1943 17 November 1943 19 July 1945 Sold in 1945 to Greece as Cadio.
Parry Sound Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy, Quebec 11 June 1943 13 November 1943 30 August 1944 10 July 1945 Sold in 1950 to Honduras, converted to whale catcher Olympic Champion. Resold in 1956 to Japan as Otori Maru No. 15, 1961 renamed Kyo Maru No. 22.
Peterborough Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 14 September 1943 15 January 1944 1 June 1944 19 July 1945 Sold in 1947 to the Dominican Republic as Gerardo Jansen.
Renfrew Cancelled in December 1943.
Riviere du Loup Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 5 January 1943 2 July 1943 21 November 1943 2 July 1945 Sold in 1947 to the Dominican Republic as Juan Bautista Maggiolo.
Smiths Falls Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 21 January 1944 19 August 1944 28 November 1944 8 July 1945 Sold in 1950 to Honduras, converted to whale catcher Olympic Lightning. Resold in 1956 to Japan as Otori Maru No. 16, 1961 renamed Kyo Maru No. 23.
St. Lambert Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 8 July 1943 6 November 1943 27 May 1944 20 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Panama as Chrysi Hondroulis. Resold in 1955 to Greece as Loula.
Stellarton Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 16 November 1943 27 April 1944 29 September 1944 1 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Chile as Casma.
Strathroy Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy, Quebec 18 November 1943 15 June 1944 20 November 1944 12 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Chile as Chipana.
Thorlock Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy, Quebec 25 September 1943 15 May 1944 13 November 1944 15 July 1945 Sold in 1946 to Chile as Papudo.
Trentonian Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 19 February 1943 1 September 1943 1 December 1943 22 February 1945 Torpedoed and sunk on 22 February 1945 by U-1004 off Falmouth, Cornwall at 50-06N, 04-50W. 6 crew were lost.
West York Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 23 July 1943 25 January 1944 6 October 1944 9 July 1945 Sold in 1945 as mercantile West York (name not changed). Resold in 1960 as Federal Express. Rammed and sunk in 1960 in the Saint Lawrence River near Montreal. Raised and scrapped.
Whitby Marine Industries Ltd., Sorel-Tracy, 1 April 1943 18 September 1943 6 June 1944 16 July 1945 Acquired by the Portuguese Navy from the USA and renamed NRP Bengo on 29 April 1948 and transferred to the Mozambique Pilots on 1 October 1948 where she was named just Bengo.

Royal Indian Navy[edit]

Royal Indian Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Assam John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 26 November 1942 21 June 1943 19 February 1945 Formerly HMS Bugloss. Transferred to the RIN on 19 February 1945. Returned to RN in 1947. Scrapped.
Gondwana Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 2 November 1942 31 May 1943 15 May 1945 17 May 1946 Formerly HMS Burnet. Transferred to the RIN on 15 May 1945. Returned to RN on 17 May 1946. 1947 sold to Royal Thai Navy, renamed Bangpakong
Sind Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 26 September 1942 22 April 1943 24 August 1945 17 May 1946 Formerly HMS Betony. Transferred to the RIN on 24 August 1945. Returned to RN on 17 May 1946. 1947 sold to Royal Thai Navy, renamed Prasae , stranded 7. January 1951 on the North-Korean east coast, total loss.
Mahratta Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 6 April 1943 16 November 1943 1946 1947 loss Formerly HMS Charlock. Transferred to the RIN 1946. 1947 stranded and total loss.

Royal New Zealand Navy[edit]

Royal New Zealand Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Arabis George Brown & Co., Greenock 26 February 1943 28 October 1943 16 March 1944 1948 Formerly HMS Arabis. Transferred to RNZN on 16 March 1944. Returned to RN in 1948.
Arbutus George Brown & Co., Greenock 3 May 1943 26 January 1944 5 July 1944 1948 Formerly HMS Arbutus. Transferred to RNZN on 5 July 1944. Returned to RN in 1948.

Royal Navy[edit]

Royal Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Arabis George Brown & Co., Greenock 26 February 1943 28 October 1943 Transferred on 16 March 1944 to the Royal New Zealand Navy as HMNZS Arabis. Returned to RN in 1948. Scrapped in August 1951 at Grays.
Arbutus George Brown & Co., Greenock 3 May 1943 26 January 1944 Transferred on 5 July 1944 to the Royal New Zealand Navy as Arbutus. Returned to RN in 1948. Scrapped in June 1951 at Dunston.
Balm Cancelled on 12 November 1942.
Betony Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 26 September 1942 22 April 1943 31 August 1943 24 March 1945 Transferred on 24 August 1945 to India as Sind. Returned to RN on 17 May 1946. Transferred in 1947 to Thailand as Prasae. Grounded on 7 January 1951 along east coast of Korea and scuttled on 13 January 1951.
Buddleia Alexander Hall & Co., Aberdeen 30 November 1942 19 June 1943 Transferred on 10 November 1943 to RCN as Giffard.
Bugloss John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 26 November 1942 21 June 1943 8 November 1943 19 February 1945 Transferred on 19 February 1945 to Indian Navy as Assam. Returned to RN in 1947 and scrapped.
Bullrush John Crown & Sons Ltd., Sunderland 22 February 1943 11 October 1943 Transferred on 8 February 1944 to RCN as Mimico.
Burnet Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 2 November 1942 31 May 1943 23 September 1943 Transferred on 15 May 1945 to India as HMIS Gondwana. Returned to RN on 17 May 1946. Transferred on 15 May 1947 to Thailand.
Candytuft A. & J. Inglis Ltd., Glasgow 27 February 1943 28 September 1943 Transferred on 5 January 1944 to RCN as HMCS Long Branch.
Ceanothos Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 5 February 1943 30 August 1943 Transferred on 1 December 1943 to RCN as HMCS Forrest Hill.
Charlock Fleming & Ferguson Ltd., Paisley 6 April 1943 16 November 1943 March 1944 Transferred in 1946 to India as HMIS Mahratta. 1947 total loss.
Comfrey Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 6 January 1942 28 July 1942 Transferred on 22 November 1942 to USN as USS Action.
Cornel Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 6 January 1942 4 September 1942 Transferred on 10 December 1942 to USN as USS Alacrity.
Dittany Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 31 October 1942 31 May 1943 Formerly USS Beacon. Transferred to RN on 31 May 1943 under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 20 June 1946.
Flax Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 15 June 1942 Transferred on 6 December 1942 to USN as USS Brisk.
Honesty Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 28 September 1942 Formerly USS Caprice. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 5 January 1946.
Linaria Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 18 November 1942 22 June 1943 Formerly USS Clash. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 27 July 1946.
Mandrake Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City November 1941 22 August 1942 Transferred on 6 April 1943 to USN as USS Haste.
Milfoil Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City November 1941 5 August 1942 Transferred on 31 March 1943 to USN as USS Intensity.
Musk Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 28 November 1941 15 July 1942 Transferred on 22 December 1942 to USN as USS Might.
Nepeta Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 22 July 1942 29 November 1942 Transferred on 23 July 1943 to USN as USS Pert.
Privet Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 14 August 1942 4 December 1942 Transferred on 16 August 1943 to USN as USS Prudent.
Rosebay Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 11 February 1943 28 July 1943 20 March 1946 Formerly USS Splendor. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 20 March 1946.
Smilax Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 24 December 1942 21 June 1943 Formerly USS Tact. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 5 January 1946.
Statice Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 10 April 1943 20 September 1943 Formerly USS Vim. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 21 June 1946.
Willowherb Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 24 March 1943 Formerly USS Vitality. Transferred to RN under the lend-lease program. Returned to USN on 11 June 1946.

United States Navy[edit]

United States Navy
Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Paid off Fate
Action Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 6 January 1942 28 July 1942 22 November 1942 6 September 1945 Formerly HMS Comfrey. Transferred to USN on 22 November 1942. Sold on 6 February 1946.
Alacrity Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 6 January 1942 4 September 1942 10 December 1942 4 October 1945 Formerly HMS Cornel. Transferred to USN on 10 December 1942. Sold on 22 September 1945 to Italy as mercantile Rio Marina.
Beacon Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 31 October 1942 Transferred on 31 May 1943 to RN as HMS Dittany. Returned to USN on 20 June 1946.
Brisk Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 15 June 1942 6 December 1942 9 October 1945 Formerly HMS Flax. Transferred to USN on 6 December 1942. Sold on 18 October 1946.
Caprice Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 31 October 1942 Transferred to RN as HMS Honesty. Returned to USN on 20 June 1946.
Clash Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 18 November 1942 Transferred to RN as HMS Linaria. Returned to USN on 27 July 1946.
Haste Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City November 1941 22 August 1942 6 April 1943 3 October 1945 Formerly HMS Mandrake. Transferred to USN on 6 April 1943. Sold in 1949 to Italy as mercantile Porto Azzurro. Scrapped in 1973 at La Spezia.
Intensity Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City November 1941 22 August 1942 31 March 1943 3 October 1945 Formerly HMS Milfoil. Transferred to USN on 31 March 1943. Sold into mercantile service. 1950 whale catcher Olympic Promoter, 1956 resold and renamed Otori Maru No. 5
Might Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 28 November 1941 15 July 1942 22 December 1942 9 October 1945 Formerly HMS Musk. Transferred to USN on 22 December 1942. Sold into mercantile service. 1950 whale catcher Olympic Explorer, 1956 resold and renamed Otori Maru No.3, later Kyo Maru No.12
Pert Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 22 July 1942 27 November 1942 23 July 1943 3 October 1945 Formerly HMS Nepeta. Transferred to USN on 23 July 1943. Sold on 18 October 1946 into mercantile service. 1950 whale catcher Olympic Leader, 1956 resold and renamed Otori Maru No. 1, later Kyo Maru No. 15
Prudent Morton Engineering & Dry Dock Co., Quebec City 14 August 1942 4 December 1942 16 August 1943 11 October 1945 Formerly HMS Privet. Transferred to USN on 16 August 1943. Sold in 1949 to Italy as mercantile Elbano. Resold in 1951 to the Italian Navy as hydrographic survey vessel Staffetta.
Splendor Kingston Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Kingston, Ontario 11 February 1943 Transferred to RN as HMS Rosebay. Returned to USN on 20 March 1946.
Tact Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 24 December 1942 Transferred to RN as HMS Smilax. Returned to USN on 5 January 1946.
Vim Collingwood Shipyards Ltd., Collingwood, Ontario 10 April 1943 Transferred to RN as HMS Statice. Returned to USN on 21 June 1946.
Vitality Midland Shipyards Ltd., Midland, Ontario 24 March 1943 Transferred to RN as HMS Willowherb. Returned to USN on 11 June 1946.

Vessels lost in action[edit]

Flower-class ships lost to enemy action
Ship Flag Date Fate
Alysse Free French Naval Forces 9 February 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-654 while escorting Convoy ON-60 about 420 nautical miles (780 km) E of Cape Race at 46°00′N 44°00′W / 46.000°N 44.000°W / 46.000; -44.000 36 crew were killed.
La Bastiaise Free French Naval Forces 22 June 1940 Mined during sea trial off Hartlepool on day of her commissioning.
Mimosa Free French Naval Forces 9 June 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-124 while escorting Convoy ONS-100 at 52°12′N 32°37′W / 52.200°N 32.617°W / 52.200; -32.617 58 French crew and 6 British crew were killed; the French crew being largely from Saint Pierre and Miquelon. 4 survivors rescued by HMCS Assiniboine.
Alberni Royal Canadian Navy 21 August 1944 Torpedoed and sunk by U-480 while escorting a convoy in the English Channel S of St. Catherine's Point at 50°18′N 00°51′W / 50.300°N 0.850°W / 50.300; -0.850 59 crew killed and 31 rescued by RN motor torpedo boats.
Charlottetown Royal Canadian Navy 11 September 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-517 while escorting Convoy SQ-30 in the Saint Lawrence River N of Cap-Chat at 49°10′N 66°50′W / 49.167°N 66.833°W / 49.167; -66.833 9 crew killed.
Levis Royal Canadian Navy 19 September 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-74 while escorting Convoy SC-44 E of Cape Farewell at 60°07′N 38°37′W / 60.117°N 38.617°W / 60.117; -38.617 18 crew killed and 91 rescued.
Louisburg Royal Canadian Navy 6 February 1943 Bombed and torpedoed by Luftwaffe aircraft while escorting Convoy KMF-8 off Cape Tenes in Mediterranean Sea at 36°15′N 00°15′E / 36.250°N 0.250°E / 36.250; 0.250 59 crew killed, 50 rescued.
Regina Royal Canadian Navy 8 August 1944 Torpedoed and sunk by U-667 off Trevose Head at 50°42′N 05°03′W / 50.700°N 5.050°W / 50.700; -5.050 30 crew were killed.
Shawinigan Royal Canadian Navy 25 November 1944 Torpedoed and sunk by U-1228 in the Cabot Strait at 47°34′N 59°11′W / 47.567°N 59.183°W / 47.567; -59.183. All hands were lost.
Spikenard Royal Canadian Navy 11 February 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-136 while escorting Convoy SC-67 W of Malin Head at 56°10′N 21°07′W / 56.167°N 21.117°W / 56.167; -21.117. 8 crew survived.
Weyburn Royal Canadian Navy 22 February 1943 Mined on 22 February 1943 off Cape Espartel at 36°46′N 06°02′W / 36.767°N 6.033°W / 36.767; -6.033. 7 crew were killed.
Windflower Royal Canadian Navy 7 December 1941 Rammed and sunk while escorting Convoy SC-58 after colliding with freighter Zypenberg in dense fog on the Grand Banks at 46°19′N 49°30′W / 46.317°N 49.500°W / 46.317; -49.500 23 crew were killed.
Abelia Royal Navy 9 January 1944 Torpedoed and badly damaged by a U-boat.
Arbutus Royal Navy 5 February 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-136 W of Erris Head, Ireland at 55°05′N 18°43′W / 55.083°N 18.717°W / 55.083; -18.717
Asphodel Royal Navy 10 March 1944 Torpedoed and sunk by U-575 while escorting Convoy SL-150 and Convoy MKS-41 at 45°24′N 18°09′W / 45.400°N 18.150°W / 45.400; -18.150. 92 crew were killed, 5 survivors rescued by HMS Clover.
Auricula Royal Navy 6 May 1942 Mined in Courrier Bay, Madagascar at 12°12′S 49°19′E / 12.200°S 49.317°E / -12.200; 49.317. Foundered the next day while under tow.
Bluebell Royal Navy 17 February 1945 Torpedoed and sunk by U-711 off the Kola Inlet at 69°36′N 35°29′E / 69.600°N 35.483°E / 69.600; 35.483
Bryony Royal Navy 15 April 1941 Bombed and sunk during sea trials by the Luftwaffe. Raised and repaired. Transferred to the Royal Norwegian Navy in 1947 as HNoMS Polarfront.
Erica Royal Navy 9 February 1943 Mined and sunk while escorting a convoy in the Mediterranean Sea off Derna, Libya at 32°48′N 21°10′E / 32.800°N 21.167°E / 32.800; 21.167. Entire crew rescued by HMSAS Southern Maid.
Fleur de Lys Royal Navy 14 October 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-206 west of Gibraltar at 36°00′N 06°30′W / 36.000°N 6.500°W / 36.000; -6.500. There were 3 survivors.
Gardenia Royal Navy 9 November 1942 Rammed and sunk off Oran at 35°49′N 01°05′W / 35.817°N 1.083°W / 35.817; -1.083 in collision with HMS Fluellen (T157).
Gladiolus Royal Navy 17 October 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-558 while escorting Convoy SC-48 S of Iceland at 57°00′N 25°00′W / 57.000°N 25.000°W / 57.000; -25.000. All hands were lost.
Godetia Royal Navy 6 September 1940 Rammed and sunk 3 miles (4.8 km) off Altacarry Head at 55°18′N 05°57′W / 55.300°N 5.950°W / 55.300; -5.950 in collision with mercantile Marsa.
Hollyhock Royal Navy 9 April 1942 Bombed and sunk by Japanese aircraft E of Ceylon at 07°21′N 81°57′E / 7.350°N 81.950°E / 7.350; 81.950
Marigold Royal Navy 9 December 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by the Aviazione Ausiliara per la Marina while escorting Convoy KMS.3Y off Algiers at 36°50′N 03°00′E / 36.833°N 3.000°E / 36.833; 3.000. 40 crew were killed.
Orchis Royal Navy 21 August 1944 Mined and heavily damaged off Courseulles-sur-Mer. Beached on Juno Beach and declared a total loss.
Picotee Royal Navy 12 August 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-568 while escorting Convoy ONS-4 S of Iceland at 62°00′N 16°01′W / 62.000°N 16.017°W / 62.000; -16.017. All hands were lost.
Pink Royal Navy 27 June 1944 Torpedoed and heavily damaged by U-988 off Normandy at 49°48′N 00°49′W / 49.800°N 0.817°W / 49.800; -0.817. Declared a total loss and scrapped in 1947 at Llanelly.
Polyanthus Royal Navy 21 September 1943 Torpedoed and sunk by U-952 while escorting Convoy ON-202 at 57°00′N 31°10′W / 57.000°N 31.167°W / 57.000; -31.167. 1 survivor rescued by HMS Itchen but was killed when that ship was torpedoed and sunk by U-666 on 23 September 1943.
Salvia Royal Navy 24 December 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-568 W of Alexandria at 31°46′N 28°00′E / 31.767°N 28.000°E / 31.767; 28.000. All hands were lost.
Samphire Royal Navy 30 January 1943 Torpedoed and sunk by Italian submarine Platino while escorting Convoy TE-14 off Béjaïa at 36°56′N 05°40′E / 36.933°N 5.667°E / 36.933; 5.667
Snapdragon Royal Navy 19 December 1942 Bombed and sunk by the Luftwaffe NW of Benghazi at 32°18′N 19°54′E / 32.300°N 19.900°E / 32.300; 19.900
Vervain Royal Navy 20 February 1945 Torpedoed and sunk by U-1276 SE of Dungarvan, Rep of Ireland at 51°47′N 07°06′W / 51.783°N 7.100°W / 51.783; -7.100
Zinnia Royal Navy 23 August 1941 Torpedoed and sunk by U-564 while escorting Convoy OG-71 W of Portugal at 40°25′N 10°40′W / 40.417°N 10.667°W / 40.417; -10.667
Montbretia Royal Norwegian Navy 18 November 1942 Torpedoed and sunk by U-262 at 53°37′N 38°15′W / 53.617°N 38.250°W / 53.617; -38.250. 48 crew killed, 23 survivors were rescued by HNoMS Potentilla (K214).
Trentonian Royal Canadian Navy 22 February 1945 Torpedoed and sunk on 22 February 1945 by U-1004 off Falmouth at 50°06′N 04°50′W / 50.100°N 4.833°W / 50.100; -4.833. 6 crew were killed.

Kriegsmarine use[edit]

Kriegsmarine[13]
Ship Ordered Launched Intended French name Completed Fate
PA 1 September 1939 16 October 1940 Arquebuse April 1944 Confiscated in June 1940 and served in 15 Vorposten Flottille. Sunk by aerial bombing 15 June 1944 at Le Havre
PA 2 September 1939 22 November 1940 Hallebarde September 1943 Confiscated in June 1940 and served in 15 Vorposten Flottille. Sunk by aerial bombing 15 June 1944 at Le Havre
PA 3 September 1939 29 November 1940 Sabre November 1943 Confiscated in June 1940 and served in 15 Vorposten Flottille. Sunk by aerial bombing 15 June 1944 at Le Havre
PA 4 September 1939 29 November 1940 Poignard Not completed Confiscated in June 1940. Launched 1 September 1944 as Telindiére. Sunk uncompleted as a block ship at Nantes

Battle credits[edit]

Post-war use[edit]

The relatively small Flowers were among the first warships to be declared surplus by Allied navies following the end of World War II. They had seen years of hard service in the North Atlantic and were made obsolete by the numerous destroyer escorts and frigates that entered service in the latter part of the war.

32 vessels from the RN, RCN, and USN were transferred to Argentina, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Greece, India, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Venezuela. These were typically operated according to their original design, as coastal patrol vessels, with many serving until the 1970s.

The Irish Navy bought three Flowers in 1946 (LE Macha, LE Cliona, and LE Maev). The fledgling navy had intended to buy three more corvettes, as well as a number of surplus minesweepers, but severe budget restrictions cancelled these plans, leaving the original three to serve alone through the 1960s and 1970s, despite antiquated armament, poor accommodation, and maintenance problems. Entry into the EEC in 1973 resulted in funding for replacement ships.

110 surplus Flowers were sold for commercial use. These saw various careers as mercantile freighters, smugglers, tugs, weather ships, and whalers. The remainder were scrapped. Of particular interest is the story of HMCS Sudbury. She was declared surplus by the RCN and sold as a towboat specializing in deep-sea salvage. In November 1955, she rescued the freighter Makedonia in the North Pacific, towing the vessel for over one month through severe weather, becoming one of the most famous salvage ships of all time.

The surplus RCN Flowers Norsyd and Beauharnois were sold as mercantile freighters but were subsequently acquired in 1946 by the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, a branch of the Jewish Defense Association (Haganah) in the British Mandate for Palestine. Mossad Le'aliyah Bet organized Jewish immigration from Europe into Palestine, in violation of unilateral British restrictions. The corvettes were intercepted in the Mediterranean Sea during the summer of 1946 by the destroyer Venus and interned in Palestine. After Israel became independent in 1948, these commercial ships were commissioned into the Israeli Navy as the warships Hashomer and Hagana respectively.

Allied navies disposed of their Flowers so quickly following the war, the RN could not supply a single vessel to play Compass Rose in the 1953 film production of Nicholas Monsarrat's novel The Cruel Sea. The Royal Hellenic Navy supplied Kriezis (formerly HMS Coreopsis) for the role prior to her scrapping.

The only survivor of the entire class is Sackville, owned by the Canadian Naval Memorial Trust. She was laid up in reserve in March 1946 and converted in 1952 to a research vessel for Canadian Department of Marine and Fisheries, a role she served in until the early 1980s when she was acquired by the trust.[32] She has been restored to her wartime appearance and serves in the summer months as a museum ship on loan to the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia, while wintering securely in the naval dockyard at CFB Halifax under the care of Maritime Forces Atlantic, Maritime Command. Sackville's presence in Halifax is considered very appropriate, given the port was an important North American convoy assembly port during the war. Sackville makes her first appearance each spring when she is towed by a naval tug from HMC Dockyard to a location off Point Pleasant Park on the first Sunday in May to participate in the Commemoration of the Battle of the Atlantic ceremonies held at a memorial in the park overlooking the entrance to Halifax Harbour. Sackville typically hosts several dozen RCN veterans on this day and has also participated in several burials at sea for dispersing the ashes of RCN veterans of the Battle of the Atlantic at this location.

Literature[edit]

Wartime artwork of Hal Lawrence and HMCS Oakville.
  • Alex H. Cherry wrote Yankee R N, the story of a Wall Street banker who volunteered for active duty in the RN, including details of Flower operations.
  • Peter Coy, who served in Narcissus in the North Atlantic between June 1942 and August 1944, wrote 'The Echo of a Fighting Flower' about her and B3 Escort Group, comprising two British and four Free French corvettes.
  • Hugh Garner wrote Storm Below which provides a detailed account of Flower-class corvettes and the stresses of shipboard life during World War II.
  • James B. Lamb wrote The Corvette Navy, which accounts the use of these vessels by the RCN during World War II.
  • Hal Lawrence wrote A Bloody War including first-hand accounts of his service aboard Moosejaw and Oakville.
  • Nicholas Monsarrat wrote the best-known fictionalised account of Flower-class corvette operations in his novel The Cruel Sea. A less well known volume by the same author, Three Corvettes, is a collection of wartime essays of his personal experiences as an officer on board a Flower, although only the first part deals with North Atlantic convoy escort duties.
  • Robert Radcliffe wrote Upon Dark Waters, a fictionalized account of Flower-class corvette Daisy, set in 1942 on the North Atlantic.
  • Denys Rayner wrote Escort, a first-hand account of his experiences as an officer aboard a Flower.
  • Douglas Reeman's 1969 novel To Risks Unknown features the fictional Flower-class corvette Thistle.

Modelling[edit]

Ship modellers have been attracted to this class of ship for a variety of reasons. The class has an extensive history of war service, and the original was small enough to mean a model of about 2 ft (0.61 m) in length can support considerable detail.

Since the class was used by many nations, and had almost unlimited modifications, there is a lot of scope for individual variation. The result is a wide variety of modelling kits are available from many manufacturers, and almost all United Kingdom, United States, and Canadian model boat clubs will have at least one owner of a Flower-class model.[citation needed]. Revell makes a 1/72 scale kit of Snowberry from the Matchbox mould. The UK company founded by John Piper had previously released a 1/96 scale model of a Flower-class corvette in 1978.[citation needed]

Many specialist model companies sell a variety of ancillary Flower detail items. Several model boat clubs are dedicated exclusively to modelling the class.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau 1980, p. 62.
  2. ^ (reproduction with introduction by Antony Preston), Jane's Fighting Ships of World War II, New Jersey: Random House, 1996, ISBN 0-517-67963-9, page 68.
  3. ^ United States Navy Warship Identification Manual (NAVPERS 10796)
  4. ^ Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons & Warfare (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volume 11, pp.1137–42.
  5. ^ "Alacrity, USS; PG-87". U.S. Coast Guard Historian's Office. Retrieved 2008-06-15. [dead link]
  6. ^ Brown 2007, pp. 41–43.
  7. ^ Lambert and Brown 2008, p. 3.
  8. ^ Canadian yards, for instance, could not build destroyer hulls.
  9. ^ a b Brown D K, Nelson to Vanguard
  10. ^ Le Masson 1969, pp. 27–28
  11. ^ a b Le Masson 1969, pp. 26, 28.
  12. ^ Le Masson 1969, p. 28
  13. ^ a b "Captured gunboats of the Kriegsmarine". German-Navy.de. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Milner 1985, p.89
  15. ^ "Flower Class uboat.net
  16. ^ Monsarrat, N., H.M. corvette. Philadelphia, New York, J.B. Lippincott Co., 1943. OCLC 1523299
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv Lambert and Brown 2008, p. 65.
  18. ^ HMS Arbutus (K 86) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  19. ^ HMS Asphodel (K 56) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  20. ^ HMS Bluebell (K 80) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  21. ^ HMS Fleur de Lys (K 122) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  22. ^ Lambert and Brown 2008, p. 7.
  23. ^ HMS Gladiolus (K 34) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  24. ^ HMS Picotee (K 63) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  25. ^ HMS Pink (K 137) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  26. ^ HMS Polyanthus (K 47) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  27. ^ HMS Salvia (K 97) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  28. ^ HMS Vervain (K 190) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  29. ^ HMS Zinnia (K 98) (British Corvette) - Ships hit by German U-boats during WWII - uboat.net
  30. ^ a b Greenfield, Murray S. & Hochstein, Joseph M., Jews' Secret Fleet, Gefen Publishing House, Jerusalem, 2010, pp.55-56
  31. ^ a b "Today in History August 30, 2007". Seawaves. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  32. ^ "HMCS Sackville: The last flower (1941-2000)". History in Illustration. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 

References[edit]

  • Brown, David K (2007). Atlantic Escorts: Ships, Weapons & Tactics in World War II. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-702-0. 
  • Brown, David K (2006). Nelson to Vanguard: Warship Design and Development, 1923-1945. Naval Institute Press. 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger (1980). Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7. 
  • Le Masson, Henri (1969). The French Navy. Navies of the Second World War 2. London: MacDonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. ISBN 9780356023847. 
  • McKay, J; Harland, J (1993). The Flower Class Corvette Agassiz. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-975-1. 
  • Lambert, John; Brown, Les (2008). Flower Class Corvettes. ShipCraft Special. St. Catherines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55068-986-0. 
  • Lambert, J; Raven, A (2000). Flower Class Corvettes in World War II. White Raven Press. 
  • Milner, Marc (1985). North Atlantic Run. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-450-0. 

External links[edit]